software and public IRC networks, please see The IRC Prelude. If you have not used the project so we can avoid the hassle of people switching later. • This is a large project,  homeranking.info Basic of Networking. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other local area network or LAN connecting computers with each other, the internet, and .. available, enhancing group project work. As the range of. An Introduction to Computer Networks 1 An Overview of Networks print edition; when I started this project it seemed inconceivable that a.
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PDF | ABSTRACT In this paper, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using network simulators to teach networking concepts versus,having. Here Are some cool Projects UNDERWATER WIRELESS University at Buffalo and Northeastern What are some computer networking projects. COMPLETE Project on Networking - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text teaching the learner avreast with the computer, networking and hardware.
Where SP stands for Service Pack. It is a network operating system. A switch is a hardware device that filters and forward data packets between network segments. Active Directory also links related domains in a hierarchical structure and users can access resources in any of the domain in which their user account resides. If both advertised routes to the same network have the same AD. To counteract this in Justification cannot be done to whatever I have learnt in these six months within a few pages but I have still tried my best to cover as much as possible in this report.
It also enables communication between the organization and rest world. Devices used in WAN is only Router. WAN helps an organization to establish network between all its departments and offices located in the same or different cities.
Most of the WANs use leased lines for internet access as they provide faster data transfer. V network in a city. The best example of MAN is cable T. Fig 5: Metropolitan Area Network 3. Network address and host address as shown in figure 3. There are two versions of IP addresses: Ipv4 performs broadcasting. Class C. It is 32 bit long. It is divided into various classes namely Class A.
Class B. IPv4 is in decimal form. IPv4 is divided into 5 classes: It is represented in the form of decimals. IP is a 32 bit long and it is divided into 4 octets and dot. Class D and Class E.
It is bit long. It is divided into 4 octets. It is divided into 16 octets. IPv6 is in hexadecimal form. Address Classes Table 3: Dynamic IP Addresses Dynamic IP addresses are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the network or non-permanent devices such as portable computer. It is also known as hardware address or physical address. These static IP addresses are semi-permanent IP addresses which remain allocated to a specific device for longer time e. MAC address is a 12 digit hexadecimal number 48 bit address.
MAC address can be written in any one of the formats: Static IP Addresses Static IP addresses are assigned to the device on the network whose existence in the network remains for a longer duration.
Use the following IP addresses. It is made up of numbers from or a letter from A-F. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Where as Broad. It is basically of two types: It is so called because it carries single frequency. There are many types of media. There are two types of twisted pair of cables: In this an extra wire which is called shielded wire is wrapped over the inner cover which holds copper in pairs.
These cables are expensive and provide high propagation factor. Different varieties of fiber optics is used depending on the size of the network. Fiber Optical Cable Fiber optic cable consists of a very fine fiber made from two types of glass. Single mode fiber optics is used for networks spanning longer distance. However they have a slightly higher value of attenuation value and hence have limited distance covering capacity.
Fiber Optics has lower propagation factor than coaxial cable. Here signal is transmitted in the form of light.
Twisted Pair Cable There are two wires. There are different categories of UTP cables: Category and Speed of UTP cables. This protection is used to protect signal from external noise. ARCnet uses RG coaxial cable.
Band Cables carries multiple frequencies. It is a costly but more secure transmission media. There are two methods for manufacturing Rollover cables: Straight cable and Cross cables are used for data transfer but Rollover cables are not used for data transfer. It is a desktop operating system. It is used for large networks. Win In this OS. GUI package clients.
Win 5. It is a network operating system. Win 3. Novell and MAC comes. Win ME comes. It is used in small networks. According to Microsoft. In general. Introduced in 24th April as the successor to window server. Edition of Window Window server comes in a number of editions. An update version Window Server R2 was released manufacturing on 6th dec. Features of Window i A significant improved version of Internet Information Service IIS ii Increased default security over previous version due to the built in firewall and having most services disabled by default.
Window server also referred to as WIN 2k3 is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. DNS is the resolution mechanism used by Window Server clients to find other computers and services running on those computers for computers in a window network infrastructure to talk to one another.
DNS system is a standard technology for managing the names of websites and other internet domains. DNS techniques allows you to type names into your web browser like computer networking. DNS is use for name reservation i. Host name alone do not communicate globally but communicate locally. Left most portion of the FQDN is the host portion of the name. A host name is alias we give to an IP address. L and M. Fig 6: We can identify host id and location of a computer as in fig above.
Namespace works on the hierarchical tree structure of root domain. Suppose we want to find location of pc1 with IP address Domain namespace enable users to easily locate the network services and resources. The domain namespace include the root domain. The DNS namespace is an organized. There is one root domain. There are total 13 root domain working in the internet. This root domain is designated with a dot.
Fig 7: Tree structure or Domain Namespace 3. Fig 6. To store the name-to-IP-addresses mappings so crucial to network communication. These specify the name servers that are authoritative for a given portion of DNS namespace.
Some of the records set the behavior of the name server. It is also used to store other properties such as version information and timings that affect zone renewal or expiration.
In other words information about records of the resources within DNS domain is stored in a zone files. If the domains represents logical division of the DNS namespace. These records are essential when DNS servers are performing iterative queries to perform name resolution. This resource record indicates the name of origin for the zone contains the name of the server that is the primary source for information about the zone.
Zone files are divided into one of two basic types: Provides IP-address-to-host-name resolution 3. The information in an SOA record affect how often transfer of the zone are done between servers authoritative for the zone.
For example. IP address. MAC address. This command flush or clear all the information in the cache that is retrieved from DNS server. Using super scope you can group multiple scopes as a single administrative. DNS server address. Two things are always handed out as a part of DHCP configuration: IP address and subnet mask.
DHCP server supplies all the necessary networking param-eters. Further DHCP will frequently configure clients with optional values. With in 8 days: With this feature. By default DHCP lease time is 8 days minimum. It allows communication. After The DHCP superscope can be used to group and activate individual scope ranges of IP addresses used on your network.
When more than one logical IP network is used on each physical subnet or network. In this way. Then right click on scope name and click on active.
For that select DHCP server and click on authorize in action menu. This can be done by statically filling the IP address. Backup means to export the DHCP database to another system. Steps of taking backup: A domain is logically grouping of network resources. Local users are primarily used to administer a computer or to allow several people to share a single computer that is not a member of a domain.
DNS based naming and other network information. There are two types of users accounts: The user account represents the individual to domain. It has uniqueness of the user account that allows administrator to control access for every member of domain. Microsoft introduced Active Directory. Active Directory is used to create server based networking. Whereas domain users accounts are much more widely used in organizations that local user accounts because they allow for central administration and user can log onto any computer in the domain.
Local accounts are maintained in the local database of a computer and cannot be used to grant access to network resources. Active Directory also allows administrator to assign policies. Every users account is unique. Active Directory is a technology created by Microsoft that provides a variety of network services like Directory Services.
Additional improvements were made in Window server and Window server Active Directory was previewed in Domain users accounts are stored in Active Directory. Domain can also given names like abc.
DC which controls all other computers called clients. There is centralized administration administrated separately. It is a peer-to-peer networking 1. Workgroup can be given names like sales. In this model high grade operating win 98 etc can be used.
This model is recommended for small networks upto 10 pcs. There is no centralized Admin- istration and each PC is 4. Domain Tree A domain tree is made up when there is a parent child relationship between the domain in the forest. The child domain includes the complete parent domain name.
All the domains and the trees in a single organization are called a forest. All domains in the forest share same schema.
Active Directory uses domain to hold objects. The hierarchical structures of related domain is called a tree. Active Directory also links related domains in a hierarchical structure and users can access resources in any of the domain in which their user account resides.
Users must authenticates to the domain in which their users account resides before they can access resources. A forest is a collection of multiple domain link together and relationship between the domains. OU means department like sale department. Fig 8: Structure of domain forest and domain tree Organization Unit OU Organization unit is the smallest unit in a domain network that can contain users. OU also helps in dividing administration among different administrator of managing only computer and users of sales department.
Primary domain controller ii ADC: Additional domain controller iii BDC: Backup domain controller. If we create a user in the first domain controller. ADC has same configuration of AD as primary domain controller. Replication takes place among all the domain controllers and it is controlled automatically. Fig 9: Multi-Master Model 3. We can make a change in the active directory of any domain controller and that change is replicated to all other domain controllers.
All domain controllers in a domain networking are masters. All the domain controllers in the domain networking are peers and this model is called as multi. Organization unit etc. It should be noted that active directory cannot work without DNS. DNS is automatically installed and configured during the Active Directory installation. If there is any problem in active directory then remove it and restore the backup.
Fig Each branch office will have its own administrator to manage the users of the child domain present in the branch office. We can create the parent domain in the head office of the company and the child domain in the branch offices. A true relationship is automatically created between the parent domain and the child domain.
This means users in the child domain can access the file server of the. Moreover users of either domain can use clients of either domain for logging in the domain but a user can always logon only in the domain in which his account resides. On pc2 create the child domain.
Now make Tom user on it. Ram Below are the steps to cerate child domain. Users of either domain can logon its own domain from either side but only when it use its own domain name. Also parent domain can apply policies or security on the child domain.
Then it is. There are four ways to share internet. Make the client member by entering particular user with its domain name. Tom Domain name.
ICS requires two connections in order to work: The scenario for direct sharing is as shown in figure: ICS server.
ICS requires a server with two network interfaces. ICS is designed to be as simple as possible. When we configure ICS then the local card detect ICS works on following windows: The scenario for ICS is shown below: ICS scenario Note:.
Internal Private and External Public. The routing and remote access server of window 2K3 server provide us with a component known as NAT.
WIN Proxy supports all the three classes A. C also it is supported by all operating systems. By enabling NAT on a Server system. NAT exchange IP packet between local network and internet.
Assign IP address The scenario for WIN proxy is shown below: On the client side of NAT. The client information includes: Assuming NAT is used for address assignment.
NAT enable multiple client computer to connect the internet through a single publicly registered IP address. This way. To do this. With the client side configured.
VPN client software is included in all the modern window operating systems. They can also be routers that obtain the router-to-router secure connection. When configuring a VPN server. Router-to router VPN connection can be made from computers running server and Windows We can create a private network through public network.
This means that you can remotely run programs that are dependent upon particular network protocols. IP packet filtering and caller ID. It was developed in conjunction with other communications companies such as Robotics as an extension to the PPP protocol.
One of the keys to remember about PPTP is that the protocol provides encryption capabilities. One of the key differences. To aid with secure communication routing and remote access supports such security measure as logon and domain security. In order for VPN connections to be successful. These connections typically include such similar network technologies such as T1or frame relay. WAN Options These provide the physical mechanism for passing data back and forth.
For data security L2TPrelies on the services of another standards. This implementation of L2TP does not support native tunneling over X. Like PPTP. L2TP does not provide encryption of the data.
But unlike the PPTP protocol. The routing table helps direct traffic that is passed through the router. In simple words Router is a computer with two network cards. In an internetwork a router must then about all the networks present in the for effort websites. The dial-in properties also allow for specific IP address to be assigned to a user. To assign a specific IP to a user. Routing connect different networks having ID help in process of routing.
Static routing can also be specified as per user. By defining static routes. These two network cards. Even win server computer configured as router. Now when there is a router. There are two ways the routing table can be built and modified: This is the only way in Window Server that you can assign a specific IP to a user. At Router R1: This protocol was designed for the exchange of the routing information within a small to medium size IP network.
These routing protocols used by Window Server use one of two kinds of algorithms to determine the best possible path for a packet to get to its destination. In dynamic routing. The biggest advantage of RIPis its simplicity. When RIP is enabled for an interface.
RIP version1 uses broadcast packets for its announcement. When Router is enabled on Window machine. The other way to manage a router routing tables is to let the computer do it for you.
RIP version2 offers an improvement and can be configured to use either multicast or broadcast packets when communicating with other routers. Areas are connected to each other through a backbone area. To combat this. As the networks start to multiply. The biggest reason OSPF is the choice in large networks is its efficiency. It offers several advantages over RIP.
OSPF configured routers maintain a map of the network. The goal is the same: The mapping is called the link state database. OSPF routers keep the link state database up to date. But there are significant drawbacks. OSPF sub divide the network into smaller sections. Once changes have been made to link state database. The biggest drawback of OSPF is its complexity. SP4 without SP. Exchange server is the mail server of Microsoft. Service Pack are the services which are loaded externally to remove some bugs that come during installation of server CD.
Where SP stands for Service Pack. OSPF requires proper planning and is more difficult to configure and administer. Mail Box A storage place where senders and receivers mails are stored. OSI provides following advantages: NNTP and www service 3. Logical addressing defines network address and host address.
Transport Layer Transport layer is responsible for connection oriented and connection less communication. This type of addressing is used to simplify implementation of large network. Due to this layer multiple application software can be executed at the same time. Each networking device has a physical address that is MAC address.
It creates user interface between application software and protocol stack. Presentation Layer This layer decides presentation format of the data. Transport layer also performs other functions like i Error checking ii Flow Control Buffering Windowing Multiplexing iii Sequencing iv Positive Acknowledgement v Response vi Network Layer This layer performs function like logical addressing and path determination.
But logical addressing is easier to communicate on large size network. Session Layer This layer initiate. This layer may also perform modulation and demodulation as required. IP addresses. Network layer has different routing protocols like RIP. Network layer also perform other responsibilities like defining quality of service. IPX addresses etc.
Physical Layer Physical Layer is responsible to communicate bits over the media this layer deals with the standard defined for media and signals. Token Passing. Flash RAM Flash memory is just like a hard copy of the computer. Architecture of router Processor Speed: It is on chip RAM. It is used to store the startup configuration of the Router. Power PC. The types of memory that may be present in a RAM are: RAM of the router is divided into two logical parts. All the activities we do are stored in RAM.
The primary purpose of port is the management of router. Ports are not used to connect different networks.
Ports are used for the configuration of routers. Router Ports. Privileged mode Router In this mode. In this mode we are not able to change and save router configuration. Enable secret has more priority. We are not able to perform here configuration editing of the router. According to the modes. We have to enter enable password or enable secret password to enter in this mode. BRI etc.
Global configuration Route config This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. For e.
There are main types of line that are configured. This mode is used to configure router interfaces. Global parameters applied to the entire router. All the changes are performed in this mode.
But here we cannot see and save the changes. This mode is used to configure lines like console.
OSPF etc. If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work. Startup configuration is used to save settings in a router. Startup configuration is loaded at the time of booting in to the Primary RAM. The command to encrypt all password are Router configure terminal Router config service password-encryption 3. To save configuration Router copy running-configuration startup-configuration Or Router write. It is stored as clear text in configuration where as enable secret password is the encrypted password.
By default. We have to use different commands as our requirement to enable and configure the interface. So that clock will reset to the default on reboot. Configuring Banners Banners are just a message that can appear at different prompts according to the type. Different banners are: B or C based networks. In subnetting. This process borrows bits from the host id field. Subnetting allows the user to create multiple logical networks within a single Class A.
Subnetting is done to reduce the wastage of IP addresses ie instead of having a single huge network for an organization smaller networks are created within a given huge network.
To display clock Router show clock To configure clock Router clock set hh: In this process. Identify the class of address assigned.
For this example the class of IP address is Class B. Subnet Mask A subnet mask specifies the part of IP address that is to be used for identifying a sub network. Class B consists of 16 1s in network address field and 16 0s in remaining field. Class A. Each class has a default subnet mask C lass A consists of eight 1s in the network address field and 24 0s in remaining field. Class C used for subnet. This binary address gives the first address in the subnet block specified in the large network.
Default Mask Classfull addresses consists of three classes. This no. The no. Where m are the remaining no. Let we are given that we have to make 4 subnets. Table The network having more no of hosts is given priority and the one having least no of host comes at last and for each network the subnet is assigned separately. As in the scenario given: Port number of Telnet is Also DCE cable is used to connect the Routers.
The serial link should have the speed of 64K also apply vty password and enable secret password. Telnet service is used where small bandwidth is low. First of all select the PCs and the routers connect the ports to the router. Router to Router connections are made by the serial cable. It uses the services of TCP. It provides textual access of the remote device.
Purpose of Telnet is to access the remote device in order to configure it. Then select the serial port according to the routers. Set up the Routers so that they can manage via Telnet.
Select the cable to connect the Routers. Now connect the PCs to the routers. Like wise set the IP address of all the PCs. Now set the IP address of the interfaces of router.
Now set the IP address. Now select cross. At Router1: Now to check the assigned IPaddresses to the interfaces the command used is Router show ip interface brief. At router 2: At router 3: To Telnet a device from Router At all the Routers use these commands Router config line vty 0 4 Router config-line password cobra Router config-line login Router config enable password cobra Router config enable secret cobra1.
To display connected session Router show sessions This command shows those sessions, which are created or connected by us.
To route the packet the router must know the following things: Advantages of static routing 1 Fast and efficient. Disadvantages of static routing 1 More overheads on administrator. We Select Network Projects based on security. In particular, there is a lot of Computer Network Projects available related to Engineering students can search for list of Networking Projects topics and ideas.
Can u help me to write source code for Projects? We have experts for implementing any computer networking projects. We have done many Ns2 Projects on various domains. Delivered my project within stipulated time as per requirement.
Internet Topology Mapping Internet topology research helps in understanding of macroscopic structure of the physical Internet structure, computer networking projects topology-aware algorithms, and providing simulation and topology generation tools for other research studies. In order to obtain sample Internet topologies, one needs to collect a large number computer networking projects path traces and combine them. However, there are several challenges in obtaining accurate sample Internet maps from raw path traces.
In particular, we have focused on resolving anonymous routers, alias IP addresses, and subnets. We have built an Internet Topology Mapping System, named Cheleby, to construct computer networking projects Internet maps from collected path traces. This system combines our work on the Internet topology measurements and will periodically provide Internet maps in addition to raw traces.
Computer networking projects is important to accurately and efficiently process raw path traces in Internet topology mapping before using the map in any study. The system will help in observing topological characteristics of the Internet and provide Internet atlas, which we plan to annotate computer networking projects the geographic location of the routers.
Social Network Analysis Academic ties of countries.