Köp Mastering Arabic Grammar av Jane Wightwick, Mahmoud Gaafar på Bokus. com. PDF-böcker lämpar sig inte för läsning på små skärmar, t ex mobiler. The second edition of Mastering Arabic has these additional features: • Clearer, more . information about Arabic grammar. They are not. Arabic Beginners Two develop their understanding of the Arabic culture. 2. Grammar. Grammatical rules about verb tenses will be taught in this level. Also.
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Mastering Arabic 2. PDF Document (Mb) · Mastering Arabic 2 Activity Book. PDF Document (Mb) · Mastering Arabic Grammar. PDF Document. Mastering Arabic Grammar - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Arabic Grammar. Mastering arabic Pdf .. Grammar index The following index contains the key Arabic structures and grammar in Mastering Arabic 2, referenced by page number.
Pro b ably the most common g ene r a l word mean i n g 'clothes' or 'clothing' is. Advantages coast J You'll develop an ear for this over time. An example has been done for you. My father works [as] a lawyer wi t h the government. A Guide to Handwriting". A Dictionary of Iraqi Arabic:
You need to try and remember a word together with its plural. A few words have these alternatives; the most common is used in Mastering Arabic. Find the plurals of these words you have met in this unit, as in the example. You could also try and guess at the plural before looking it up. Remember to vary the phrases you use and try to include some of the connecting words you have met. Adjectives need to be made plural when referring to groups of people.
Some adjectives use a sound plural, others use a broken plural. The plural of an adjective may follow a different plural pattern from the word it is describing. For an all-female group, the adjective can be made plural by using the Sound Feminine Plural. House and home 31 Non-human plurals Remember that plurals not referring to people are treated as feminine singular in Arabic. You may need to use your dictionary to look up some of the plurals.
They are busy. Prefer modern apartment. Keen on sports. Parking essential. Garden a bonus. Arabic spread with the rapid Islamic conquests, but the spoken language of the Arabian peninsula can still claim to be closer to the Classical than that of other more distant regions that were open to diverse linguistic influences. Features of Saudi Arabic include: You will find a transcript and translation in the Answers section. These tall town houses? Case endings You will probably be aware that formal standard Arabic includes case endings added to nouns and adjectives.
You may hear these endings in scripted news bulletins, formal speeches and similar situations. As a general rule, the case endings do not affect the spelling and you need only recognise them when you see or hear them. Alternatively you can consult a good reference grammar.
Grammar index The following index contains the key Arabic structures and grammar in Mastering Arabic 2, referenced by page number. Now join in the conversation on the record i ng, sayi ng you r part i n the pauses. It sh ows activities planned for the first days of Ramada n. You ca n use the additional vocabulary on the left to help you. Sport and leisure Fez o Oujda OJ. It i s from here t h a t t h e Muslim 'Moors ' crossed t h e Mediterra nean and occupied southern Spain for most of the Middle Ag es.
The spoken language has been grea tly influenced by the local Berber l a nguage, Andalusian dialect and Europea n langua ges, especially French which. Features of M oroccan Arabic include: You will find a transcript and tra nslation i n the Answers section. J" J 'i. I success in athletics, particularly middle and long-distance running. I Said Aouita m, 1 9 8 4 , Nawal , t.
The most s i g n i fi cant modification is that the final nOn disappears from the feminine 'you', the masculine plural and the dual: J tashrabTna tashrabT, and UY. Another fea ture o f s o m e dial ects i s that t h e masculine plural verb is employed for all plural or dual subj e cts ega rd l ess of gender. Travel and tourism. A journey. The plural of U Is this the way to. Travel and tourism The first is completed for you.
Prepare for the conversation by looking at the ta ble on page 76 to work out how you wo uld say: The cinema i s o n the corner, opposite the a i rl i ne office. T u rn left at the traffic lig hts. Take the seco nd street o n the left. There's a hotel o n the rig ht after the tra i n station.
Means of transportation J4,: Match the Arabic with the pictures, fo r exa mple a '. H ow do ' g et to the sports centre by car? I g et to the post o ffice on foot? The Transportation Game J. The board is o n page You will need: H ow do I g et to the tourist o ffice by u n derground tra in?
You must rol l a n exact number to reach. With the Red Sea, the Me ditteranean, and the Gulf all on offer, beach resorts have sprung u p in the reg ion at a phonomenal rate i n t h e past few decades. I n addition, the Middle East has a hug e wealth of sites o f histori cal interest, from the ancient Egyptian monuments, to the Islamic sites and Crusader castles.
Millions of pilgrims converg e on Mecca for a few days where they perfo r m a series of rituals. Look at the va rious stag es in his j o u rney, and think about in which order they m i g h t h ave occurred. Then l isten to Anwar and write the co rrect number, as i n the examp l e. J' Arabic h as only two basic tenses: The past te nse is used for compl eted events. Endings are a dd e d to a past stem to show the subj ect. There are no prefixes as there are for the p resent tense.
H ere is a table s h owi ng all the pa rts o f the past ver b. The l ess commonly used fem i n i n e plural s and duals are i n lig hter type. Q " they f. Most basic verbs have past stems vowelled with two opened; sharib,.
U,;aLb u. Hamzated verbs As with the present, the main consideratio n in the past tense is how to write the Ot he r hamza.
Doubled verbs the past follow the same g eneral rule as present verbs S u b j ect endings starti n g with a conso nant non-vowel Doubled verbs in see page result in the second and t h i rd root letters being written a n d pronounced sepa rately Subj ect endings beginning with a vowel g e nerally result i n. I prepared my b a g s. They solved the problems. Weak verbs Assimilated verbs weak letter as f i rs t root are a l most entirely r e g ular i n the past Defective verbs wea k letter as last root are gene r a l l y characterised by a long a, ay, 0 o r aw replacing the fi nal root l etter.
He wa lked quickly. Hollow verbs h ave two stems - one 'open' stem with a long a i n the middle fo r subj ect endings starting with a vowel; a n d one 'closed' s t e m w i t h a short vowel for su b j ect endings sta r ti ng with a consonant. We didn't find ice. The trip also takes in the desert to the west.
Every night she writes her blog on the web. JJ [J AJ 1 JI, L LJ 1 l;. However, in the past you do need to use kan in the appropriate form t o mean 'was' or ' were '. Compare these descriptions in the p resent and in the past: She is a fraid.
S he was a fraid. Th e fi l m was exciting. The men were g e nerous. J I , al-mashakil she and her fellow students encountered during their recent stay. You were also unhappy because: As in its two neighbours to the west, Morocco and a ver y strong French influence on both Algeria, in Tunisia there is the culture and the language. As well as using French and Italian words such as 'piscine' swimming pool and 'cucina' kitchen within spoken Tunisian Arabic, Tunisians might also switch entirely between speaking French and Arabic, sometimes in mid-sentence.
Some of the features of Tunisian dialect are: You will find a transcript and translation in the key. J-'-' '-' Ui: It is also an attractive location for film and music video producers, with pristine desert and green oases, The extract above reports on a music video being shot amongst the dunes and palm trees of a Tunisian oasis.
Sili"J1 U:! J IjS. J1 -l: The jussive is very simila r to the subjunctive in that the final nOn disappears from the feminine 'you', the masculine plural and the dual see page For regular verbs, this is the only significant difference. However, if fully pronounced the other parts of the jussive end with a sukOn: This has the effect of shortening the long vowels in weak verbs. For example,.. Look at these examples of negative sentences in the past: Didn't you f.
Write the English next to the Arabic, as in the example.
You could also replay the recording without looking at your list, pausing after the Arabic for each item to see if you can remember what it means. If the measure word ends with tal marbOta, this should be pronounced -at: Look at the shopping Leila came home with and tick off the items you can see. Then describe what she remembered, as in the example. Listen to the conversation. We don't have I'll take.. I need. Anything else?
How much is the bill? Food and cooking 97 Tip: If you wantto say 'this. S h e forgot three th i n g s from the greengrocer. D Le ila asked for two kilos of tomatoes. Leila took a box of Turkish figs. D She took the small box. S h e also bought four D 00 Conversation Leila has asked you to go back to the grocer and buy these items she forgot from her list: Then fol l ow the prompts on the recording. For example, the vegetable the British call 'a uberg ine' the Ameri cans call 'eg g plant'; 'chips' to the British means hot p otato fries, but to the Amer icans i t means salted potato crisps in a packet.
These types of regional varia tions also exist in a more pronounced way in the Arabic-speaking world since the number of countries and influences involved a re g reater.
So me vocabula ry sets are more affected than others. Food and clothes are two top ics that show sig nificant reg ional differences. The varia tions can be small: However, alte rnatives do not always sound similar: In g e neral, the va rious nationalities of the Arab world will use the term most fa miliar to those they are a ddressing. Some fore ign words a dopted into Arabic do n't have a 'sta nda rd' versi on and you may find va riations even in more formal contexts such as newspaper articles.
You should be aware that alternat ives are possible and try to fa milia rise yourse l f with the most common. Remember the dual ending for two people: Conversation You are going to telephone the Nujoum restaurant to make a booking. Follow the prompts on the recording. Here are your requi rements: You can try this several ti mes until you a re confident.
Look at what they said below and think about in which the order the phrases might have come. The n l isten to the conversation and mark the correct order in the boxes, as in the example. Mr and Mrs Barakat are..
D [I] ,s Listen once without looking at your book and see if you can decide what mistake has been made. Then listen again and fill in the missing words from the transcript below. Derived forms v-x Forms of the verb J. The other five significant derived forms fall into two groups that share characteristics: Forms V and VI are characterised by being vowelled entirely with fatha in both present and past tenses: We eat form VT a l i ght meal in the evening.
They cooperated form VT with the food inspectors. We enquired form X about the prices. Remember that the subject prefixes and endings are the same whatever the form of the verb see pages 48 and Eating sweet things is bad for the teeth.
Derived forms V-X Passive , JLLi4 , '! Use a dictionary to check the meaning. QJ1 ul.: At sunset, the main 'breakfast' meal.. There is also a lighter meal eaten just before the dawn call to prayer. Tripoli 0 J.. Its position and varied hi s t o r y have left Lebanon with multiple reli giou s and cultura l communities.
For much it has been under the influence of France, and French is still the stro n gest o utside influence on the local dialect. As in p art s o f North Africa, many Lebanese are equally comfo rtable of its recent history speaking French or Arabic. Lebanese Ara bic dia lect is part of the Levant g roup and shares S y r i an Arabic see page 52 , but with a g reater many features with French i nfl uence. You will find a tra nscript and translation in the Answers section.
Lebanese cooking has influenced the rest of the Mediterranean, and in turn has absorbed features from other countries such as Turkey and Greece. Minced meat is a key ing redient, as are cracked wheat burghul , mint and parsley. Above is a recipe for the classic grilled 'Kofta' kebabs with yoghu rt salad. Other phrases. Now write a paragraph about Najiba, usi ng the information on the form.
Try to use some of the connecting expressions you have met. Make sentences that apply to you, for example: Conversation You have just entered a resta ura nt with two friends. You want to order the fol lowing.
Prepare wha t you might say i n Ara bic. Then continue the account using the infor mation fro m the second and third postcards. Y o u can use s o m e ad ditional seque nci ng words a n d expressions you know to l i n k the events.
LI ,-? U ''i LU51J. Write the correct year next to the events below, as in the example. Try to say the date out loud in Arabic. Pro b ably the most common g ene r a l word mean i n g 'clothes' or 'clothing' is. You may also find robe, a n d 7 78 "l:! Words can run right to left or top to bottom.
U IJ'" r -. J"" r" t. J Traditional and Western clo thing The terms used for items o f clothing show sig n i fica nt reg ional va riations even within 'Sta ndard' Arabic. Roug hly speaking, there are three categories o f words: The terms used vary across the Arab world depending o n the h istory o f a particu lar reg ion.
Can you work them out? Is he wea ring glasses? I, Clothes and colours In Modern Standard Arabic, you should add a l if tanwTn I -an to the object of the verb in this case the item of clothing if it is indefinite i. The main exceptions are if the object word ends in ta' marb Ota ;; or if it is a foreign loan word that sounds awkward with the a lif tanwTn ending.
Spoken dialects don't g enerally use the a l if ta nwTn in this way but you should try to include it when you a re writing, or speaking in a more formal context. Now describe what each person i s wearing, for example: These six colours are amongst a handful of Arabic adj ectives that cannot be made feminine by addi ng ta' ma rb Ota. They have a s p ecial feminine form using the pattern fa t1 a ': Colour offered: Colour pr e fer r ed: Prepare you r part fi rst by looki n g at the gu ide below a nd the conversation opposite.
Then take part in the conversation on the recordi n g. N ote: Ask 'Do you have jeans? The colour is very dark. I prefer the lig h t blue one s. Can I try the orange one with the green collar? HjjJ l ili She is pointing out who is wh o. These words are called rela tive pronouns. Here are the most important Arabic relative pronouns: J1 masc. I-ljJl The boy who is smiling i s my nep hew son of my al-walad al l adhT yabtasi m Sister. Use your notes opposite, for example: JOin the two sentences or questions using a relative pronoun if appropriate , as in the exa mple.
For other verbal fo rms, whether or not the second and third roots are written tog ether depends on the particular pattern and any e nd i n g added. Other word patterns follow the same principles. H oweve r, the a ct i ve participle has a short vowel in this posit i o n and so the doubled root is written to g e t h e r "J L The show's commentator is introducing four g irls modelling the outfits. Don't try to understand every word, j ust the gist.
You can use the illustrati ons opposite to help you and listen again to the commentary for the context. Answers rn: J zayn hadha. F lJ-': I n the cities, Paris fashions and the ubiquitous weste rn j eans and T-shirts mix with traditional robes and headwear. Further north, Ku rd i sh b a gg y trousers and colourful country, and dresses and headscarves add local fl avou r.
J I J"-! J I;" Jlj. Additional note: Irregular words referring to people Note these irreg ularities with some common words referring to people: I, 'oI U nas , people, has no Singular. LJtJ f'o:. M rs Mabrouk is talking about her five children.
Fill in the chart below with their details as i n the example. Can you make four similar descriptions about the other children, using the information in the ta ble on page 1 37? Write the equivalent Engl ish subj ect, as in the exa mple. You can also use the recorded list to check yours elf, pausing a fter the Arabic fo r each subj ect to see jf you can remember what it means. You could also use one of the followi ng phrases: I ' m weak. You can try this several times, ch anging the subjects you talk about.
J" -J connected with studying and J t con nected with knowledge. From these two roots come a host of useful items o f vocabulary: J J-I J'-l.. There may be more than one possible answer. L4 ;;Jw JI CJ. J W JJI.. Exercise 6. Weak verbs 7 In practice this is almost always waw. Assimilated verbs gene rally behave as regular verbs, the main exceptions being: The r ules for how h ollow verbs behave are somewhat complicated and you will need to consult a grammar reference for the details.
However, here are some gUidelines. I n the present tense, hollow verbs with middle root waw are generally characterised by a long u in place of the second root letter and those with middle root ya' by a l ong T. There are a few hollow verbs that are characterised by a long a in the present tense, for example ya n a m sleep: U ta n a m q ittatT tawa l a n - n aha r My father says that I'm weak in English.
Do they sell b ooks here? My cat sleeps all day. In the p ast tense, hollow verbs d isplay a long a when the suffix starts with a vowel, but a short u or i when the suffix starts with a consonant: We sold the house but they sold the land.
Weak verbs Defective verbs Defective verbs have either waw or ya' as the final root lette r. As with hollow verbs, the rules associ ated wi th defective verbs are so mewhat complicated but some g eneral characteristics can b e identified. I n the present tense, the final in t h e p o s t tense by can. You mose should complain to the manager.
My sister forgot her mobile phone. Weak in the derived forms Defective verbs are irregular i n all the fo rms. The irregularities follow a similar pattern to the basic verb fo rm, with the weak root letter changing to a long or short vowel depending on the patte rn associ ated wit h the particular for m. Whether the weak root is waw or ya', the irreg ular derived patterns will b e the some.
Weak verbs in the jussive In the short jussive form of the verb see page 9 1 , those po rts of the p resent tense that do not have a su ffix ending are I n hollow and defective verbs this. I didn't fo rget b ut I didn't soy anything. Munira didn't answer all the questions.
Unit 9 7 AO Iii': It is relatively straightforwa rd to turn a verb i nto an instruction impera tive , For the major i ty o f verbs you can fo llow this simple p rocess , w J rakkiz , Does what remains start with two consonants?
NO You have you r instruction! J rakkiz Concen trate! These instructions are masculine sing ular. For regular verbs this distinction is not significant, but for hollow and defective verbs, the long vowel of the present tense may become short in the j ussive, and so also be short in the imperative.
Look at how these common verbs are made into instructions: UJ Ji. Don't tell m. Don't talk p l. Look back at page and identify the following instructions the invigilator gave to the students.
All the instructions are in the plural. S Concentrate on your own papers. Use the chart on page , your dictionary and the notes opposite to help you.
Can you j oin the two halves correctly as i n the example? Use the extra vocabulary in the box to help you. U I at-ta li the following TJW I.. Th e fierce stru g g l e was made more c o mp licated by the fact that Algeria was consi dered a 'departement' an i n tegral part of Fra nce rather than a colony. French has left its m a rk in the spoken d ialect of Algeria, in a s i m i l a r way to the other francophone North Africa n countries.
You wil l find a tra nscript and tra nslation i n the Answers secti o n. JJ Jt! The Berbers themselves prefer the i n dig en o u s word t-'-. J loi a mazTg h Tamazight to describe their ethnicity. The Tamazight l angu a ge is still widely spoken and in some places is part of the curriculum. The article above concerns its introduction into Algerian schools. Exercise instructions U". This will help you to understand written instructions in ma te r i a l for native speakers and when Arabic is used as part of examinations for le ar ne rs of Arabic.
I f necessary, clarification or additional details will be included in Engl i sh in the instructions. News tha t costs money today. Egyptian proverb. J culture and art ,. Try to categ orise the headlines according to the topics on page 1 54 , using the extra vocabulary below to hel p you. WJI U" Wha t time is the programme Behind th e News?
Is the programme Eye on the World live or recorded? Wha t a bout Withou t Limits? Wha t kind o f pro g ramme d o you think this is and when is i t showing? I n rea l i ty this is over-s i mplistic. The distinction has always been b lurred and is becoming more so in the a g e of i nstant i nfo rmation and l ive broad casting. The re are broadcast pro g ra mmes both in colloquial films and soap operas and MSA news and current affairs.
Standard Arabic i tself wo rks on several d i ffere nt levels. At the top end is the 'hig h ' Arab ic used in formal scripted speeches and by scholars and media professionals. I n the middle is a version used for educated live deb ate and spontaneous discussion. Within one programme - a l i ve debate and listener phone-i n , for example - it is possible to hear all these different levels from the va rious participants.
Mastering Ara bic conce ntrates o n tea ching the less fo rmal vers i o n o f Standard Arab ic, the ' m i d d l e way', si nce you a r e u n l i kely t o n e e d t o produce ' h i g h ' Ara bic unless you a re planning a career as a news announcer or an academic scholar!
However, it is important to be able to listen to a n d und ersta n d the more fo rma l vers i o n. Althoug h there a re s o m e p h rases restricted m a i nly t o fo rmal MSA, und erstanding 'high' Arabi c is largely a questi o n of reco g nising fa miliar voca bulary with fully pronounced endings. These endings represent: Grammatical cases on nouns and adj ectives Most words take the case endings sh own below. More details of how the cases are fo rmed and used are i n the Structure Note sections of Mastering A ra b i c 1.
JJ wa ladun I.. JY I al-walady.. Q, al-mad rastu, etc. Final vowels o n present tense verbs Present verbs with no su ffix end with r;iamma -u when fully pronou nced: See pages 73 and 9 1 for more details of the subj unctive a n d j u ssive. Unit 7 0 7 60 " ' Listen toStandard these news headlinaesradio announcer earlier i n the, andunithent delleivsseredformally, as if read out l oud by someone to a friend.
The level of humidity rises every ye r! U I Parliament votes on the new traffic law -. The televis ion equivalent is u..
Words have been adopted from English, for example the wo rds w Internet ,. Some of the loan words used have pure Ara bic equivalents, for example 'computer' is also ,-: Existing Arabic words are being applied to new concepts. For example, m ud awanna, traditionally used to refer to a d iary or journal, is now also used to mean 'blog'; S.. Jw To compare the different news media, we first need to review the two ways of making adjectives compara tive in Arabic.
J lb,;.. One of theI r repo rts is shown below. I '-'-' lJ dI':: J ' 0y-. I I Doha I l Duba; Th e dial ects of to Saudi Arabic. Coll ectively they are o fte n termed ' Gulf' Arabic. Yemeni Ara bic has developed more independently and has several distinct d i a lects , some reta i n i n g features o ften fo und only i n Sta n d a rd Arabic, for e x a m p l e t h e classical pronunciation of J and u '; 1 a i - a n now and..
Mohammed talking about himself in his Yemeni dialect. You wi ll fi n d '7'-.?
P-' cli ne towa rd n ahw a to in ng i sti' iar re nti bl. Th e Gulf is home to m a ny of the Arab world's satellite TV comp a n i e s. T h e article above outlines the rise of satel l i te stat ions i n the Gulf countries. JI wi.. L ,I ,-: The more general word for 'climate' is t L J I al-m u nakh. Adj ectives can be form ed from the com pas s directio ns, for exa mpl e: You could start something l ike this: As for my country, the climate is also moderate but it ' s very rainy, even in summer.
Advantages coast J J I Disadvantages desert.. J I desert.. Th e future 1 The future There is no separate future tense in Arabic. Verbs can be g iven a future meaning by putting sa- or -.
Negative You can make a future negative by putti ng uJ I a n in fr o nt of a p resent verb. Lan is emphatically negative, and carries the implication of 'definitely not' o r ' not ever'. The verb fo llowing Ian is the subjunctive see page 73 , and so a ny fi n a l n O n will disappear: Q", GJ They won't find a room The weather will be h ot tomorrow. We will go to the coast. The j ourney will take six hours. He won't sleep before nine 0' clock. Notice that the first verb is in the past tense - literally 'if we wen t.
If you masc. I f we don't s ave energy, then we won't stop climate change. You can use a verb more than once. Sij drive buy JS;. I f you mase are not busy, then h e l p me. I f you fem. F rom.. State of Seige by M a h moud Da rwish Palesti n i a n poet, 1 94 1 1 In this case, we often use a passive verb. Examp l es of the passive i n English would be 'the j uice is extracted', 'the machi nes are operated by solar energy' rather than the a ctive 'we extract the j u i ce', 'solar energy opera tes the machines'.
I n Arabic the passive i s made b y changing t h e vowelling of a verb. I n t h e present tense, the first vowel is changed t o a c;i a m m a and t h e final vowel to fatha. This is true for a ll forms o f the verb. U1 Look at the Arabic text on page 1 7 8 and c o m p l e te the English below.
Replay the aud io, pausing a n d try to me morise as much of the Arabic as you ca n. N ow del iver the tou r speech you rself. You can use the pictu res o n page 1 7 8 a s p ro m pts, but try not t o look at the Arabic. Keep re peati ng this u ntil you a re fluent. Memorising and del iveri ng speech wi l l help with your voca b u l a ry a n d oral confidence. There's no additional record i n g for this conversation, but you can replay the to u r guide o n page 1 78 to check your version.
As for the present, the first vowel in the past passive is a c;iam ma, but the fi nal vowel in the past passive is kasra. You c;i a m m a as the middle vowel i n derived forms: Exercise 1 0 I: Begin like this: AI-Iaghbub Li bya A l g e r i a Ghat o o. More recently in t he fi rst half of the twe ntieth century it was an Italian colony, g a i n i n g full independence in 1 9 4 9.
I tal i a n still influences the spoken dialect of Libya, as does the indigenous Tamazight Berber language. Some features of L i b ya n dialect are: Health an d happiness.. There are alternative words for some of the parts of the body, two of the most common being J L Supermarket aisle sign: Here are expressions you could use to describe your ailments: I have a headache. I I have a coldla fever. I'm I suffering from. J1 I j,ol ": H cll Pa rts of the bo d y that come i n pairs legs, eyes, etc.
If referring to both pa rts, will need to use the dual: Why does the customer have to work in the sun? What does the pharmacist think he is suffering from? Can you find the Arabic expression for the ailment? Why can the customer not take the medicine suggested?
What does the pharmacist advise he does? JI,i,JI t. These are yo u r sym ptoms: Prepa re what you wi ll need to say a n d then j o i n i n the conversation on , the r eco rdi n g fo l lowi n g the prom pts. Here are some of the factors that can influence health.
J' w, column J. It might damage yo ur health. There's no single correct answer, but you ' l l find some suggestions in the a nswer secti on. I n coll oquial Arabic, the construct i o n 'min al-. So Health and happiness 7 95 hJ Abdul Aziz asks for advice ,0. H Exercise Y' mara LS.. I 1 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia In a dd i t i o n to Ar ab ic , there are over a hundred i n d i g en ou s languag es, three o f the most widely spoken being Nubian in the north and Dinka and Nuer in the s ou t h.
Features of Sudanese Arabic include: Sudan inn oculated millions of chil dren, despite secur ity and log istical challenges. Fata lities due to the disease were reduced by 91 percent. You can also use the verb i n the last unit. Arts and cinema 2 Exercise 4 ,. JI '; L.. J-j ; Although Arabic only has two basic tenses, the verb u LS: J Li You can use the following guide to g ive you some ideas of what you could include i n a review. I found that. I would have enj oyed it but. You can write about a book, a film, a play or a show.
Try to plan your review first and then write using only your notes as much as possible. J I Ttle West Ban AJ 1 Jerusalem 0 la.. Amman t You wi l l find a transcript and translation in the Answers section.
She had reached her seventyfifth year. Is i t the house? The washing tub and the pestle for 'kibba ' [minced meat1 which she inherited from her mother? Or is it the call of the milkmaid in the morning. Or the chesty cough of the husband, and the wedding nights of her children, who departed this threshold for the marital home one after the other, leaving her by herself?
Palestine has produced some of the most powerful poets and storytellers of the 20th and 2 1 st centuries - the poets Mahmoud Darwish 1 9 4 1 , see page 1 7 7 and Samih al-Qasim 1 and the writer E m i l e Habibi 9 6 to name but three. Poetry readings can stil l attract mass aud iences and there is a strong Arabic tradition of storytelling. Not su r p r i s i ngly, exile, loss and confused identity a re common themes in Palestinian literature.
The above extract is taken from a short story by Emile Habibi, t. W"'" ,-,. J--lI " -,! My sister excels in the sciences. My son is i n the first year of kin dergarten.
JLi t The teacher said that you masc. The students turned off their mobile phones before the exam. Use the passive see page 1 79 and join the stages of the process using sequencing words, e. First the mobile phone i s switched off. II u-- j!. Exercise 9 - ".. Review 22 3! A U;,. JI u-: Review Sugg estions for further You have now come to the course.
You h ave acquire d a s o l i d foundation in Modern Sta n d a rd Arab i c and can ta i l o r any further study t o you r particu l a r needs a n d i nterests. The expansion of the i n ternet means that at the click of a mouse you wil l have access to a wea l th of mate r i a l , from m o re formal Ara b i c newspapers, rad i o a n d television to p o p u l a r s o n g s a n d chatrooms.
Cou rses Some colleges and u n iversities you can join i f you have the Arabi c courses which You may also b e able to find a course o fferi n g a I f you wish to continue textbook, there are a number the scope of Mastering Amhic o n e that matches you r needs. Some, fo r example, are designed for use i n a classroom a n d ca n be d i fficult t o fol low i f you ' re working by yourself. There are also a n u m b e r of organisations offe r i n g o n l i ne tuition, some better organised than others.
Try to s i g n u p for a sample l esson before you commit. M aterial o n l i n e Most Arabic newspapers, internet sites, some also I n addition, video-shar i ng and home-recorded materi J1 subj ect, song or author thaI stlllions have their own nnd l ive streaming. Watch out in particular for clips Literatu re We have i n cluded some samples of Ara b i c poetry and l iterature i n Mastering Arabic 2.
Vis iti ng There i s never a ny s u bstitute for a ctually visiting o r staying i n the area. You cun take a langauge course i n o n e o f the maj o r A rabic-speaking countries, o r si mply use your Arabi c wh i l e trave l l i n g a n d meet i n g l o cal peop l e. Fortune favou rs t h e b rave! Exercise 2 Ijl.