de que la premisa de la pluralización de lo antropológico incluye también la práctica Acusada, por exemplo, de transformar o conceito de cultura num homeranking.info pdf. Kew words: culture, interculturality, translation, deconstruction theory. Human beings do .. Laraia, R. B. Cultura: Um Conceito Antropológico. Rio de Janeiro. Antropologia e patrimonio cultural I. Lima Filho, Manuel Ferreira II. .. As autoras exploram a tensao entre os conceitos do patrimonio material e 23, jan-jun de ^Arquivo eletronico: http://www. homeranking.info vl ln23/a02vl pdf].
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Cultura - Um Conceito Antropológico - Roque de Barros homeranking.info Uploaded by Thiago Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate. 2 ago. Processos Comportamentais Identificados nas Definições de Cultura na Antropologia: Relações entre Conceitos Básicos de Análise do. conceito antropológico de cultura - ucb - isso já nos revela que o nível de indivíduos numa determinada cultura é bastante variável. marconi e presotto (p.
If we consider that translation is always the product of a cultural exchange, we can conceive that there are aspects of the play which are harder to translate than others, such as the characters' accent and linguistic varieties, the mannerisms linked to certain micro- cultural groups and, in addition, the socio-historical moment wherein the story takes place. Departamento de Ciencias Sociais. Seu emprego social, sua percepcao e valoracao, como proposto por nos, coordenadores do Grupo de Trabalho denominado Patrimonio, hnguagens e memoria social, ainda se fazem urgentes na discussao para encontrar caminhos para por em pratica os efeitos de discussoes como esta que se trava no ambito da Reuniao Brasileira de Antropologia. Os trabalhos apresentados nessa oportunidade tiveram uma grande diversidade, cobrindo urn amplo campo tematico e focalizando alguns dos distintos topicos que conformam a problematica patrimonial. Les lieux de memoire.
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The poverty of theory and other essays. The forest of symbols. Corell University Press. The ritual process. The invention of culture. The modern world system. American Anthropologist , 45 3: The Science of culture. The first one occurs when there is a kind of destruction of what is culturally divergent, that is, when interaction causes reduction or assimilation of cultural values.
Conversely, the second type of intercultural contact happens when it triggers respect toward the different, promoting its improvement through a mutual learning process. But, does interculturality involve only respect toward the different? With reference to the context of education, Walsh , p. Following this premise, it could be asserted that interculturality presupposes much more than respect, since it defends, for the most part, the recognition of the other.
Hence, to point out the cultural difficulties in translating the play "The Glass Menagerie" into Brazilian Portuguese, it becomes important to contemplate some theories about "translation. Unlike these approaches, the postmodern concept of translation is related to the principles of "deconstruction theory," which can be found in the work of Derrida This theoretical base stands against the "logocentric thought," which refers to the idea of a world shaped by unique and unchangeable meanings.
With reference to language, the deconstructivist philosophy attempts to demonstrate that any text is a disconnected whole, containing many contradictory meanings, and always offering more than a single interpretation.
From this perspective, Arrojo , p. Thus, translators are recognized as authors, to be precise, as "meaning producers," since they are expected to dialogue with two different cultures in order to convey a certain message.
The story takes place around the characters Amanda, her children Tom and Laura, and Tim. If we consider that translation is always the product of a cultural exchange, we can conceive that there are aspects of the play which are harder to translate than others, such as the characters' accent and linguistic varieties, the mannerisms linked to certain micro- cultural groups and, in addition, the socio-historical moment wherein the story takes place.
The translator must not only consider these aspects but also the fact that a play is not intended as a text to be read, but to be performed.
Using the trope of the fourth wall, a common theatrical concept referring to the separation between the stage and the audience, it is possible to visualize it in the process of translation as the locus of interculturality defined as cultural exchange See Rees, regarding the fourth wall as the locus of interculturality.
These aspects can be some of the most difficult for the translator to render in such a way that there is a response on the part of the viewer, which unites the components of the play and the spectators in "a sphere of interculturality. As such, we will be focusing our brief discussion on three possible difficulties of translation that are culturally related and can affect the cultural interchange along the fourth wall.
The Great Depression Focusing on the feelings of loss, which dominated America from to , how could a Brazilian translator portray such a fact so the spectators could recognize themselves in the story? The economic slump, which begun by the market crash in , decreased the world wide demand for coffee and, coupled with an overproduction of the product, caused a sharp drop in the price of the coffee bean.
The decade of the s is part of the Vargas Era that lasted for twenty years and included the period of increased industrialization of the country. Tom as narrator states, I turn back time, I reverse it to that quaint period, the thirties, when the huge middle class of America was matriculating in a school for the blind. Their eyes had failed them, or they had failed their eyes, and so they were having their fingers pressed forcibly down on the fiery Braille alphabet of a dissolving economy sc.
A question of translating interculturally arises when we focus on the word "quaint. This word seems to create a description for the decade that is very difficult to translate. It is necessary to capture the sense of oddness and unfamiliarity, yet still to have a sense of attractiveness.
This keyword, in our opinion, is essential in instigating an intercultural dialogue along the fourth wall with regards to this period of time, that is, the s.
If the word is translated into Portuguese merely as "singular" or "estranho," a single unchanging meaning is created, which does not dialogue with the viewer. The period is then defined as being simply "singular" or "strange. The translator in his choices can create more or fewer opportunities for dialogue with those who watch the play and respond to it.
I was out of school a little with pleurosis. When I came back you asked me what was the matter. I said I had pleurosis—you thought I said Blue Roses. That's what you always called me after that sc.
In English, the rhyme created between the illness, pleurosis, and the nickname "Blue Roses" explains Jim's use of this name for Laura. Naturally, it is also symbolical of Laura's singularity and delicateness. In Portuguese, the illness "pleuresia" pleurosis does not rhyme with "Rosas Azuis" Blue Roses , disconnecting the explanatory link that exists between the sickness and the nickname. To aid us in our discussion, we will resort to Spradley's , p.
For instance, let us consider the following excerpt: To be precise, instead of referring to the nickname as an association with the disease pleurosis, in Portuguese "Rosas Azuis" was explained as being a description of Laura's bluish coloured cheeks, a consequence of being ill with pleurosis. Thus, the symbolic motif was kept, but through a creative adaptive means, which becomes possible thanks to the use of a deconstructed translation Arrojo, Culturally Situated Vocabulary and Amanda Amanda is presented in the play as being from the South of the United States and remembering a time in the past at Blue Mountain when she was young and beautiful and had gentlemen callers.
She says, One Sunday afternoon in Blue Mountain—your mother received— seventeen!
Her mannerisms, her way of speaking, and the vocabulary she uses are situated in a specific cultural region of the United States and also in a specific cultural period. All of these are components in building up the characterization of Amanda.
Thus, a translator has to find a means of translating that is able to produce the cultural dialogue. Amanda is always referring back to her girlhood in the town of Blue Mountain when she was young and happy. These references to a specific time and place represent "the good old days. It is not rural and dirt poor, for example, nor does it have any other negative characteristics of a rural setting. The cultural domain of "Blue Mountain" is positive.
Consequently, the translator would have to find a means of keeping the same positive category without falling into negative renderings of the proper name. The sense of place would have to be the same from one language to another. In this way, Amanda's sense of place could be preserved though with a different geographic place name.
In Scene 6 p. They are the flowers of her youth and represent beauty, charm, and happiness. The exact translation for this flower in Brazilian Portuguese is "narciso," but it does not bring to mind the categories of the cultural domain related to jonquils. Therefore, the translator would have the task of using a flower name that has similar cultural categories as the jonquils, perhaps "flores do campo" flowers of the field, ie, wild flowers would be an appropriate term.
Another example of the particular cultural domain in which Amanda is situated appears in scene six, when she is speaking about Tom to Jim. She states, "I don't know why my son is so stand-offish—that's not southern behavior.
If throughout the play the reference to the American South has been kept, then it would be appropriate to keep a geographic reference to the south with an addendum of that meaning hospitality: Finally there is the question of the Dandelion wine that is taken to Laura in scene seven as a comfort drink p. This type of beverage is very much linked to a specific place and is quite possibly not understood by those who have no idea of this type of wine being homemade and used to comfort someone in distress.
In the particular geographic location where we live, comfort beverages are water mixed with sugar or chamomile tea. In accordance with the cultural background suggested by the play, they seem to be very near to the characterization offered in the original text in terms of reproducing the accent, the linguistic idiosyncrasies, and mannerisms of the play's characters.
For instance, when we read the scenes in which Amanda is present, we get the impression that she is always talking too much, in a childlike, youthful way so as to escape from her difficult present reality. In the American adaptation for TV, we have the confirmation of this idea, as we see Katharine Hepburn reproducing the gestures described in the notes of the original play. In relation to Laura, the same thing occurs, for Joanna Miles builds up her performance conveying the kindness, sensitivity, and strangeness which combine with the metaphorical image of the "Blue Roses" used to refer to Laura.
As a result, the Laura from the TV is very similar to the one from the play. On the other hand, Karen Coelho presents a Laura who seems demented, exhibiting no gentleness, no sensitivity, just fear of life. The cultural aspect of the American South is not present in this production of the play; rather there is a reliance on creating a family that is from another time and another place, but that does not emphasize the belonging to a particular cultural region.
In sum, the Wingfields as a family are shown to be problematic, as the mother is presented as an authoritarian figure who suffocates her two children with dire consequences for all of them. The Brazilian version, therefore, shows a deconstructivist approach in its translation in the attempts to reinterpret the original content of the play on another basis, that is to say, by means of other cultural representations Arrojo, Final Thoughts With this essay we intended to discuss some of the difficulties in translating the play "The Glass Menagerie," by Tennessee Williams, into Brazilian Portuguese.
In order to do so, we opted to divide the text into two parts. Firstly, we presented some theories about "culture," "interculturality," and "translation. We pointed out briefly some of the areas in which the translation has to overcome cultural difficulties. As a result, it is possible to say that every translation tends to reinterpret the original text. To Karamanian , p. After all, since cultural meanings are created through and transformed by language, it can be asserted that the act of translating is nothing but an attempt to create and transform a text so that it can be transferred smoothly into another culture.
Endnotes 1. We refer to Brazilian Portuguese specifically as distinguished from other broad varieties of Portuguese such as those used in Portugal and in Africa. All translations were done by the authors. I was absent from school for a while. When I came back, you asked me why because my cheeks were blue and I said it must be because of the pleurisy.
You said that in honour of their colour you would call me "Blue Roses" and you never again called me by my name. Loyola,