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This thesis sometimes becomes entangled with a didacticism that appears to reduce texts to optical instruments and literary reading to a philosophical supplement: This denial, however, is also staged, thus dissimulating itself, challenging its seriousness, and affirming modernization as a threshold of cultural change and not as the death of Islam. In Heart and Shiraz, when an old master miniaturist would become blind from a lifetime of excessive labor, it would be acknowledged as a sign of the masters determination but also commended a Gods acknowledgment of his talent. The three miniaturists who have been working on the blasphemous book in the manner of the Venetian artists are all considered to be suspects for the murders of two other artists who were also working on the blasphemous book. The impossibility of translation discussed so far must be discerned from Derridas use of the same term. You did embarrass me once before, and afterward, I had to endure much suffering to regain my honor in my fathers eyes, writes sweet Shekure to Black, biding him to please her by not calling on her again. Search Advanced search.
Unfit for fanatics? Do you think this is what weve been doing?
Never, I said with a smile. However, this is what Elegant Effendi, may he rest in peace, began to assume when he saw the last painting. Hed been saying that your use of the science of perspective and the methods of the Venetian masters was nothing but the temptation of Satan.
In the last painting, youve supposedly rendered the face of a mortal using the Frankish techniques, so the observer has the impression not of a painting but of reality; to such a degree that this image has the power to entice men to bow before it, as with icons in churches.
According to him, this is the Devils work, not only because the art of perspective removes the painting from Gods perspective and lowers it to the level of a street dog, but because your reliance on the methods of Venetians as well as your mingling of our own established traditions with that of the infidels will strip us of our purity and reduce us to being their slaves Pamuk, In Cultivating Humanity, Nussbaum argues that three capacities, above all, are essential to the cultivation of humanity in todays interlocking world: Socratic inquiry applied towards critical examination of oneself and ones traditions, concern and empathy for other human beings and, finally, narrative imagination.
These could be perceived as interlocking and mutually interdependent skills of cultural literacy. The latter is defined as the ability to think what it might be like to be in the shoes of a person different from oneself, to be an intelligent reader of that persons story, and to understand the emotions and wishes and desires that someone so placed might have Nussbaum, Though this ability, Nussbaum argues, is cultivated in courses in literature and the arts though many standard and familiar works, there is reason to focus specifically on literary works that combat the refusals of vision.
Focusing on groups with which our citizens eyes have particular difficulty, such works educate them to see complex humanity in places where they are most accustomed to deny it. That is: The moral imagination can often become lazy, according sympathy to the near and the familiar, but refusing it to people who look different. Enlisting students sympathy for distant lives is thus a way of training, so to speak, the muscles of the imagination Nussbaum, Which are these carefully chosen literary works that, lingering between emotional identification and moral confrontation, stretch and strengthen those lazy muscles of moral imagination?
Castigating the unseeing characters of Ellisons Invisible man and Scrooges example of bad citizenship in Dickens novel A Christmas Carol, Nussbaum parallels Scrooges But the journey into the literary devices that host and nurture narrative imagination never ventures beyond the English novel.
Where closer encounters with non-western literary texts take place, the emphasis shifts radically from the literarity and narrative devices of the works to content. For example, blatantly didactic and exhaustively cited, Rabindranath Tagores novel The Home and the World provides a pool of figurations for cosmopolitans, nationalists and, in-between the previous two categories, mediating women with agitated feelings and divided loyalties.
In Nussbaums essay Citizens of the World a defense of liberal curriculum for cross-cultural understanding , corporative cosmopolitanism is narrativized as the adventures of cultural illiterates in Annas a political science graduates passage to China Nussbaum, How cosmopolitan journeys replicate one-way globalism flows is not problematized in Nussbaums educational vision.
This excludes from a cosmopolitan consideration issues of immigration, economic embargos and colonial legacies. Wouldnt she Anna, or any other American graduate going cosmopolitan, or any American business going global have been better off if she had known the other i. Nussbaums cosmopolitan proposal, in its effort to both vernacularize Socratic pedagogy and preserve the origins of the cultural tradition of liberal education, often collapses the problem of cultural translation to knowing some rudiments about others p.
The paradox in this approach to cultural literacy is that Others are excluded as subjects and partners from the espoused political culture of ethical reasoning, whereas the Jamesian angels of fine-tuned perception and bewildered human grace Nussbaum, Why are others banished from the journey in and through literature?
Is it because not all angels have the moral perceptiveness of James or the Aristotelian perspective of good life? While todays cosmopolitans are historically located at the crossroads of cultures, their education is still teaching them the rudiments of other cultures but nothing about the triangulation of cultural sensitivity. Liberal philosopher Seyla Benhabib, adopting a cultural deconstructive approach to the canon, argued back in The university of the twenty first century will have to be a home to the mestizos of the mind p.
I cannot say if the university has become a home to the mestizos or mestizization of the mind but I can definitely say that lessons about the cultural other are increasingly finding niches in the university especially under the aegis of boutique multiculturalism, migration management and conflict diagnosis and prognosis.
Usually diagnosed as prone to indigenization and lacking in self-reflexivity, the other meets its benign articulation only when it is codifiable into rudiments of culture and perceived as useful for flexing the cosmopolitan bending of the Western subject.
Cosmopolitans are depicted as interpreters of culture but never as shapechangers across cultures, never haunted by fear and existential guilt at the brim of cultural Copyright SciRes. Culture and its narrative voice remain ancillary supplements to cosmopolitan education: Still, could we read Nussbaum against Nussbaum, could we recover the insights of Loves Knowledge and radicalize the contribution of literature to the understanding of culture and cultural difference?
I believe the insight of Loves Knowledge can be rephrased: As readers of stories we are deeply immersed in the messy impure world of human particularity; and we learn, as readers, to ascribe a high importance to events that befall our particular heroes and heroines as they move through the world of contingency Nussbaum, Where the prose becomes more expository in anticipation of a philosophical closure, ethical insight becomes solidified into a normative ethics: This thesis sometimes becomes entangled with a didacticism that appears to reduce texts to optical instruments and literary reading to a philosophical supplement: I suggest that we would do well to study the narrative and the emotional structures of novels, viewing them as forms of Aristotelian ethical thinking p.
The more the reader-text relationship is figured as a pedagogical one, the more the connection between form and content becomes solidified into a search for an internal consistency that aspires to expel any diffrance: While both New Critical formalism and normative ethics were earlier questioned by Nussbaum for expelling contingency and establishing closed texts and closed lives, in this pedagogical figure they are reactivated towards a double Platonic pursue of certainty.
Yet, where Nussbaums text becomes forgetful of its pedagogical responsibilities, the reader-text relationship is detached from the optics of representation and becomes more receptive to the contingency involved in reading.
In this latter approach, the intimacies of reading are not materialized as romantic identifications with characters but rather as comparisons. As we engage with works of literature, Nussbaum argues, we are bringing to the text our hopes, fears and confusions, and allowing the text to impart a certain structure to our hearts p.
At the same time, we are bringing to the text ethical inquiries: As we compare the multiple conceptions of the ethical expressed in the novels with one another and with our own active sense of a good life, we come to recognize that the novels are in this [ethical] search already p.
Yet every text maintains a singularity, a moral perspective of the particular, which exceeds both the repeatable narrative forms and the structures of feeling that made our intimacy with the text as well as the appeal of the text to us possible.
This singularity that emerges in literatures own translation i. Is it accidental that the shift from the original project to broaden the possibilities of what is human Fragility of Goodness to a normative view of humanity the ground for the adjudication of cultural conflicts in Sex and Social Justice and Cultivating Humanity coincides with a shift from the wonder of and wander in the particular to the transcendent query into the canons universal messages? I believe there are ways to engage narrative imagination in the cultural turn and avoid, at the same time, both the allure of exoticism and the nostalgic search for a confessional voice.
The premise of Loves Knowledge that as readers of stories we are deeply immersed in the messy impure world of human particularity could open up to different kinds of search regarding both the connection of literature and philosophy and the sustained engagement with cultural particularity in literary experience.
For example, how do we become, as readers-translators, deeply immersed in the messy impure world of cultural particularity? What kinds of emotions and which experiences of incommensurability are implicated in the cultural mediation of texts? If the relation of literature to itself and to philosophy is a process of iteration rather than representation, then the impurity and messiness of human particularity must be re-positioned from the story and the moral dilemmas of the characters to the textual devices of the authors.
The ethical questions that a culturally engaged reading of stories activates are slightly different from the Aristotelian kinds of questions: What are ones debts to ones tradition, especially during times of cultural change?
How is authenticity re-enacted in experiences of cultural translation? What kind of agency is built into storytelling? Does creativity of the artist, of the writer, of the reader sustain or undermine the structure of iterability that is built into culturally established forms and genres? We are back in the culture of miniaturists, tracing the murders footsteps in the distinctive nuances of his storytelling, in his depiction of a horse in the manner of the Islamic tradition.
If he has reached, as a master miniaturist, the point where he paints as if he were blind, depicting things in the way Allah perceives him, how can we possibly recognize distinct traces of inventiveness, a signature of artistry and murder? This, in turn, he concedes, brings us to the question of style, which is now of widespread interest: The three miniaturists who have been working on the blasphemous book in the manner of the Venetian artists are all considered to be suspects for the murders of two other artists who were also working on the blasphemous book.
The test of artists proof to which master Osman subjects all three of them, is the task to paint a horse in the manner of the great masters. Only the one who has succumbed to the lure of Western techniques will depart from the Islamic form and will leave traces of this peculiar cultural poisoning in the immaculate form of the horse in the same way he left traces on the shred of his artwork that is held by the gatekeepers of traditional miniature painting and used as a reference point for deciphering the code of his style.
But who am I? Am I an artist who would suppress the masterpieces I was capable of in order to fit the style of the workshop or an artist who would one day triumphantly depict Suddenly and with terror, he feels the existence of that triumphant miniaturist within him: It was as if I were being watched by another soul, and, in short, I was ashamed p.
In the chapter that follows, the storyteller will reiterate the condemnation of artistic ingenuity. This time, however, he will be speaking through the mouth of Satan himself: I had the urge to say, It was Satan who first I!
It was Satan who adopted a style. It was Satan who separated East from West p. Despite the fact that many critics cite this passage as the overall thesis of the novel, the condemnation needs to be read in the context of the narrative devices that frame it. Where narrative imagination, devoted to the search for the good and unable to sustain its interest when storyline is subverted by double voices, would simply dismiss Satan as an unreliable narrator, a culturally engaged reading would thrill on such an instance of double writing.
The latter forces us to go back, to re-read the story one more time, to re-evaluate the statements taken too literally, or too seriously, in the first reading. A difference kind of cultural reflexivity is implicated in this never ending call to translate and multiply meanings and contexts. What kinds of philosophical tools are required for this double reading? To understand the art of repetition, one needs to go beyond a transcendent reading, beyond distinguishing truth from lies, good from evil; one needs to ask what acts of literature the Satan stages rather than what statements he actually utters.
Literariness in Acts of Translation: I am fond of the smell of red peppers frying in olive oil, rain falling into a calm sea at dawn, the unexpected appearance of a woman at an open window, silences, thought and patience.
I believe in my self, and, most of the time, pay no mind to whats been said about me [ So I didnt bow before man. And God found my behavior, well, proud pp. In an interview with Derek Attridge entitled This Strange Institution Called Literature, Jacques Derrida claims that the institution of literature in the West is linked to an authorization to say everything.
Doubtless too, it is also linked to what calls forth a democracy. This duty of irresponsibility, of refusing to reply for ones thought or writing to constituted powers, does not mean that literature suspends contexts and disregards its readers. On the contrary, it depends on historical contexts, while the force of its singularity to produce events is suspended awaiting for the readers countersignature.
This act of literature, this promising of being able to say everything, is not realized as a juridico-political institution though it relies on such institutions or a formal device but rather as an oscillation, a vibration between two other literary acts of translation: The uniqueness of the event is this coming about of a singular relation between the unique and its repetition, its iterability Derrida, What these acts entail, what conditions they require but also what they necessitate, how they are fictionalized, repeated and singularized, in a historical novel that addresses specifically the thematic of cultural change is what I will explore next.
Iterability is the necessary repeatability of any item ex At the same time, it can never be repeated exactly since its grafting and translation in the potentially multiple contexts where it is re-enacted contaminates the original. Its original singularity is compromised by this openness to change and loss.
At the same time, it is only through such structure of iterability that literature can speak to us: An absolute, absolutely pure singularity, if there were one, would not even show up, or at least would not be available for reading. To become readable, it has to be divided, to participate and belong.
Then it is divided and takes its part in the genre, the type, the context, meaning, the conceptual generality of the meaning, etc. It loses itself to offer itself p. Derrida often cites the function of the proper name as the exemplary example of this mutually constitutive co-occurrence of the singular and the universal. A proper name is supposed to refer to an original and not to mean which would implicate its contamination.
Yet, this properness, as Attridge notes, depends on its occurrence within a system of differences, it has to be repeatable and can never been prevented from sliding into the functions of common nouns p.
It is exactly this properness of East as a set of culturally solidified idioms that Pamuks novel opens up to literary iteration as he fictionalizes the history of manuscript painting. In Heart and Shiraz, when an old master miniaturist would become blind from a lifetime of excessive labor, it would be acknowledged as a sign of the masters determination but also commended a Gods acknowledgment of his talent.
In fact, among great master miniaturists there would not be difference between the blind and the sighted artist as the talented hand would always draw the same horse, that is, the way Allah perceives it. The quest for singularity in developing a style, the act of signature in affirming ones unique way of seeing things, would be reserved for the Satan and the Frankish innovation of perspectival painting.
But an idiom is never pure, Derrida argues, as its iterability opens it up to others Derrida, It is not the Frankish style that contaminates Allahs way of seeing and the culture of manuscript painting.
This culture is already contaminated within its own tradition in the sense that its preservation necessitates its iteration. Unavoidably, however, it also necessitates its singularization when iteration is enacted in encounters of inter-cultural artistic exchange and hybridization, usually in the context of conquest.
The idiom of the blind or, the blinded artists already undergoes a unique differentiation and thus a singularization in becoming a style when it is adopted by Abu Said, Tamerlanes grandson from the Miran Shah line of descent. After he conquers Tashkent and Samarkand, he will introduce a further twist in his workshop: Locked in the storage rooms of the Treasury of Topkapi Palace, trying to trace similarities between the murderers style and the great Masters works diagnosing and territorializing the impact of the polluting influence , master Osman will be surprisingly enchanted by a multitude of stylistically nuanced singularities in Islamic, Persian and Arabic miniature art.
His self-inflicted blinding in the end of his journey in the depths of Topkapi could be read as a desperate effort to erase from sight such multitudes, to resist the lure of translation, to preserve the sacralization of the painting idiom and to contain the iterablity of the sacred idiom by canceling his own countersignature.
This denial, however, is also staged, thus dissimulating itself, challenging its seriousness, and affirming modernization as a threshold of cultural change and not as the death of Islam.
At a time when Islams encounter with the West is diagnosed with fearfulness of cultural contamination and linked to the Fundamentalists turn to indigenization, Pamuk fictionalizes a historical encounter between East and West which sabotages with humor and critical reflexivity the dissimulation of any artistic or cultural properness. Every time the event of an untranslatable text occurs, writes Derrida, every time there is a proper name, it gets sacralized Derrida, Analyzing the sacred as the untranslatable in literature, Benjamin argues that the translation of a literary text into another language should be able to preserve exactly this original nontranslatability.
Reading Red is a as a literary dip into cultural Islam the dominant reading , we would probably locate this original non-translatability in the miniaturist idiom of Heart and Shiraz, in the Koran, in Gods vision of the world imprinted in the books of the old masters and safeguarded in the Treasury chambers, enveloped in blackness, dust and humidity, in Shekures clandestine letter forbidding her returning lover to ever visit her again, chained by the conventions of Islamic family law to eternal awaiting for the return of her missing [probably dead] husband.
Even the Almighty couldnt find anything evil in passing wind or jacking off. Sure, I work very hard so you might commit great sins. But some hojas claim that all of you who gape, sneeze or even fart are my dupes, which tells me they havent understood me in the least Pamuk, Those who would read the novel looking for Mullah Omar calling would definitely find many echoes of his castigations.
What they would probably miss, however, is the waves of iterability to which a literary text subjects the words of mullahs and preachers, inserting their words in citation marks, presenting to us the cultural other staging its own translation, sometimes with laughter and sometimes with the nostalgic sadness of loss. What remains non-translatable thus what is preserved in a good translation, and also in the pedagogical mediation of a culturally engaged reading, I would say, is this literary staging of translations.
You did embarrass me once before, and afterward, I had to endure much suffering to regain my honor in my fathers eyes, writes sweet Shekure to Black, biding him to please her by not calling on her again.
But a letter doesnt communicate by words alone, we are reminded by Esther, the deliverer of the letter, also a matchmaker and cloth seller who, as a Jewess, is free to roam the streets of Istanbul as long as she wears the identifying pink garment. A letter, just like a book, Copyright SciRes. Fondling the letter, Esther teachers us how to translate its folds. Alas, I am rushed, I am writing carelessly and without serious attention, conveys fear and urgency perhaps to terminate the romance.
But the letters that twitter elegantly as if caught in a gentle breeze convey the care taken in each line, in the same way the phrase just now come, conveys the deliberation of a tactics.
We might read her like an Eastern Penelope weaving ploys to defer the suitors, or like a slave in a harem, one of the many slaves locked in the neo-orientalist harems of pink literature. An iteration of such contexts is unavoidable, necessary too to the extent the gesture of a love letter would not be readable without the background reading of love novels.
Yet it is also imperative to discern the differential mark of this gesture while receiving, recognizing and assimilating it in the context of our familiar literary stories and devices. In the folds of her unsealed letter, she sends her lover an illustration of a classical love scene, a classical theme in traditional manuscript painting and often used as both referent and signifier in the love letters of Istanbuls lovelorn ladies.
This scene, however, has never been cut out and used as an object of exchange before. Pamuk delivers to us the history of Islamic manuscript painting through citations of love letters and love scenes, borrowing the devices of the postmodern and postcolonial novel to empty hojas and mullahs condemnations [of illustrators] of their apocalyptic tone. The differential mark that this repetition [and translation] of the history of manuscript painting in a historical novel incites, while challenging the western apocalyptic logos of the cultural clash, is that there is culture in change rather than civilization in decline.
It is this singularity of Pamuks writing that I have tried to translate here, recognizing the limits of preserving and reproducing but also resisting the novels pedagogical translation into and through a metalanguage. Cultural literacy could learn from such readings how to preserve translation alive in the other, but also how to reenact it by challenging the familiar and not only the oriental mullahs.
Or, is our mourning too sacred to translate? Derrida and the questioning of literature. Attridge Ed. Bell, L. The storytelling project model: A theoretical framework for critical examination of racism through the arts. Teachers College Record, , Benhabib, S. The intellectual challenge of multiculturalism and teaching the canon.
Garber et al. Sites in literary and cultural studies pp. Derrida, J. Bllom et al. New York: Seabury Press. An interview with Jacques Derrida: This strange institution called literature. The ear of the other: Otobiography, transference, translation: University of Nebraska Press. Egan, K. Imagination and learning: A response to Maxine Greene.
Teachers College Record, 87, Culturally responsive teaching. Teachers College Press. Gknar, E. My name is Re a d: Authoring translation, translating authority.
Translation Review, 68, Releasing the imagination: Essays on education, the arts, and social change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Huntington, S. The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order. Majid, A. The postcolonial buble. Hawley Eds. University of Minnesota Press. Nussbaum, M. Log In Sign Up. Translations from Turkish in Serbia Mirjana Marinkovic.
Such changes also exert influence, to great extent, on cultural space and book market in Serbia where the publishing industry with great effort seek methods for survival under the unfavorable economic and political circumstances. The integral Yugoslav market ceased to exist, and the once joint cultural policy fell apart at the seams of the Republic boarders.
In order to achieve the whole and clear picture of the situation in the market of translated works of Turkish literature in the past twenty years, it is necessary to look back at earlier times. Turkish literature has always been reputed as rather unknown and underrepresented in the entire translation production. First translations from Turkish Literature in the territory of former Yugoslavia from the late 19th century until Parts of former Yugoslavia and present Serbia Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Kosovo and Metohija, Sandzak dispose of a rich oriental cultural legacy.
Plenty of inhabitants of these regions converted to Islam in the course of history. Turkish is the language that, historically speaking, was in the longest contact with the Serbian language and numerous Serbs of Muslim religion Bosniacs could speak it.
A great number of local Muslims distinguished themselves in the literary opus of the Ottoman Empire which used to include the territories of former Yugoslavia. This is the reason why Turkish literature occupied a specific place in the Yugoslav environment, since plenty of Yugoslav people experienced it as close at spiritual level.
It was particularly the case, and still is, in Bosnia and Herzegovina where the greatest number of translations of literary works written in Turkish emerged in the second half of the 19th century. First translations from Turkish literature, however, appeared in the territory of Vojvodina that in the 19th century was affected by romantic ideas and expanding interest in oriental literatures and cultures.
Such translations were predominantly made from German language. The first translators of Turkish literature in Bosnia and Herzegovina were journalists, public officers and men of letters who most often acquired education at religious schools. Hence their translations were usually made from the original language.
Their selection of works reflected rather the level of their personal knowledge and their literary taste instead of providing a real insight into what was going on in Turkish literature. Therefore, it often happened that insignificant and weak authors were presented as prominent Turkish men of letters, and their works as supreme literary achievements.
Therefore, the translations that emerged in the interwar period fail to provide a clear picture of the then currents within Turkish literature. Such situation changed after the Second World War when the socialist Yugoslavia became wide open to cultures and literatures from all parts of the world. Moreover, Yugoslavia was among the leading countries in the world in regard of the number of translated books.
Nevertheless, there were relatively few literary translations from Turkish language in the entire Yugoslav territory. In the period from the late 19th century to , in total six plays, eighteen novels, several stories and poems from modern and only few poems from classical Turkish literature were translated.
Many translations were published on pages of such newspapers as Bosanska vila, Gajret, Behar, Novi Behar, Nada and the calendar Narodna uzdanica where isolated texts on Turkish authors were printed. One is struck by the lack of affinity to works of Turkish folk literature except a collection of Turkish fairy tales titled Turske bajke Turkish Fairy Tales. The quality of these translations is very erratic. Many of them are not in fact translations but rather peculiar adaptations that confirm insufficient knowledge of Turkish language.
That is the reason why they did not cause the awakening of any pronounced interest in Turkish literature despite its ever-increasing significance on the world scale. Translations from Turkish Literature from to This span of time is marked by a clearer concept regarding the selection of Turkish authors and works. First of all, the translators devoted particular attention to Turkish folk literature as, at the time, unexplored and obscure part of Turkish literary tradition.
Five books in total were translated in this field, some of which fall among the supreme-quality achievements of Serbian translation activity.
The following works of folk literature were translated: There was a separate selection of classical and modern poetry within Antologija poezije balkanskih naroda I The Antology of Poetry of Balkan Nations I.
The quality of these translations was at a significantly higher level in comparison to the period before The literary translation from Turkish language in the period between and was predominantly carried out by turkologists and excellent experts on Turkish language and literary currents in Turkey. That is the reason why it was the renowned Turkish artists and works of supreme literary value that were mainly translated. Publishing Production in Serbia in the — period This was undoubtedly the hardest period that the Serbian publishing industry lived through in the 20th century.
The below data on the total publishing production are collected according to the Research of Book Market in Serbia by Dragana Milunovic. Unfortunately, it is not possible to give more precise data about the book market situation during s. Serbia, together with Montenegro, was in economic, political and cultural isolation during the s. Such situation had an adverse effect on literary translation in general, particularly translation from Turkish and other languages marked by the lack of sufficiently qualified translators.
Many of them were printed in several subsequent editions, which is an enormous success, taking into consideration the size of the Serbian market. The rank-list of translated books by the number of editions: Orhan Pamuk, Istanbul. It, however, provided circumstances that inspired the rise of interest among both publishers and readers for Turkish writers in general, and, accordingly, the works of Turkish literature have been translated and published in the several past years more than ever before.
The years and were the most fruitful. The most important thing achieved, according to our opinion, is the established continuity of at least one translated book from Turkish literature per year and its systematic monitoring.
In the past, the literary translations from Turkish were sporadic and most often the result of personal engagement and enthusiasm of a translator, therefore, it cannot be said that there was a consistent cultural and publishing policy in Serbia when it comes to Turkish literature. Current publishing houses visibly have an increasingly better ear for Turkish authors and publish with rising courage their works that, except for the case of Orhan Pamuk, do not yield considerable commercial effects.
They also often rely on the opinion of translators who are predominantly excellent experts on Turkish Literature. The Publishers of Works Translated from Turkish Language The majority of works from Turkish language seven in total was published by the publishing house Geopoetika from Belgrade that holds the exclusive right to publish books by Orhan Pamuk.
Other publishers have published only one or two novels. What we hold as a good indicator is the fact that increasing number of publishing houses is getting involved in publishing of translations of Turkish works, as well as the fact that such works are predominantly translated from Turkish. In addition to Geopoetika, the following publishers published translations from Turkish language: There are no pieces of Diwan literature, and the folk poetry is represented only through one collection of poems.
Contemporary poetry and essay literature are much underrepresented. It is Turkish authors of young generation that are translated into Serbian language. The novel dominates as a favorite literary form. There are 19 novels, 2 scientific monographs, 1 collection of short stories and 3 collections of poems.