Schaum's outline of theory and problems of programming with C Schaum's outline series. Material. Type. Book. Language English. Title. Schaum's outline of . covertitle: author publisher isbn10 | asin print isbn13 ebook isbn13 language subjectpublication date. Programming With C By Byron Gottfried || Schaum's Outline Free Download Word power made easy By Norman lewis PDF Free Download.
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Pascal and Programming with Structured BASIC in the Schaum's Outline Schaum's outline of theory and problems of programming with C /. homeranking.info Oh Crap! OF PROGRAMMING WITH C, Second Edition BYRON S. GOTTFRIED, Ph.D. SCHAUM'S OUTLINE OF. Like all Schaum's Outline Series books, this volume is intended to be used primarily for self study, preferably in conjunction with a regular course in C++ programming language or computer So unless someone has installed a C++ compiler.
Failure to do this could cause what is known as a memory leak. Now we look at individual functions and in subsequent chapters we look at collecting groups of useful functions into classes. The ios Class The ios class serves as the base class for the other stream classes. It is required in any program that uses either cin or cout. A copy constructor for the Rational class could look like: Direct member selection 16 L 2 N s.
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In the C programming language, the syntax for casting v as type T is T v. The whileStatement The do Iteration statements are also called loops because of their cyclic nature. The while Statement The while statement has the syntax while condition statement; First the condition is evaluated. If it is nonzero i. These two steps are repeated until the condition evaluates to zero i. Note that parentheses are required around the condition.
Example 3. Terminate with 0 2 cubed is 8 5 cubed is 0 First n is set to 2. Since the condition is true, the statements inside the loop are executed. The second statement reads 5 into n. It is still true, so the statements inside the loop are executed again. Each time control reaches the end of the loop, the condition is tested.
After the third iteration, n is 0, and the condition is false. That terminates the loop.
The left brace ends the loop's header line. The right brace is on a line by itself below the "w" of the while keyword. And the statements within the compound statement are all indented.
Of course, the compiler doesn't care how the code is formatted. It would accept this format: Some C programmers also like to put the left brace on a line by itself, directly below the "w" of the while keyword. Its syntax is do statement while condition ; The only difference is that the do The for Statement A loop is controlled by three separate parts: For example, in the program in Ex.
When these three parts are simple, the loop can be set up as a for loop. The syntax for the for statement is for initialize; continue; update The initialize, the continue, or the update may be empty.
As the next example illustrates, a for loop is usually easier to understand. A sentinel is a special value of an input variable that is used to terminate the input loop. In the example above, the value 0 is used as a sentinel. Terminate with 0 1: Notice that all three control parts of this for loop are empty: This construct is pronounced "forever. The continue Statement The break statement skips the rest of the statements in the loop and goes to the statement after the loop.
The continue statement does the same thing except that, instead of terminating the loop, it goes back to the beginning of the loop to begin the next iteration. When n is 4, the first if condition is true, so control skips over the rest of the statements in the loop and jumps to the top of the loop to continue with the next iteration.
When n is 9, the first if condition is false but the second is true, so control breaks out of the loop and jumps to the first statement that follows the loop. The goto Statement The break statement, the continue statement, and the switch statement cause the control of the program to branch to a location other than where it normally would go.
The destination of the branch is determined by the context: All three of these statements are called jump statements because they cause the control of the program to "jump over" other statements. The goto statement is another kind of jump statement. Its destination is specified by a label within the statement. A label is simply an identifier followed by a colon, placed before a statement. Labels work like the case statements inside a switch statement: The overuse of goto statements often produces unstructured spaghetti code that is difficult to debug, so limit your use of the goto statements to terminating deeply nested loops.
Constants, Variables, and Objects An object is a contiguous region of memory that has an address, a size, a type, and a value. The address of an object is the memory address of its first byte. The size of an object is simply the number of bytes that it occupies. The value of an object is determined by the actual bits stored in its memory location and by the object's type that prescribes how those bits are to be interpreted.
The type of an object is determined by the programmer. The value of an object may be determined by the programmer at compile time or at run-time. An object's size is determined by the compiler and its address is determined by the computer's operating system at run-time.
We will see examples of such anonymous objects later. A variable is an object that has a name. The word "variable" is used to suggest that the object's value can be changed.
An object whose value cannot be changed is called a constant. Constants are declared by preceding the type specifier with the keyword const. Constants must be initialized when they are declared. The following program fragment illustrates constant definitions: It is customary to use all capital letters in constant identifiers to distinguish them from other kinds of identifiers.
A good compiler will replace each constant symbol with its numeric value. They can be developed, compiled, and tested separately and can be reused in other programs. This modularization is a characteristic of successful object-oriented software. Now we look at individual functions and in subsequent chapters we look at collecting groups of useful functions into classes.
Standard C Library Functions The Standard C Library is a collection of predefined functions and other program elements that are accessed through header files. We have used some of these from the header file.
Our first example uses of one of the mathematical functions in. Example 4. The sqrt function when given a positive number will return the value of the square root of the argument. The include tells the compiler to use the functions defined in file math. A function like sqrt is executed by using its name as a variable in a statement, like this: In the last example, sqrt i calls the sqrt function. The expression x in the parentheses is the argument or actual parameter..
So when i is 3, the value 3 is passed to the sqrt function by the call sqrt i. This process is illustrated by the following diagram: During the fourth iteration of the for loop, its value is 3. That value is passed to the sqrt function, which then returns the value 1. Table 4. If passed an integer, it is promoted to double before it is processed by the function.
For example, if you want the random number function rand , place include at the beginning of your main program file.
User-Defined Functions The functions provided by libraries are not sufficient for all problems. Programmers must be able to define their own functions. A user-defined function has two parts: The header of a function specifies its return type, name, and parameter list. Thus the header for the cube function is int cube int x The body of a function is the block of code that follows its header.
It contains the code that performs the function's action, including the return statement that specifies the value that the function sends back to the place where it was called.
Usually the body is much larger. But the function's header typically fits on a single line. A function's return statement serves two purposes: Its syntax is return expression; where expression is any expression whose value could be assigned to a variable whose type is the same as the function's return type. Test Drivers Whenever you create your own function, you should test it with a simple program called a test driver.
Its only purpose is to test the function. It is a temporary, ad hoc program that can be "quick and dirty. Don't Forget! Once you have used a test driver, discard it. This directive of course is required for every program that uses cin or cout. It is omitted from further examples only to save space.
We can visualize the relationship between the main function and the cube function like this: The main function passes the value 5 to the cube function, and the cube function returns to the main function. The actual parameter n is passed by value to the formal parameter x. This simply means that x is assigned the value of n when the function is called. Note that the cube function is defined above the main function in the example.
The next example shows a user-defined function named max , which returns the larger of the two ints passed to it. This function has two arguments. A return statement is like a break statement. Another, more common arrangement is to list only the function's header above the main program, and then list the function's complete definition header and body below the main program.
A function declaration or prototype is its header, followed by a semicolon. The definition is the complete function: Like a variable declaration, a function declaration must appear above any use of its name. However, the function definition, when listed separately from the declaration, may appear anywhere outside the main function and is usually listed after it or in a separate file.
You Need to Know A function declaration is like a variable declaration. It provides the compiler with information needed to compile the rest of the file. The compiler doesn't need to know how the function works. It only needs the function's name, the number and types of its parameters, and its return type. This is the information contained in the function's header. They are local variables that exist only during the execution of the function.
Their listing in the parameter list declares them. The variables that are listed in the function's calls are called the actual parameters or actual arguments. Like any other variable in the main program, they must be declared before they are used in the call. In these examples, the actual parameters are passed by value. This means that their values are assigned to the function's corresponding formal parameters. So in the previous example, the value of m is assigned to x and the value of n is assigned to y.
When passed by value, actual parameters may be constants or expressions. The function's declaration appears above the main program and its definition follows it: The function would be declared as int length ; whereas the variable would be declared as int length; The only difference is that the function declaration includes the parentheses.
In reality, the two alternatives are quite different, but syntactically they are nearly the same when they are used.
In cases like this one can regard a function as a kind of ''active variable''; i. Separate Compilation Function definitions are often compiled independently in separate files. For example, all the functions declared in the Standard C Library are compiled separately.
One reason for separate compilation is "information hiding" that is, information that is necessary for the complete compilation of the program but not essential to the programmer's understanding of the program is hidden. Experience shows that information hiding facilitates the understanding and thus success of large software projects. The actual commands that you would use to compile these files will depend upon your local system. Another advantage of compiling functions separately is that they can be tested separately before the program s that call them are written.
Once you know that the max function works properly, you can forget about how it works and save it to be used whenever it is needed. If you happen to discover a better way to implement max , you can compile and test that function, and then link that module with whatever programs were using the previous version of the max function.
Local Variables and Functions A local variable is one declared inside a block. It is accessible only from within that block. Since the body of a function itself is a block, variables declared within a function are local to that function; they exist only while the function is executing.
A function's formal parameters arguments are also regarded as being local to the function. This function has two local variables: The parameter n is local because it is declared in the function's parameter list. The variable f is local because it is declared within the function body. The use of local variables within functions is another example of information hiding. The user of a function need not know what variables are used within the function. In other programming languages, such a function is called a procedure or subroutine.
A void function is one that returns no value. Since a void function does not return a value, it need not include a return statement. If it does have a return statement, then it appears simply as return; with no expression following the keyword return.
In this case, the return statement is simply terminates the function. A function with no return value is an action. Accordingly, it is usually best to use a verb phrase for its name. Boolean Functions Sometimes it is helpful to use a function to evaluate a condition, typically within an if or while statement.
Such functions are called Boolean functions, after the British logician George Boole Passing by Reference So far, the parameters we have seen in functions have been passed by value. The expression used in the function call is evaluated first and the resulting value is assigned to the corresponding parameter in the parameter list before function execution. For example, in cube x , if x is 4, then the value 4 is passed to the local variable n before the function executes.
Since the value 4 is used locally inside the function, x is unaffected by the function. Thus, x is a read-only parameter. The pass-by-value mechanism allows expressions to be passed to the function. In each case, the expression is evaluated to a single value that is passed to the function. Read-only, pass-by-value communication is usually what we want.
It makes the function self-contained, protecting against accidental side effects. There are situations where a function must change the value of the parameter passed to it. This is done by passing it by reference. This makes the local variable a reference to the actual parameter passed to it.
Therefore, the actual parameter is readwrite, not read-only. Any change to the local variable inside the function will cause the same change to the actual parameter. Parameters passed by value are called value parameters, and those passed by reference are called reference parameters.
This is accomplished by declaring the formal parameters x and y as reference variables: When a call swap a,b executes, the function creates its local references x and y so that x is an alias for a, and y is an alias for b. Then the local variable temp is declared and initialized with the value of a, a is assigned the value of b, and b is assigned the value of temp. It's a matter of taste. Formal parameter x is local reference. A duplicate of the actual parameter.
A synonym for actual parameter. Cannot change the actual parameter. Can change the actual parameter. Actual parameter may be constant, variable, or expression.
Actual parameter must be variable. Actual parameter is read-only. Actual parameter is read-write. It can only return one value directly with a return statement. So if more than one value must be returned, reference parameters can do the job. Passing by Constant Reference There are two good reasons for passing a parameter by reference. If the function has to change the value of the actual parameter, as the swap function did, then it must be passed by reference.
If the actual parameter takes up a lot of storage space e. However, this also allows the function to change the value of the actual parameter. It works the same way as passing by reference, except that the function cannot change the parameter value. The effect is that the function has access to the actual parameter by means of its alias, but the value of parameter may not be changed during the execution of the function. A parameter that is passed by value is called "read-only" because it cannot change the contents of that parameter.
Consider the function: Passing parameters by constant reference is used to process large objects, such as arrays and class instances that are described in later chapters.
Objects of fundamental types int, float, etc. It begins where the name is declared. If that declaration is inside a function including main , then the scope extends to the end of the innermost block that contains the declaration. A program may have several objects with the same name as long as their scopes are nested or disjoint. This is illustrated below. This is called file scope. The second x is declared inside main so it has local scope; i.
The third x is declared inside an internal block, so its scope is restricted to that internal block. The only place where the scope of the first x is not overridden is within the function g.
As long as they have different parameter type lists, the compiler regards them as different functions. To be distinguished, the parameter lists must either contain a different number of parameters, or at least one position in their parameter lists must have different types. The compiler checks their parameter lists to determine which one to use on each call. For example, the first call passes two ints, so the version that has two ints in its parameter list is called.
If that version had been omitted, then the system would promote the ints to doubles and pass them to the version that has two doubles in its parameter list. In fact, we can think of the complete program itself as being made up of the main function together with all the other functions that are called either directly or indirectly from it. Since this is the default return type for any function, it need not be specified. So we usually just write main instead of int main.
If you want to terminate the program from within a function other than the main function, you cannot use a return statement. The return statement will only terminate the current function and return control to the invoking function. The exit function that is defined in the header file takes an integer argument that is returned to the operating system as the "value" of the program execution.
This value is usually ignored by the operating system unless the user is executing the program as part of a script. Providing default values for the optional arguments does this. Consider a function p with 4 double parameters.
The first is required and the last three are optional: So the effect of allowing default parameter values is really to allow a variable number of actual parameters passed to the function.
If a function has default parameter values, then the function's parameter list must show all the parameters with default values to the right of all the parameters that have no default values, like this: The objects, called elements, are numbered consecutively starting with 0. These numbers are called index values, or subscripts of the array. Subscripts locate element positions and allow direct access into the array.
If the name of an array is a then a  is the name of the first element that element in position 0. Here is an array of 6 integers: The index is the distance from the start of the array. Processing the Elements of an Array Processing arrays allows us to manipulate a list of objects without having to name each object differently. This example reads in a list of 4 data values and displays then in reverse order.
Example 5. If we omitted the initializer list entirely, the results would be four ''garbage" values of whatever happened to be in the memory used for the array. Some programming languages make the number of array elements available at execution time.
The program in Ex. If the reference reads data, it will probably reference a meaningless data item or program code. A write operation will overwrite some other data item or program instructions.
If the reference is outside the space owned by the executing program a segmentation fault memory access violation will occur and your program will terminate abnormally. Multi-Dimensional Arrays So far, we have looked only at one-dimensional arrays.
Since the element type of an array may be any type, it can be an array type. An array of arrays is called a multi-dimensional array. A one-dimensional array of onedimensional arrays is called a two-dimensional array; a one-dimensional array of two-dimensional arrays is called a three-dimensional array; etc. The simplest way to declare a multi-dimensional array is like this: Notice how the array is initialized: They are naturally processed with arrays.
The following program fragment defines an array of seven real numbers, representing the high temperature for each of the seven days of a week: Using enumeration in this way makes your code more readable. Type Definitions As shown in the last section, enumeration is one way to define your own types. The keyword typedef declares a new name i. A typedef does not define a new type; it only provides a synonym for an existing type.
For example, the declaration int n; associates the name n, the type int, and the address of some location in memory where the value of n is to be stored. The value of a variable is accessed by means of its name. For example, we can print the value of n with the statement: This address is equal to the decimal number 67,, Displaying a variable's address this way is not very useful.
We saw one use in Chapter 4: That use is closely tied to another: References A reference is an alias, a synonym for another variable. Example 6. Decrementing n changes both n and r to Doubling r increases both n and r to The last line shows that r and n are aliases. The identifiers n and r are both symbolic names for the same memory location 0x3fffd Like a const, a reference must be initialized when it is declared. That should seem reasonable: Every reference must have a referent.
Reference parameters were defined for functions in Chapter 4. We see that they work the same way as reference variables: A reference parameter for a function is just a reference variable whose scope is limited to the function.
It can be used as a prefix to a variable name when it returns the address of that variable. When used as a suffix to a type in a variable declaration, it declares the variable to be a synonym for the variable to which it is initialized. When used as a suffix to a type in a function's parameter declaration, it declares the parameter to be a reference parameter for the variable that is passed to it. All of these uses are variations on the same theme: We used this in Ex.
We can also store the address in another variable. The type of the variable that stores an address is called a pointer. The value of a pointer is an address that depends upon the state of the individual computer on which the program is running. In most cases, the actual value of that address is not relevant to the issues that concern the programmer. A pointer can be thought of as a ''locator": Often we will need to use the pointer p alone to obtain the value to which it points.
So p references n and r dereferences p. Therefore, r is also an alias for n. Derived Types In Ex. These types are derived from the int type. Like arrays, constants, and functions, these are derived types.
Here are some declarations of derived types: The fundamental types include enumeration types and all the number types. Each derived type is based upon some other type. A variable declared to have any of the derived types illustrated above constant, array, pointer, reference, and function is based upon a single fundamental type.
You Need to Know A derived type that is based upon more than one fundamental type is called a structure type. These include structures, unions, and classes.
Objects and lvalues An object is a region of storage. An lvalue is an expression referring to an object or function. Originally, the terms ''lvalue" and "rvalue" referred to things that appeared on the left and right sides of assignments. But now "lvalue" is more general. The simplest examples of lvalues are names of objects, i.
Variables are mutable lvalues and constants are immutable lvalues. Other mutable lvalues include subscripted variables and dereferenced pointers: In general, an lvalue is anything whose address is accessible.
Returning a Reference A function's return type may be a reference if the value returned is an lvalue which is not local to the function. This restriction means that the returned value is actually a reference to an lvalue that exists after the function terminates. Consequently, that returned lvalue may be used like any other lvalue; for example, on the left side of an assignment: Since the return value is a reference, the expression max m, n acts like a reference to m since m is larger than n. So assigning 55 to the expression max m, n is equivalent to assigning it to m itself.
The affect of this arithmetic is to cause the pointer to point to another memory location. The actual change in address depends upon the size of the fundamental type to which the pointer points.
Pointers can be incremented and decremented like integers. However, the increase or decrease in the pointer's value is equal to the size of the object to which it points.
Since p is a pointer to short, each time it is incremented it advances 2 bytes to the next short integer in the array. If p were a pointer to double and sizeof double were 8 bytes, then each time p is incremented it would advance 8 bytes. This is how an array can be traversed: Each increment moves the pointer to the next element of the array.
We can also use a pointer for direct access into the array. We can access a by initializing the pointer to a and then adding 5 to it: It is possible to access and modify unallocated memory locations.
The next example shows an even tighter connection between arrays and pointers: It also shows that pointers can be compared. The loop continues as long as p references an a not located past the last element. They provide direct access into the array the same way: So the array a could be traversed like this: Another way to avoid the problem of a dangling pointer is to allocate memory explicitly.
This is done with the new operator: Typically, sizeof float is 4 bytes. It is possible to do both in the same statement that declares the pointer: A deallocated pointer, also called a dangling pointer, is like an uninitialized pointer: A pointer to a constant cannot be deleted: Using the delete operator for fundamental types char, int, float, double, etc.
Dynamic Arrays An array name is just a constant pointer allocated at compile time: The declaration of a is called static binding because it is allocated at compile time; the symbol is bound to the allocated memory even if the array is never used while the program is running. In contrast, we can use a non-constant pointer to postpone the allocation of memory until the program is running.
This is generally called run-time binding or dynamic binding. An array that is declared this way is called a dynamic array. Compare the two ways of defining an array: The dynamic array p is created at run time; its memory allocated only when its declaration executes. Furthermore, the memory allocated to the array p is deallocated as soon as the delete operator is invoked on it: So the array is created "on the fly" while the program is running.
Before get is used to create another array for a, the current array has to be deallocated with the delete operator. Note that the subscript operator  must be specified when deleting an array. Structures and unions, file handling, low level programming, and some additional features of C are discussed in latter chapters. The appendix portion contains number system, escape sequences, operator summary, data types and data conversion rules, the ASCII character set, control statement summary, commonly used printf and scanf control characters, and some commonly used library functions.
Programming with C is good for both beginners and intermediate C programmers. The practice problems in the books are with full explanations that reinforce your knowledge and provide coverage of the most up-to-date facts in a particular topic. The in-depth review of practices and applications along with the practice questions will help you test your skills in C. You can find more C programming books here. Tuesday, April 16,