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Pentagon vowed strong reaction should Israel be thretened by neighbors. Killing Triggers Riot. The second lead has the same information, but the dateline shows that the journalist was in Turkey hundreds of miles away. Nominalization allows the writer or speaker to hide the agent of an action about which he is writing or speaking. White Hall last night confirmed the minimum-wage provisions have been deleted from the draft. When a Texas resident living near the U. For example, coverage of negative stories about the Sikh, indo-Pakistani communities by the mass media in Canada and some other Western counties has resulted in stereotypes depicting them as militants, terrorists, and disposed to violence.
The Nation - April 29, Overview: The Nation speaks to an engaged audience as a champion of civil liberties, human rights, and economic justice. The Nation breaks down critical issues with lively editorials, in-depth investigative reporting and analysis, as well as award-winning arts coverage.
Publisher and Editor: Katrina vanden Heuvel. The Financial Times, one of the world's leading business media organizations, is recognized globally for its authority, integrity and accuracy. The Financial Times provides a degree perspective on global business and geopolitical news by harnessing a worldwide network of award-winning journalists who deliver extensive news, comment and analysis.
New Scientist - April 13, Overview: For people who ask why New Scientist covers the latest developments in science and technology that will impact your world. New Scientist employs and commissions the best writers in their fields from all over the world. Police detained black students b. The detention of black students a. The U. The destrction of the mosque was a mistake Newspapers use the nominalization tactic to de-emphasize the agency of Us when they are involved in negative events. For example, it is a well-known device in the coverage of ethnic issues in Western newspapers, and its function is to mitigate the negative actions of Us or Our organizations such as police.
Police shot 13 Africans dead, and the incident led to a further wave of violence in the black township. The deaths of 13 Africans triggered a further wave of violence in the black township. Black people took to the streets after police harassed black youths. The harassment of black youths was a major cause of the riots in the city. The bombing of Baghdad left a business destrict destroyed. Police shot demonstrators. Demonstrators died in shooting.
It is Mr. Blair who speaks, and it is he who is involved in war against terror; but through nominalization, the agency is suddenly enlarged to comprise the whole society. The result would be such structures as: To emphasize the agency of an actor or to create emphasis newspapers also use this technique.
Examples of the use of this technique on immigration issues or Iraqi crisis are: It is the foreigners who are causing all this unemployment. It is unemployment that the foreigners bring here.
What the foreigners bring here is unemployment. What we need is a strong international will to beat the dictator of Baghdad.
It was negligence on the part of international community that emboldened Saddam. Modality refers to the way in which a text can express attitudes towards a situation, and is usually realized in the use of modal verbs can, might, would, etc. Consider the following examples: John will help his friend. John may help his friend. John must help his friend. John should help his friend. Each sentence expresses a different attitude toward the situation. Sentence a makes a prediction about the action — it is almost certain to be taken.
Sentence b implies a possibility that the action will be taken. Sentences c and d assume a necessity or obligation on the part of John to take the action.
As you see these forms permit the speaker or writer to express different attitudes toward the situa- tion uncertainty, possibility, obligation, etc. Modality permits newspapers to express their views or to present the event in a way that is close to their ideology without directly declaring any distinct position about the issue. Consider these examples: In sentence a of both pairs, the newspaper is explicitly stating its position on the issues.
Typically, there is a change of lexical verb into a new verb which is close in meaning to the original. Reading Newspapers Critically a. Police shoot 3 Africans dead in black township riot.
White racists stabbed a boy to death on the crime-ridden estate. A boy was stabbed to death on a crime-ridden estate. A Boy died on a crime-ridden estate.
The government will deport illegal Afghans from the country. Illegal Afghans will be deported from the country. Illegal Afghans will leave the country. A passenger plane was shot down in the Persian Gulf.
A passenger plane crashed in the Persian Gulf. This year the government has raised several times the price of oil and consumer goods. This year the price of oil and consumer goods has risen several times. The government shut down the Stock Exchange despite all disagreements. The Stock Exchange closed despite all disagreements.
Metaphor Metaphor refers to when a word or phrase is used which establishes a comparison between an idea and another. To put it another way, metaphorization allows people to experess a concept in terms of another. For example, imagine a love relationship being described as follows: Our relationship has hit a dead-end street.
Here, love is being conceptualized as a journey, with the implication that the relationship is stalled, that the lovers cannot keep going the way they have been going, that they must turn back, or abandon the relationship altogether. The metaphor involves understanding one domain of experience, love, in terms of a very different domain of experience, journeys.
In the love-as-journey metaphor: Newspapers use metaphorization as a device to create specific effects, to distort the reality, and to slant the news against one side, or a group of people. In relation to immigrants or refugees also their own country may be metaphorically presented, e. Two common sources of metaphor in politics are sport and war, both of which involve physical contests of some sort. Both politicians themselves, and newspapers who report politics, use these metaphors.
Boxing metaphors are particularly common, conveying the sense of toughness and aggression, especially when an election is seen as a fight between two main protagonists. In the United States, baseball metaphors abound in politics: When a Texas resident living near the U. To persuade the American people that war was necessary, the United States needed a moral justification. The justifiacation for the war was partly created based on the process of metaphorization in the U.
A common metaphor in the U. A state in this metaphor is conceptualized as a person engaging in social relations within the world community. Its land-mass is its home. It lives in a region, and has neighbors, friends and enemies. States are seen as having inherent dispositions: When this metaphor is applied to a war between two countries , that war is a fight between two people, a form of hand-to-hand combat.
The classic fairy tale is the most common discourse form in the West when there is a combat to settle moral issues. In the classic fairy tale the cast of characters is: The victim and the hero may be the same person.
Also, there is a scenario: A crime is committed by the villain against an innocent victim typically an assault, theft, or kidnapping. The offense occurs due to an imbalance of power. The hero either gathers helpers or decides to go to war alone. The hero makes sacrifices; he undergoes difficulties, typically making a very difficult heroic journey, sometimes across the sea to a dangerous land.
The villain is inherently evil, perhaps even a monster, and thus reasoning with him is useless. The hero is left with no choice but to engage the villain in battle.
The hero defeats the villain and rescues the victim. Victory is achieved. The hero, who always acts honorably, has proved his manhood and achieved glory. The sacrifice was worthwhile. The hero receives acclaim, along with the gratitude of the victim and the community. In a fairy tale the hero and villian have contrastive charactristics. The hero is moral and courageous, while the villain is amoral and vicious.
The hero is rational, but though the villain may be cunning and calculating, he cannot be reasoned with. Heroes thus cannot negotiate with villains; they must defeat them. The most natural way to justify a war on moral grounds is to fit this fairy tale structure to a given situation.
This is done by metaphorization, that is, by answering the questions: Who is the victim? Who is the villain? Who is the hero? What is the crime?
What counts as victory? As the Gulf crisis developed, the U. Iraq is the villain, the U. Metaphor is also widely used in economic news discourse. In the following examples, the attacks are depicted as causes for a change for the worse. The attacks are likely to deepen the economic downturn. The attacks were a long-run economic depressant. September 11 pushed an already flagging U.
The terrorist attacks have plunged the fragile economy into recession. Thus, in the last example the seriousness of the situation is further empha- sized through the mixing of various metaphors within the same clause.
The terror- ist attacks are seen as the animate cause of devastation. By combining conventional metaphors within the same utterance, the writer establishes not only a conceptual ground for understanding the topic, but he also subtly adds opinion and thus indirectly invites the reader to accept his judgment.
Metonymy Metonymy, broadly defined, is a device by which one entity is used to stand for another associated entity. More specifically, it refers to the situations where: Exxon has raised its prices again.
The Army wants to reinstitute the draft. The Senate thinks abortion is immoral. England won the World Cup. Scotland lost in the semi-final. He bought a Ford. I hate to read Shakespeare. Remember the Alamo. Pearl Harbor still has an effect on our foreign policy.
Watergate changed our politics. The pen is mightier than the sword. Nixon bombed Hanoi. Nixon stands for the armed forces that Nixon controlled. A Mercedes rear-ended me.
The word me stands for the car that the speaker was driving. President Bush threatened Saddam with serious consequences if …. The land belongs to The Crown.
Only empty heads and empty hearts can do that. President and his advisors threatened Saddam Hussein with military action over the UN inspectors affairs. Similarly, when an announcement is made by a member of the British royal family, it is often described, for example, as follows: In the first example the journalist writing the report has used metonymy in a way which Newspapers may use metaphors gives a very favorable view of the American position.
Attacking a foreign country is represents a particular attitude dangerous, not something an individual would want to towards that event.
When the news is more creasingly stronger beliefs or cheerful, however, involving success of some sort, then ideological orientations towards the President will be more than happy to be named an event. So when the U. Indeed the speaking is done for them by a building which is, in many minds, a large and impressive structure.
It can be argued that the metonymic use of Buckingham Palace gives a more impressive and sympathetic picture of the Royal Family. Immigrants are like an invading army. Depersonalization Depersonalization is another rhetorical device by which newspapers try to influ- ence the readers and manipulate their perception and impression of events in a specific direction. Newspapers sometimes report events in a depersonalized man- ner; that is, they report events as if no human agent had a role in their occurrence.
Take the following headline: There is no sign of the human agents who caused the event, nor any sign that the event was intentional; it might even appear to be accidental. Here the headline could have been written as: White House Under Seige This headline would have been more approperiate for an event such as September 11 rather than a sex scandal.
In other words, it is disguising whatever is ugly, repulsive, immoral, or otherwise unacceptable behind more attractive, less offensive, or neutral lables. Euphemistic terms can be used as a way of being vague and unclear, or to cover up the truth or reality of a situation. The opposite of euphemism is derogation. Again in line with the overall strategy of positive Self-presentation and negative Other-presentation, newspapers use euphemistic terms to represent ingroup actions and people and derogatory terms to represent outgroup actions and people.
Look at the following examples: A group of Arab mercenaries are fighting along with the Taliban forces. A group of Arab combatants are fighting along with the Taliban forces.
Muslims in Britain have the problem of public resentment. Christians residing in Muslim countries are suffering from Islamic fanaticism and racism. In these two pairs of sentences, you see how the very same people or realities are pictured quite differently. The coverage of the incidents was quite different in spite of all the similarities of the two incidents.
While the U. Now it sounds as though they are not in the business of waging war, but instead they are in the business of defending. The military uses of euphemism can seriously affect the way we view the devastation of war.
It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a conclusionary statement from the facts at hand. With all viloence on TV today, is it any wonder kids bring gun to school? Is justice then to be considered merley a word? The first few examples are taken from the context of the conflict in Iraq. First, here are the headlines and lead paragraphs of two articles which were published on the morning of March 11, by The New York Times and USA Today respectively.
They are covering the same incident: Iraq Forces Suspension of U. Both of these stories are presenting the same piece of information, i. However, as you can see, the decisions concerning lexicon, syntax, and what further information is added can lead to sentences being so altered from the basic idea that the same exact event can be depicted in two profoundly different ways. In the second story, there is no mention that these planes are, in fact, American.
The news story seems to try to keep the appearance of all interaction happening between Iraq and the UN. In the first story, however, note the decision to specify the planes as American, even though they are flying in the name of the UN. Iraq is depicted to threaten American planes, and therefore, thretening America. In this pair of example headlines, the difference of a single word changes the meanings to reflect opposing viewpoints. In fact, by changing only one letter, the entire issue of the military campaign changes from one of fighting dissidents with- in the political borders of Iraq to one of aggression against the entire nation.
The second headline signifies a pro-coalition bias. The third headline signifies an anti-coalition bias. The connotations many words carry with them have the power to put a tremendous slant on any news report. The folowing example is an excerpt from an article printed in an American newspaper. Democrats who are planning to seek Mr. Joe Lieberman of Connecticut, Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts, Sen. John Edwards of North Carolina, Rep. Dick Gephardt of Missouri, and Gov.
This example demonstrates another form of possible bias. How do you think the identification of these men as potential presi- dential candidates affect their credibility as critics of President Bush? Seven Dead as Fresh Mideast Violence Flares In this headline of a news story covering the violence between Israelis and Palestinians , there is very little distinction made between the nationalities of the people killed in the violence, giving the readers the impression that the casualties have been relatively equal on both sides.
From the headline, it is not immediately apparent who the seven victims are, or why or how they died. Britain Invaded By an Army of Illegals The most obvious property of this headline is its rhetoric , namely, the hyperbolic use of metaphors. The use of military metaphors implies that immigrants are both violent and a threat. However, the violence and threat is not merely that of some individuals coming in, but is suggested to be massive and organized , as is the case for an army.
Moreover, invasion does not merely imply a violent act, but also a massive threat, namely a massive threat from abroad. The target of this threat is Britain, which is topicalized in the headline it occurs in first position of the headline and the article , so that it is highlighted as the victim of the foreign army.
Beside the massive violence of their entry, immigrants are thus also associated with breaking the law, and hence implicitly with crime. Police Attack Demonestrators, Kill 10 10 Dead in Clash between Police and Demonstrators The first headline is in active voice, which backgrounds the agency of police as those who started the attack on the demonstrators and consequently killed ten of them.
The second headline makes no mention of the attackers.
Iraq used chemical weapons against Iran killing many soldiers and civilians and severly injuring many others. The use of chemical weapons in Iran-Iraq war has left many soldiers and civilians dead and severly injured. The first sentence is in active voice, foregrounding the agency of Iraq as the perpetrator of the crime.
The second sentence has used nominalization tactic and, thus, has concealed the agent of the crime. It only emphasizes the use of chemical weapons, but makes no mention of the country that used the forbidden weapons. Riot police shot and killed 11 African demonstrators and wounded 15 others here today in the Highfield African township on the outskirts of Salisbury.
In the first lead, the role of the police as the killers is backgrounded by the use of passive and the placing of the primary focus on the victims rather than the per- petrators of the crime. The ACTU is seeking a rise of 1. In the second and third stories, however, events have been selectively chosen and linked together to lead the reader to particular evaluative responses.
The use of Chamber of Commerce as an external source with its explicitly negative judgment is influential here. To see how these non-linguistic and linguistic forms of bias appear in stories, let us finally examine in some detail published by two different local newspapers on the same event. He claims that his su- Authority said yesterday that Mr Robert periors did not inform him of the exact reg- Mitchell 24 had been relieved of his du- ulations covering the examination.
His lessons were fun. The headline of story b uses some negatively-loaded words, which prejudice the reader against the teacher. There are two quotes in story b which are meant to be given the same interpretation. The first quote is apparently positive and praises the teacher and approves of his performance. However, when interpreted in the context of the second quote, it loses its first-impression interpretation.
There are questions for you to answer after the reports. The headmaster and two staff were pay-protest teachers refused to supervise trying to look after nearly children. BORED The youngsters threw eggs at remain- ing According to the police and education staff, smashed windows and milk bottles authorities, between 60 and 80 boys and and then marched out into the surrounding girls took part in the disturbance.
But some pupils and people living nearby Worried residents alerted the police, who put the figure at up to One youngster said: Education chiefs order- ed an dealt with "very severely. Dare said there were about authorities refused to supervise children at a dozen ringleaders. Those who could be lunchtime. Others looked Doors and windows were smashed at on. It happened when teachers at the staff Hammers comprehensive refused to do dinner duties As the afternoon lessons ended the and walked out in a union dispute.
About pupils roamed the streets Angry smashing windows and terrifying families. Mr Dare - who said he was Police were called to quell the lunch- time "saddened" by the incident - will be making rumpus - the second day running there had a full report to the Devon Education benn trouble at the pupil Bideford Authority.
Comprehensive School in Devon. A spokesman for the authority said: Headmaster John Dare said later his "We have yet to establish the extent of the staff were working to rule in support of the damage caused. Officers went to the pupil mixed Report called for school in Bideford after nearby residents Mr Dare estimated last night that only 50 reported a "developing riot. He thought The trouble, described by Devon County that no more than a dozen children were Council as "a disturbance rather than a responsible for causing damage.
Several windows were Bideford School is divided into two com- smashed by children throwing bottles and plexes. Yesterday's disturbance seems to stones. Questions 1. Which two newspapers tell us how long the trouble lasted? Do they agree? Which three newspapers tell us what weapons the pupils used? Make a list of those weapons. Four newspapers say that only windows were broken.
What else was broken according to the other two? What reasons might there be for these differences between the reports? Two newspapers refer to the pupils as a "mob" and a "gang".
What idea does mob give? What idea does gang give? Why didn't the newspaper use the word group instead?
One newspaper says the pupils "stormed" through the school. Why did- n't it say that they ran? Do you believe this is fact or opinion? Go through each article, and using two different colours highlight all instances of opinion, and all instances of emotive language. Reading Newspapers Critically 9. Focus now on the report from the Star. What impression of the pupils and the staff is given to the reader? What about the police? Why might that information be here?
Evaluating the Source As it was said in Unit 3, newspapers gather their news through either their own reporters or wire services. Reporters working for newspapers or wire services may see the events for themselves or get the news second-hand, i. Depending on their ideology, interests, political and professional affiliation and the like, these different sources of information are potentially liable to conceal the truth or distort it to their advantage.
Clearly, therefore, you should learn to judge whether the source can be believed and is reliable. To judge the reliability of the source, there are some questions you should ask yourself when reading news stories: Whether the source is the reporter himself or an eye-witness or official, he may have a reason for not telling the complete truth.
Consider the following example note that some of the example leads in this section are not real ones but con- structed to clarify and exemplify the point: They are fighting the U. Therefore, you must be careful about believing their statements. The information might be true, but it is likely to be overstated and probably unreliable.
Here is a similar story, but from a different source: Is the following story more reliable? Defense Secretary which has a clear interest in min- imizing any losses.
If he reports the losses of their own troops and tanks, therefore, you can certainly believe it happened. In general, the following two rules apply to sources: When a source reports that something bad has happened — something against its own interests, you can believe it.
In fact, you can suspect that something worse has happened. When a source reports something that is favorable to its interests, you must be suspicious.
The facts may be exaggerated, or, in some cases, untrue altogether. Consider the following two stories: The sources for both of these stories are eyewitnesses, but the story from New York is much more reliable, because it is easier for the journalist or others to check on the New York story. There are always thousands of people on Fifth Avenue and such a creature would be noticed by others. But it is much more difficult to check on a story from a faraway village in Nepal.