MORTH 4th, section INTRODUCTION. These Specifications shall apply to all such road and bridge works as are required to be. Aashto-a-policy-on-geometric-design-of-highways-and-streets - Type: PDF File, AASHTO A Policy on morth specifications 5th revision; morth specification. Works" (Fourth Revision, August ; Reprinted ), issued by the Ministry of the requirements of quality as stipulated in the MoRTH Specification for.
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MORTH Specification Book 4th revision - Ebook download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. MORTH Specification Book. MORTH Specification Book 4th Revision - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. MORTH 4th rev. 4" **. This edition of the Specifications for Road and Bridge Works marks the Fifth Revision. In the last decade and a half, significant developments have taken.
The grading to be adopted for a project shall be as specified in the Contract. Page 88 of In no ase shall depressions be filled up with un4i ed and ungraded 4aterial or fines. After satisfying the density requirements. Materials
Ansuitable and surplus 4aterial not intended for use within the lead spe ified above shall also.. The 4aterial obtained fro4 the e avation of roadway. If the Contra tor fails to do so. Page 5 of '-. In ro. Constru tion traffi shall not use the ut for4ation and finished subgrade without the prior per4ission of the! In no ase shall any portion of the slope en roa h on the loadway.
The Contra tor shall see that these re4ain inta t till the final 4easure4ents are ta. The depth of topsoil shall be suffi ient to sustain plant growth. Elasting shall be arried ut in a. The Contra tor 4ay adopt any 4ethod or 4ethods of blasting onsistent with the safety and?
The 4agaLine shall have an effe tive lightning ondu tor.
Page 5. The 4agaLine for the storage of e plosives shall be built to the designs and spe ifi ations of the! It shall be done only with the written per4ission of the! Prior to starting any phase of the operation the Contra tor shall provide infor4ation des ribing pertinent blasting pro edures. Tools and! In addition to these. They shall be inspe ted before use and da4aged arti les shall be dis arded totally and re4oved fro4 the site i44ediately.
The rate of burning of the fuse shall be unifor4 and definitely. The Contra tor shall notify ea h publi utility o4pany having stru tures in pro i4ity to the site of the wor. Elasting should be as light as possible onsistent with thorough lea.
Red danger flags shall be displayed pro4inently in all dire tions during the blasting operations. In advan e of any blasting wor. The blasting powder.
The blasting operation shall re4ain in the harge of o4petent and e perien ed supervisor and wor. The hours shall be 4ade. The holes shall be leared of all debris and e plosive inserted. The pri4er shall be housed into die e plosive. The powder shall be gently ta4ped with opper rods with rounded ends. In ase of harges of gelignite. The 4an in harge shall blow a siren in a re ognised 4anner for autioning the people.
The e plosive powder shall then be overed with ta4ping 4aterial whi h shall be ta4ped lightly but fir4ly. The paper of the artridge shall then be losed up and se urely bound with wire or twine.
If it is the blasting powder harge. If a 4isfire has been found to be due to defe tive detonator or dyna4ite. This hole shall then be harged and fired when the 4isfired hole should e plode at the sa4e li4e.
Eoreholes shall be of su h siLe that the artridge an easily go down. He shall satisfy hi4self that all the harges have been e ploded before allowing the wor. This should blast the old harge. Page ' of '-. The line of produ tion holes shall be pla ed inside the presplit lines in su h a 4anner as to avoid da4age to the presplit fa e. The drilling and blasting plan is for re ord purposes only and will not absolve the Contra tor of his responsibility for using proper drilling and blasting pro edures.
The test se tion shall be presplit. The length of presplit holes for any individual lift shall not e eed 1 4. Presplitting is defined as the establish4ent of a spe ified e avation slope in ro. Controlled blasting shall begin with a short test se tion of a length approved by the!
If ne essary. Parti ular are and attention shall be dire ted to the beginning and end of e avations to ensure o4plete re4oval of all overburden soil and weathered ro. In either ase the presplitting holes shall e tend either to the end of the e avation or for a distan e of not less than '5 4 beyond the li4its of the produ tion holes to be detonated.
These shall be fired as re o44ended by the 4anufa turer. These toleran es shah be 4easured perpendi ular to the plane of the slope. The botto4 of the produ tion holes shall not be lower than the botto4 of the presplit holes. In no ase shall any portion of the slope en roa h on the side drains. The drilling operations shall be ad? The depth to whi h the e avation is to be arried out shall be as shown on the drawings. Propping shall be underta.
The 4ethods to be adopted in this regard and other details thereof shall be left to the hoi e of the Contra tor but sub? Eefore footing is laid. In the ase of e avation in ro. In ase of flowing water or artesian springs. Pu4ping fro4 the interior of any foundation en losure shall be done in su h a 4anner as to pre lude the possibility of the 4ove4ent of water through any fresh on rete.
In the event of e avation having been deeper than that shown on the drawings or as otherwise ordered tie! Crops or any other property. If it is deter4ined beforehand that the foundations annot be laid dry or the situation is found that the per olation is too heavy for. Preparation of ro. The following types of 4aterial shall be onsidered unsuitable for e4ban.
Materials with a total sulphate ontent 9e pressed as 67 3: Materials sus eptible to spontaneous o4bustionM 9d: Materials in a froLen onditionM 9e: Materials with salts resulting in lea hing in the e4ban.
Materials fro4 swa4ps.!: Govern4ent of India and the lo al bodies. Page 2 of '-. This Table is not appli able for lightweight fill 4aterial e. If per4itted by the! The Contra tor shall ensure that he does not adversely affe t the 6tability of e avation or fills by the 4ethods of sto. The a eptable 4aterials shall be sto. Haulage of 4aterial to e4ban. Eorrowpits along the road shall be dis ouraged. Ridges of not less than.
The depth of the pits shall be so regulated that their botto4 do s not ut an i4aginary line having a slope of ' verti al to B horiLontal pro?
The Contra tor shall obtain representative sa4ples fro4 ea h of the identified borrow areas and have these tested at the site laboratory following a testing progra44e approved by the! IEC of plants or siting of te4porary buildings or stru tures. Re4aining portion of e4ban. If the e4ban.
Topsoil shall not be unne essarily traffi. The li4its of e4ban. In ase where the differen e between the subgrade level 9top of the subgrade on whi h pave4ent rests: Page 1 of '-. If the 4aterial delivered to the roadbed is too wet. Moisture ontent of ea h layer of soil shall be he. The water shall be added unifor4ly and thoroughly 4i ed in soil by blading. The 4otor grader blade shall have hydrauli ontrol suitable for initial ad?
The pro edure to be adopted for these site trials shall first be sub4itted to the! If inspite of that the spe ified o4pa tion is not a hieved.. Page 2' of '-. Clods or hard lu4ps of earth shall be bro.
The 4aterial obtained fro4 utting of ben hes ould be utiliLed in the widening of the e4ban. If seeding and 4ul hing of slopes is pres ribed. Tests shall be arried out as dire ted by the! The topsoil. The depth of the topsoil shall be suffi ient to sustain plant growth. Eoth the upper and lower ends of the side slopes shall be rounded off to i4prove appearan e and to 4erge the e4ban. If the level differen e between the e isting road surfa e and the new for4ation level is 4ore than '4.
The fill 4aterial shall not be pla ed against any abut4ent or wing wall. M approved by the! Anless dire ted otherwise. If the e isting road surfa e is of e4ent on rete type and lies within '4 of the new subgrade level the sa4e shall be re4oved o4pletely.
The fill 4aterial shall be deposited in horiLontal layers in loose thi. The e4ban. If the e isting road surfa e is of granular or bitu4inous type and lies within ' 4 of the new subgrade level. The 4aterial used for ba. The 4aterial Page 23 of '-.
He shall then bring the resultant level up to for4ation level with a eptable 4aterial. The 4aterial pla ed in open water shall be deposited by end tipping without o4pa tion. In ase he desires to use different for his own onvenien e. Contra tor shall then furnish the soil test data and design of high e4ban. This e eption to nor4al pro edure will not be per4itted where. The Contra tor. The re4ainder of the e4ban. Constru tion of high e4ban.
Page 25 of '-. Re4oval of unsuitable 4aterial at e4ban. The a tual laboratory CER values of onstru ted subgrade shall be deter4ined on undisturbed sa4ples ut out fro4 the o4pa ted subgrade in CER 4ould fitted with utting shoe or on re4oulded sa4ples.
Constru tion of e4ban. Constru tion and other vehi ular traffi shall not use the prepared surfa e of the e4ban. Co4pa ting ground supporting e4ban. Page 22 of '-. It shall in lude ost of instru4entation.. This will also o4prise of handling. In the event te4porary erosion. The te4porary erosion. The Contra tor 4ay be dire ted to provide i44ediate per4anent or te4porary erosion and sedi4entation ontrol 4easures to prevent soil erosion and sedi4entation that will adversely affe t onstru tion operations.
Te4porary erosion. Page 2. Ander no onditions shall a large surfa e area of redible earth 4aterial be e posed at one ti4e by learing and grubbing or e avation without prior approval of the!
Prior to pla ing the topsoil. The sods shall be ut in re tangular of unifor4 width. The Contra tor shall ere t ne essary warning signs and barriers. Topsoil shall be evenly spread over the spe ified areas to the depth shown on the plans.
They shall be reasonably free of weed seed and su h foreign 4aterials as 4ay detra t fro4 their effe tiveness as a 4ul h or be in? I44ediately after sowing. Mul hing 4aterials shall onsist of straw. The olour 4ay be bla. If treated with herbi ides or sterilents. Co4pa tion shall be by slope o4pa tor. It shall weigh not less than 3. Maintenan e shall in lude prote tion of traffi by approved warning signs or barri ades arid repairing any areas da4aged following the seeding and 4ul hing operations.
Mul hing 4aterial shall be held in pla e and 4ade resistant to being Jblown away by suitable 4eans approved by the! If 4ul hed areas be o4e da4aged. The e avated bed and sides of the drains shall be dressed to bring these in lose onfor4ity with the spe ified di4ensions. Holes for perforated pipes shall be on one half of the ir u4feren e only and onfor4 to the spa ing indi ated on the drawings.
Anless die Contra t spe ifies any parti ular gradings for die ba. The e avated 4aterial shall be re4oved fro4 the area ad? Page -3 of '-. In no ase. Anless otherwise provided. The pipe shall then be e4bedded fir4ly on the bed. Page -B of '-. Eefore pla ing the pipe. Perforated pipes.
The e avation shall begin at the outlet end of the drain and pro eed towards the upper end. The pipe se tions shall be? B 44 ''. Type 0 grading allows a 4u h wider range. Apgrade end se tions of the pipe installation shall be tightly losed by 4eans of on rete plugs or plugs fabri ated fro4 the sa4e 4aterial as the pipe and se urely held in pla e to prevent entry of soil 4aterials. The pre eding roll shall overlap the following toll in the dire tion the 4aterial is being spread.
Page -5 of '-. The pipe in this se tion shall not have any perforations. The 4ini4u4 thi. The botto4 of the pipe shall be. The botto4 of the tren h shall be sloped to drain and shall be free fro4 loose parti les of soil. The tren h shall be e avated so as to e pose learly the granular pave4ent ourses to be drained.
Type E grading 4ay be used only where the drain is designed to inter ept surfa e water flowing to the pipe and is li. Provision of inlets. Page - of '-. The for4ation shall. Page -2 of '-. The arrange4ents shall be 4ade in respe t of all earthwor. The entire wor.. The prote tion shall onsist of large s4ooth fa ed stones or of blo. The te4porary diversion of hannel to fa ilitate onstru tion of Culverts. The ro. Page -. The o4pa ted thi.
The top layer of ro.. The siLe of ro.. Page -1 of ' The grading to be adopted for a pro? Materials li. Moisture ontent of the loose 4aterial shall be he. The speed of the roller shall not e eed 5. The surfa e of any layer of 4aterial on o4pletion of o4pa tion shall be well losed.
Rolling shall be ontinued till the density a hieved is at least 1. If the thi. I44ediately thereafter. Potable water shall be preferred. Anless otherwise per4itted by the! Page 1B of ' The blending or stabilising 4aterial shall then be spread unifor4ly and 4i ing ontinued.
Page 15 of '-. The thi. The 4a i4u4 thi. The distan e to whi h li4e 4ay be spread upon the prepared 4aterial ahead of the 4i ing operation shall be deter4ined by the! The final surfa e shall be well losed. Rolling shall o44en e at edges and progress towards the entre. Co4pa tion shall ontinue until the density a hieved is at least 1. The tops of windrowed 4aterial 4ay be flattened or slightly tren hed to re eive the li4e.
Mi ing or re4i ing operations. The e tra pave4ent thi.. Page 12 of '-. B55 or 'B The laboratory strength values shall be at least '. Page 1. The e tra pave4ent thi. Page 11 of '-. In ase of variation fro4 the design AC6. Materials other than rushed or bro. The type and siLe range of the aggregate shall be spe ified in the Contra t or shall be as spe ified by the!
The weight of rushed slag shall not be less than ''. II 0ggregates li. It shall be of angular shape. Indi es 9Total: The use of s reenings shall be o4itted in the ase of soft aggregates su h as bri. It is desirable to o4pletely pi. B44 Crushable type su h as Mooru4 or Gravel Grading.
B '3. The spreading shall be done fro4 sto. In ase of a fine sand or silty or layey subgrade. The surfa e of the aggregates spread shall be arefully he. The roller shall then 4ove inward parallel to the entre line of the road. The surfa e shall be he. The type of roller to be used shall be approved by the!
The s reenings shall not be du4ped in piles but be spread unifor4ly in su essive thin layers either by the spreading 4otions of hand shovels or by 4e hani al spreaders. Tipper operating for spreading the s reenings shall be so driven as not to disturb die oarse aggregate.
Material whi h gets rushed e essively during o4pa tion or be o4es segregated shall be re4oved and repla ed with suitable aggregates. These operations shall ontinue until no 4ore s reenings an be for ed into the voids of the oarse aggregate. Hand broo4s shall be used to sweep the wet s reenings into voids and to distribute the4 evenly.
Rolling shall be dis ontinued when the aggregates ar partially o4pa ted with suffi ient void spa e in the4 to per4it appli ation of s reenings. The rolled surfa e shall be he. The spreading. In no ase shall the s reenings be applied so fast and thi. In no ase shall the use of s reenings the per4itted to 4a. The sprin. This shall be a o4panied by dry rolling and broo4ing with 4e hani al broo4s. These shall not be da4p or wet at the ti4e of appli ation. The s reenings shall be applied at a slow and unifor4 rate 9in three or 4ore appli ations: These operations shall ontinue until the resulting slurry after filling of voids.
The o4pa ted water bound 4a ada4 ourse should be allowed to o4pletely dry and set before the ne t pave4ent ourse is laid over it. In no ase shall depressions be filled up with s reenings or binding 4aterial.! It shall be lean. The aggregate shall be of ''. The aggregate shall be hydrophobi and of low porosity. I44ediately after the appli ation of binder. Penetration oat shall be 4easured as finished wor.
I44ediately after the appli ation of the. The 4aterial shall be laid in one or 4ore layers as ne essary to lines. II To deter4ine this o4bined proportion.
The value of fla. The 4i ed 4aterial should be unifor4ly wet and no segregation should be per4itted. The final gradation approved within these li4its shall be well graded fro4 oarse to fine and shall not vary fro4 the low li4it on one sieve to the high li4it on the ad? B 44 siLe. B 44 sieve with 4aterial of B. The 4i 4ay be spread either by a paver finisher or 4otor grader.
In no ase should these be du4ped in heaps dire tly on the area where these are to be laid nor shall their hauling over a partly o4pleted stret h be per4itted. This shall be done by laying 4aterials in ad? The 4otor grader. The s reed shall have ta4ping and vibrating arrange4ent for initial o4pa tion to the layer as it is spread without rutting or otherwise 4arring the surfa e profile. The roller shall then progress gradually towards the entre parallel to the entre line of the road unifor4ly overlapping ea h of the pre eding tra.
The surfa e of the aggregate shall be arefully he. In portions in a4ber. Page ''' of '-. The aggregates as spread should be of unifor4 gradation with no po. The layer 4ay be tested by depth blo.
Its blade shall have hydrauli ontrol suitable for initial ad? In no ase should the use of un4i ed 4aterial be per4itted to 4a. Preferably no vehi ular traffi of any.
In no ase shall depressions be filled up with un4i ed and ungraded 4aterial or fines. In all ases where paved shoulders have to be provided along 6ide of e isting arriageway.
The orresponding layer in paved shoulder portion shall be o4pa ted thereafter. In the ase of bitu4inous ourses. Ander no ir u4stan es. The bri. Page ''3 of '-. The ad? Thereafter the 4edian and islands. The rate for bri. Page ''B of '-. If not raised. Regardless of the 4ethod of laying. The slope of the hannel towards drainage pipes shall be ensured for effi ient drainage of the road surfa e. Eefore laying the foundation of lean on rete.
In those situations. Page ''5 of '-. The foundation shall have a pro? The lines. Pre ast e4ent on rete blo. The s ope of the wor. Page '' of '-. This wor. Page ''2 of '-. It shall be free fro4 any organi 4atter and other deleterious substan es and shall be of su h nature that it an be o4pa ted readily under watering and rolling to for4 a fir4.
Constru tion? Cost providing pipes and arrange4ent for their dis harge into appropriate drainage hannels shall be in idental to the onstru tion of footpaths. The gaps between the blo. Page ''.
To deter4ine this o4bined proportion. Co4pa tion shall o44en e i44ediately after the spreading operation.
Page ''1 of '-. They shall be lean. The hoi e of binder shall be stipulated in the Contra t or by the! They shall be lean hard. Eefore approval of the sour e the aggregates shall be tested for stripping. Eitu4inous pave4ent ourses shall be 4ade using the 4aterials des ribed in the following 6pe ifi ations. If a ontinuous 4i ing plant is to be used for 4i ing the bitu4inous bound 4a ada4.
In the ase of a designed? The use of a high pressure air? The travel rate of the paver. If the surfa e of the base ourse is sub?
The re4ainder of the pave4ent up to the? In areas with restri ted spa e where a 4e hani al paver annot be used. In onfined spa es where it is i4pra ti able for a paver to operate. The only traffi per4itted to run on bitu4inous 4aterial to be overlaid shall be that engaged in laying and o4pa ting the ne t ourse or. Eitu4inous 4aterial. Einder ourse 4aterial shall not re4ain un overed by either the wearing ourse or surfa e treat4ent.
The finish rolling shall be done with to. Co4pa tion of bitu4inous 4aterials shall o44en e as soon as possible after laying. Eitu4inous 4aterials shall be rolled in a longitudinal dire tion. Co4pa tion shall be substantially o4pleted before the te4perature falls below the 4ini4u4 rolling te4peratures stated in the relevant part of these 6pe ifi ations. The initial or brea. Rolling shall ontinue until all roller 4ar. The roller shall not be per4itted to stand on pave4ent whi h has not been fully o4pa ted.
The roller shall first o4pa t 4aterial ad? The wheels of rollers shall be. In su h ases the Contra tor shall no4inate the plant.
Rollers should 4ove at a speed of not 4ore than 5.
The heater shall raise the te4perature of the full depth of 4aterial. Rolling of the longitudinal? The profile orre tive ourse shall be laid to toleran es and densities as spe ified for wearing ourse if a single layer. The e isting surfa e shall be fir4 and lean.
In other ases. The surfa e finish of all granular layers on whi h bitu4inous wor. Reusable 4aterials shall be sta. In pla ing 4ultiple lifts. Providing all 4aterials to be in orporated in the wor. Mi ing. Preparation of the surfa e to re eive the 4aterial. The rate shall over the provision of bitu4en at the rate spe ified in the ontra t. Carrying out the wor. The ost of all plant and laying trials as spe ified to prove the 4i ing and lays. The rates for pre4i ed 4aterial are to in lude for all wastage in utting of?
If there is not a pro? The rates are to in lude for all ne essary testing. The ontra t unit rate for sealing ra. The ontra t unit rate for ra. Page '33 of '-. The rate should be in lusive of all plant.
The Contra tor shall not dis harge or deposit any 4atter arising fro4 the e e ution of the "or. The Contra tor shall utilise effe tive water sprays during delivery 4anufa ture.
The Contra tor shall prevent any interferen e with the supply to or abstra tion fro4. The Contra tor shall prote t all water ourses. The Contra tor shall devise and arrange 4ethods of wor. In the event of any spoil. The Contra tor shall at all ti4es ensure that all e isting strea4 ourses and drains within. This se tion of the 6pe ifi ation sets out li4itations on the Contra torKs a tivities spe ifi ally intended to prote t the environ4ent. This shall wherever possible be a hieved by suppression of the nuisan e at sour e rather than abate4ent of the nuisan e on e generated.
The Contra tor shall 4a. Page '35 of '-. In the event that the Contra tor is per4itted to use gravel or earth roads for haulage. The Contra tor shall ontrol the disposal of all for4s of waste generated by the onstru tion operations and in all asso iated a tivities. The Contra tor shall plan and provide for re4edial 4easures to be i4ple4ented in the event of o urren e of e4ergen ies su h as spillages of oil or bitu4en or he4i als.
The Contra tor shall onsider noise as an environ4ental onstraint in his planning and e e ution of the "or. The Contra tor shall be dee4ed to have 4ade allowan e for su h o4plian e with these provisions in the preparation of his pri es for ite4s of wor. Materials having the potential to produ e dust shall not be loaded to a level higher than the side and tail boards.
Hand spraying of s4all areas. The use of 4ediu4 uring utba. Page '32 of '-. The Contra tor shall de4onstrate at a spraying trial. I44ediately prior to applying the pri4er the surfa e shall be arefully swept lean of dust and loose parti les. This is best a hieved when the surfa e layer is slightly 4oist 9lightly sprayed with water and the surfa e allowed to dry: B shall apply. I44ediately before the appli ation of the ta.
If rate of appli ation of Ta. Page '3. The use of utba. Granular base 9not pri4ed: Page '31 of '-. The 4ethod of appli ation of the ta. The rate shall over the provision of ta.
Eefore approval of the sour e. Page 'B' of '-. Rolling shall be ontinued until the spe ified density is a hieved. The seal oat in su h ases shall be onsidered in idental to the wor. The rate shall in lude for. If there is to be any delay. The a tual grade of bitu4en or utba. The spreading shall be arried out su h that the rolling and penetrating operations an be o4pleted on the sa4e day.
The oarse and. The surfa e of the layer shall be arefully he.
Page 'BB of '-. The sand or fine 4aterial shall be slightly wetted. The rolling shall ontinue until the o4pa ted oarse aggregate has a fir4 surfa e true to the ross se tion shown on the plans and has a te ture that will allow free and unifor4 penetration of the bitu4inous 4aterial.
If utba. In ertain ir u4stan es. Page 'B5 of '-. The entire surfa e shall then be rolled with a.! Page 'B of '-. Page 'B2 of '-.
I44ediately after spreading of the aggregates. Rolling shall ontinue until the entire ourse is thoroughly o4pa ted and the. Page 'B. Guidan e on the sele tion of an appropriate grade of bitu4en is given in The Manual for Constru tion and 6upervision of Eitu4inous "or.
EM is also intended for use as road base 4aterial. Grain siLe analysis' Parti le shape 6trengthI urability "ater 0bsorption 6tripping "ater 6ensitivityII. The o4bined aggregate grading dull not vary fro4 the low li4it on one sieve to the high li4it on the ad? Page '5' of '-. The filler shall be free fro4 organi i4purities and have a Plasti ity Inde not greater than B. Per ent Related to esign 0ir Coids. B 44 sieve. Interpolate 4ini4u4 voids in the 4ineral aggregate 9CM0: Mini4u4 flow Ma i4u4 flow Co4pa tion level 9 u4ber of blows: Per ent air voids Per ent voids in 4ineral aggregate 9CM0: Per ent voids filled with bitu4en 9C.
Einder type. Test results of physi al hara teristi s of aggregates to be usedM Mi ing te4perature and o4pa ting te4perature. The approved? These variations are intended to apply to individual spe i4ens ta. The per4issible variations of the individual per entages of the various ingredients in the a tual 4i fro4 the?
The laying trial shall be arried out on a suitable area whi h is not to for4 part of the wor,s, unless spe ifi ally approved in writing, by the! The Contra tor shall previously infor4 the! The plant trials shall then establish if the proposed laying plant, o4pa tion plant, and 4ethodology is apable of produ ing satisfa tory results.
The surfa e shall be thoroughly swept lean by a 4e hani al broo4, and the dust re4oved by o4pressed air. The o4pa tion pro ess shall be arried out by the sa4e plant, and using the sa4e 4ethod, as approved in the laying trials, whi h 4ay be varied only with the e press approval of the! The rate shall in lude the provision of bitu4en, at B. The varian e in a tual per entage of bitu4en used will be assessed and the pay4ent ad?
This wor, shall onsist of onstru tion in a single or 4ultiple layers of se4i dense bitu4inous on rete on a previously prepared bitu4inous bound surfa e. Guidan e on the sele tion of an appropriate grade of bitu4en is given in The Manual for Constru tion and 6upervision of Eitu4inous "or,s. Property Cleanliness 9dust: Pani le shape 6trengthI Polishing urability "ater 0bsorption 6tripping. B44 sieve, where approved by the!
Cu4ulative S by weight of total aggregate passing B5 The o4bined aggregate grading shall not vary fro4 the low li4it on one sieve to the high li4it on the ad? The surfa e shall be thoroughly swept lean by 4e hani al broo4 and dust re4oved by o4pressed air. In lo ations where a 4e hani al broo4 annot a ess, other approved 4ethods shall be used as dire ted by the! This wor, shall onsist of onstru tion in a single or 4ultiple layers of bitu4inous on rete on a previously prepared bitu4inous bound surfa e.
Refer to Manual for Constru tion and 6upervision of Eitu4inous "or,s for the pro edure of deter4ining the rates of spread of hinder and hips. This spraying an be done in a on rete 4i er or on a belt onveying the hips fro4 sto ,pile to gritting lorries. Passing 1. The prepared surfa e shall be dust free. Pri4e oat. Passing '3. In spe ial ir u4stan es.
The rate of appli ation of hips shall be as deter4ined by the pro edure given in the Manual for Constru tion and 6upervision of Eitu4inous "or.
Traditional steel wheeled rollers tend to rush the aggregates and if their use annot be avoided their weight should be li4ited to. Page ' 2 of '-. Rolling shall ontinue until all aggregate parti les are fir4ly e4bedded in the binder and present a unifor4 losed surfa e. Traffi shall not be per4itted to run on any newly surfa e dressed area until the following day. I44ediately after appli ation of the binder. The surfa e on whi h the se ond oat is laid 4ust be lean and free of dust. The Polished 6tone Calue..
The 4i shall be i44ediately transported fro4 the 4i er to the point of use in suitable vehi les or hand barrows. Page ' 1 of '-. The hot 4i plant shall have separate dryer arrange4ent for heating aggregate. The vehi les e4ployed for transport shall be lean and the 4i being transported overed in transit if so dire ted by the! B 44 sieve and retained on ''. Rolling shall begin at the edge and progress toward the enter longitudinally. Rolling shall then be ontinued until the entire surfa e has been rolled and all the roller 4ar.
The roller wheels shall be. Rollers shall not stand on newly laid 4aterial.. In ea h pass of the roller the pre eding tra. The area will be the net area overed. B 44 sieve and retained on I6 ''.. Too 4u h 4i ing shall be avoided. Rolling shall be ontinued until the entire Page '23 of '-. The 4i should be spread unifor4ly to the desired thi. The rolling shall start i44ediately after laying the pre4i. Ase of water for this purpose shall be stri tly li4ited to an absolute 4ini4u4.
It is preferable to 4a. The '3. The rossfall should be he. Too 4u h ra. If any pre4i 4aterial is pi. The area will be the net area overed.. The rate will be ad? Page '2B of '-. If traffi onditions per4it. Traffi 4ay be allowed after o4pletion of the final rolling when the 4i has ooled down to the surrounding te4perature. These shall be lean. Page '25 of '-. Pre4i ed seal oat o4prising of a thin appli ation of fine aggregate pre4i ed with bitu4inous binder.
Page '2 of '-. Type 0 or E shall be 4easured as finished wor. They should be free of soft or disintegrated stone. Rolling shall ontinue until all aggregate parti les are fir4ly e4bedded in the binder and present a unifor4 losed surfa e.. The plant shall have separate dryer arrange4ents for heating aggregate. Eefore appli ation of seal oat 4aterials.
I44ediately after the appli ation of the over 4aterial. Rates The contract unit rate shall include all expenses for making video films with the help of a professionally competent photographer. The edition of the video film and the script for narration shall be as approved by the Engineer.
It shall contain narration of the activities in English by a competent narrator. Description The work consists of taking video films of important activities of the work as directed by the Engineer during the currency of the project and editing them to a video film of playing time not less than 60 minutes and upto minutes as directed by the Engineer.
All excavations below the general ground level arising out of the removal of trees.
All branches of trees extending above the trimmed as directed by the Engineer. The dozer shall have ripper attachments for removal of tree stumps. Clearing and grubbing shall be performed in advance of earthwork operations and in accordance with the requirements of these Specifications. All trees. Before start of operations. Ant-hills both above and below the ground. Tools and Equipments Only such methods.
Page 46 of During clearing and grubbing. Scope This work shall consist of cutting. The Contractor shall. It shall include necessary excavation. On areas beyond these limits. Page 47 of Stacking of stumps. Rates Disposal of Materials All materials arising from clearing and grubbing operations shall be the property of Government and shall be disposed of by the Contractor as hereinafter provided or directed by the Engineer.
Cutting of trees upto mm in girth including removal of stumps and roots. The Contract unit rates for the various items of clearing and grubbing shall be payment in full-for carrying out. Also boulders. Measurements for Payment Clearing and grubbing for road embankment. These will also include removal of stumps of trees less than mm in girth as well as stumps left over after cutting of trees carried out by another agency.
Clearing and grubbing of borrow areas shall be deemed to be a part of works preparatory to embankment construction and shall be deemed to have been included in the rates quoted for the embankment construction item and no separate payment shall be made for the same. Removal of stumps left over after trees have been cut by any other agency shall also be considered incidental to the clearing and grubbing operations. Care shall be taken to see that unsuitable waste materials are disposed of in such a manner that there is no likelihood of these getting mixed up with the materials meant for embankment.
All products of clearing and grubbing which. Unless otherwise specified. Steel structures shall. Scope This work shall consist of removing.
Existing culverts. Pipe culverts shall be carefully removed in such a manner as to avoid damage to the pipes. If specified in the drawings or directed Page 48 of The Contract unit rate for cutting including removal of stumps and roots of trees of girth above mm shall include excavation and backfilling to required compaction.
Dismantling Culverts and Bridges The structures shall be dismantled carefully and the resulting materials so removed as not to cause any damage to the serviceable materials to be salvaged. Removal of overlying or adjacent material.
All operations necessary for the removal of any existing structure which might endanger new construction shall be completed prior to the start of new work. Dismantling and removal operations shall be carried out with such equipment and in such a manner as to leave undisturbed. The connecting edges shall be cut. Due care should be taken to ensure that reinforcing bars which are to be left in place so as to project into the new work as dowels or ties arc not injured during removal of concrete.
Where a Contract does not include separate items of clearing and grubbing. Back-filling Holes and depressions caused by dismantling operations shall be backfilled with excavated or other approved materials and compacted to required density as directed by the Engineer. Disposal of Materials All materials obtained by dismantling shall be the property of Government Unless otherwise specified. Pipe culverts that are removed shall be cleaned and neatly piled on the right-of- way at points designated by the Engineer with all lifts and lead upto m.
Structures or portions thereof which are specified in the Contract for re-erection shall be stored in separate piles. Structural steel removed from old structures shall. All concrete pavements. All materials obtained from dismantling operations which. Timber structures shall be removed in such a manner as to avoid damage to such timber or lumber as is designated by the Engineer to be salvaged.
Timber or lumber from old structures which is designated by the Engineer as materials to be salvaged shall have all nails and bolts removed therefrom and shall be stored in neat piles in locations suitable for loading..
Dismantling Pavements and Other Structures In removing pavements. Sufficient removal shall be made to provide for proper grades and connections with the new work as directed by the Engineer.. Page 49 of Page 50 of These will also include excavation and backfilling where necessary to the required compaction and for handling.
Measurements for Payment The work of dismantling structures shall be paid for in units indicated below by taking measurements before and after.
Rates The Contract unit rates for the various items of dismantling shall be paid in full for carrying out the required operations including full compensation for all labour. Erosion Control and Drainage Earthwork. Erosion Control and Drainage Page 51 of Classification of Excavated Material Scope This work shall consist of excavation.
It shall include the hauling and stacking of or hauling to sites of embankment and subgrade construction. All materials involved in excavation shall be classified by the Engineer in the following manner: Removal of gravel or any other nodular material having dimension in any one direction not exceeding 75 mm occurring in such strata shall be deemed to be covered under this category. Page 52 of The excavations shall conform to the lines. No backfilling shall be allowed to obtain required slopes excepting that when boulders or Page 53 of All excavations shall be carried out in conformity with the directions laid here-in-under and in a manner approved by the Engineer.
While planning or executing excavations. The Contractor shall be responsible for the maintenance of bench marks and other marks and stakes as long as in the opinion of the Engineer. The Contractor shall provide all labour. Setting out: After the site has been cleared as per Clause Stripping and storing topsoil: When so directed by the Engineer.
Construction Operations Prior to stripping the topsoil. Authority for classification: The classification of excavation shall be decided by the Engineer and his decision shall be final and binding on the Contractor. Merely the use of explosives in excavation will not be considered as a reason for higher classification unless blasting is clearly necessary in the opinion of the Engineer.
The work shall be so done that the suitable materials available from excavation are satisfactorily utilized as decided upon beforehand. Subject to the permitted tolerances. The Contractor shall not excavate outside the limits of excavation. All debris and loose material on the slopes of cuttings shall be removed.
In all cases. Excavation of marshes shall begin at one end and proceed in one direction across the entire marsh immediately ahead of backfilling. While doing so. If trees were removed.
Where blasting is to be resorted to. Rocks and large boulders which are likely to cause differential settlement and also local drainage problems should be removed to the extent of mm below the formation level in full formation width including drains and cut through the side drains.
In works involving widening of existing pavements or providing treated shoulders. Rock excavation: The method and sequence of excavating and backfilling shall be such as to ensure. Slopes in rock cutting shall be finished to uniform lines corresponding to slope lines shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer. Marsh excavation: If the existing pavement gets disturbed or loosened. After excavation.
The cost of planting new trees shall he deemed to be incidental to die work. Notwithstanding the foregoing. Where presplitting is prescribed to be done for the establishment of a specified slope in rock excavation.
If so desired by the Engineer. Only such methods. Where excavation is done to levels lower than those specified. If slips. Disposal of excavated materials: All the excavated materials shall be the property of the Employer.
Unsuitable and surplus material not intended for use within the lead specified above shall also. If finished slopes slide into the roadway subsequently. All hard materials. Page 55 of The classification of the debris material from the slips.
Due to any negligence on the part of the Contractor.. If water is met with in the excavations due to springs. Care shall be taken to discharge the drained water into suitable outlets as not to cause damage to the works. Adequate precautions shall be taken to ensure that during construction. The material obtained from the excavation of roadway. In no case shall any portion of the slope encroach on the loadway.
Plying of Construction Traffic Construction traffic shall not use the cut formation and finished subgrade without the prior permission of the Engineer. Preservation of Property The Contractor shall undertake all reasonable precautions for the protection and preservation of any or all existing roadside trees.
Finishing Operations Finishing operations shall include the work of properly shaping and dressing all excavated surfaces. The unsuitable material shall be disposed of in accordance with Clause After satisfying the density requirements. The finished cut formation shall satisfy the surface tolerances Described in Clause Preparation of Cut Formation The cut formation. Page 56 of Where the material in the subgrade that is within mm from the lowest level of the pavement has a density less than specified in Table When completed.
In rocky formations. If the Contractor fails to do so. Any damage arising out of such use shall be made good by the Contractor at his own expense. Safety measures taken by the Contractor in this respect. Any unsuitable material encountered in the subgrade level shall be removed as directed by the Engineer and replaced with suitable material compacted in accordance with Clause Measurements for Payment Excavation for roadway shall be measured by taking cross-sections at suitable intervals in the original position before the work starts and after its completion and computing the volumes in cu..
When volumes are Slated in this manner for excavated material other than rock. The Contract unit rates for the items of roadway and drain excavation shall be payment in full for carrying out the operations required for the individual items including full compensation for: Suction made will be to the extent of 16 per cent of stacked volumes.
The depth of topsoil shall be sufficient to sustain plant growth. For rock excavation. The Contractor shall see that these remain intact till the final measurements are taken..
Where directed. At the option of the Engineer. Where it is not feasible to compute volumes by this method of erratic location of isolated deposits.. Slopes may be roughened and moistened slightly. Works involved in the preparation of cut formation shall be measured in units indicated below: General Blasting shall be carried cut in a. Clauses The Contractor may adopt any method or methods of blasting consistent with the safety and job requirements.
The Contract unit rate for item of preparing rocky subgrade as per Clause Prior to starting any phase of the operation the Contractor shall provide information describing pertinent blasting procedures. The Contract unit rate for disposal of surplus ear from roadway and drain excavation shall be full compensation for all labour.
No matches or inflammable material shall be allowed in the magazine. The magazine for the storage of explosives shall be built to the designs and specifications of the Explosives Department concerned and located at the approved site. The Contract unit rate for the items of stripping and storing topsoil and of reapplication of topsoil shall include full compensation for all the necessary operations including all lifts.
No unauthorized person shall be admitted into the magazine which when not in use shall be kept securely locked. The following shall be hung in the lobby of the magazine: The Contract unit rate for loosening and recompacting the loosened materials at subgrade shall include full compensation for loosening to the specified depth. All the statutory laws. Page 58 of It shall be done only with the written permission of the Engineer.
The magazine shall have an effective lightning conductor. In addition to these. The Engineer may specify the type of explosives to be allowed in special cases. Blasting Operations The blasting shall be carried out during fixed hours of the day preferably during the mid-day luncheon hour or at the close of the work as ordered in writing by the Engineer. The rate of burning of the fuse shall be uniform and definitely known to permit such a length being cut as will permit sufficient time to the firer to reach safety before explosion takes place.
All explosives shall be stored in a secure manner in compliance with all laws and ordinances. Where no local laws or ordinances apply. Tools and Equipment All the materials. The flags shall be planted m from the blasting site in all directions.
The blasting powder. The Contractor shall notify each public utility company having structures in proximity to the site of the work of his intention to use explosives. Detonators shall be capable. Any method of blasting which leads to Page 59 of In advance of any blasting work within 50 m of any railway track or structures. Such notice shall be given sufficiently in advance to enable the companies to take such steps as they may deem necessary to protect their property from injury.
The hours shall be made known to the people in the vicinity. Red danger flags shall be displayed prominently in all directions during the blasting operations.
Blasting should be as light as possible consistent with thorough leakage of the material necessary for economic loading and hauling. The fuse to be used in wet locations shall be sufficiently water-resistant as to be unaffected when immersed in water for 30 minutes.
Personnel The blasting operation shall remain in the charge of competent and experienced supervisor and workmen who are thoroughly acquainted with the details of handling explosives and blasting operations. The charge holes shall be drilled to required depths and at suitable places.
All the charges shall be prepared by the man in charge only. They shall be inspected before use and damaged articles shall be discarded totally and removed from the site immediately. Boreholes shall be of such size that the cartridge can easily go down.
The primer shall be housed into die explosive. The charges shall be lighted by the man- in-charge only. If a misfire has been found to be due to defective detonator or dynamite. Misfire In case of misfire. A new hole shall be drilled at about mm from the old hole and fired. The man-in-charge shall count the number of explosions.
He shall satisfy himself that all the charges have been exploded before allowing the workmen to go back to the work site. A fresh detonator and primer shall then be used to blast the charge. The explosive powder shall then be covered with tamping material which shall be tamped lightly but firmly. All the people shall then be required to move to safe distances. Page 60 of Another hole may then be drilled mm away and parallel to it. This should blast the old charge.
The man in charge shall blow a siren in a recognised manner for cautioning the people. When blasting is done with dynamite and other high explosives.
The paper of the cartridge shall then be closed up and securely bound with wire or twine. When blasting is done with powder. At a time. After blasting operations. This hole shall then be charged and fired when the misfired hole should explode at the same lime. Should it not blast the old charge. The space of about mm above the charge shall then be gently filled with dry clay.
The holes shall be cleared of all debris and explosive inserted. The powder shall be gently tamped with copper rods with rounded ends. Controlled blasting shall begin with a short test section of a length approved by the Engineer. The drill holes shall be not less than 60 mm nor more than 75 mm in diameter.
Particular care and attention shall be directed to the beginning and end of excavations to ensure complete removal of all overburden soil and weathered rock and to expose fresh rock to an elevation equal to the bottom of the adjacent lift of the presplitting holes being drilled.
Auxiliary drill holes along the presplit line. The drilling and blasting plan is for record purposes only and will not absolve the Contractor of his responsibility for using proper drilling and blasting procedures. Except for spacing. The line of production holes shall be placed inside the presplit lines in such a manner as to avoid damage to the presplit face.
General Presplitting is defined as the establishment of a specified excavation slope in rock by the controlled use of explosives and blasting accessories in properly aligned and spaced drill holes. Account A careful and day to day account of the explosive shall be maintained by the Contractor in an approved register and manner which shall be open to inspection by the Engineer at all times. Slope holes for presplitting shall be drilled along the line of the planned. The test section shall be presplit.
All overburden soil and weathered rock along the top of the excavation for a distance of about 5 to 15 m beyond the drilling limits. The presplitting technique shall be used for forming rock excavation slopes at locations shown on the plans or as otherwise decided by the Engineer.
The length of presplit holes for any individual lift shall not exceed 9 m. Construction Operations Prior to starting drilling operations for presplitting. The spacing of presplit holes shall not exceed mm on centres and shall be adjusted to result in a uniform shear face between holes.
Page 61 of If necessary. Drilling operations shall be controlled by the use of proper equipment and technique to ensure that no hole shall deviate from the plane of the planned slope by more than mm nor shall any hole deviate from being parallel to an adjacent hole by more than two-third of the planned horizontal spacing between holes. As long as equally satisfactory presplit slopes are obtained.
Page 62 of These shall be fired as recommended by the manufacturer. In either case the presplitting holes shall extend either to the end of the excavation or for a distance of not less than 15 m beyond the limits of the production holes to be detonated.
No portion of any production hole shall be drilled within 2. Stemming may be required to achieve a satisfactory presplit face.
These tolerances shah be measured perpendicular to the plane of the slope. The drilling operations shall be adjusted to compensate for drift of previous levels and for the offset at the start of new levels to maintain the specified slope plane. Tolerances The presplit face shall not deviate more than mm from the plane passing through adjacent drill holes.
Any blasting technique. Stemmed presplit holes shall be completely filled to the collar. The bottom of the production holes shall not be lower than the bottom of the presplit holes. Rates The Contract unit rate for presplitting work shall be payment in full for carrying out the required operations for obtaining acceptable presplit slope surfaces.
All charges in each presplitting pattern shall be detonated simultaneously. In no case shall any portion of the slope encroach on the side drains. Ammonium nitrate composition blasting agents will not be permitted in presplitting operations. The maximum diameter of explosives used in presplit holes shall not be greater than one-half the diameter of the presplit hole.
A maximum offset of mm will be permitted for a construction working bench at the bottom of each lift for use in drilling the next lower presplitting pattern. Only standard cartridge explosives prepared and packaged by explosive manufacturing firms shall be used in presplit holes.
Measurements for Payment The area of presplitting to be paid for will be measured as square metres of acceptable presplit slope surface. Stemming material shall be dry free-running material all of which passes The methods to be adopted in this regard and other details thereof shall be left to the choice of the Contractor but subject to approval of the Engineer.
Where blasting is likely to endanger adjoining foundations or other structures. Where the nature of soil or the depth of the trench and season of the year do not permit vertical sides. Dewatering and protection: After the site has been cleared according to Clause The depth to which the excavation is to be carried out shall be as shown on the drawings. Approval of the Engineer shall.
Scope Excavation for structures shall consist of the removal of material for the construction of foundations for bridges. Classification of Excavation All materials involved in excavation shall be classified in accordance with Clause Where water is met with in excavation due to stream flow.
Excavation shall be taken to the width of die lowest step of the footing and the sides shall be left plumb where the nature of soil allows it. Propping shall be undertaken when any foundation or stressed zone from an adjoining structure is within a line of 1 vertical to 2 horizontal from the bottom of the excavation. Preparation of foundation: The bottom of the foundation shall be levelled both longitudinally and transversely or stepped as directed by the Engineer. All seams shall be denied out and filled with cement mortar or grout to the satisfaction of die Engineer.
Before footing is laid. After pile driving operations in a given pit are completed. No pumping shall be permitted during the placing of concrete or for any period of at least 24 hours thereafter. If it is determined beforehand that the foundations cannot be laid dry or the situation is found that the percolation is too heavy for keeping the foundation dry.
For safety precautions. Where cofferdams are required. In the case of excavation in rock. The interior dimensions of the cofferdams shall be such as to give sufficient clearance for the construction and inspection and to permit installation of pumping equipments. If the depth of fill required is more than 1. At the discretion of the Contractor. The Contractor shall take all precautions in diverting channels and in discharging the drained water as not to cause damage to the works.
In case of flowing water or artesian springs. The Contractor shall take adequate protective measures to see that the excavation operations do not affect or damage adjoining structures. Public safety: Near towns. Pumping from the interior of any foundation enclosure shall be done in such a manner as to preclude the possibility of the movement of water through any fresh concrete. When foundation piles are used.
Ordinary filling shall not be used for the purpose to bring the foundation to level. Slips and slip-outs: If there are any slips or slip-outs in the excavation. When rock or other hard strata is encountered.
Page 64 of In the event of excavation having been deeper than that shown on the drawings or as otherwise ordered tie Engineer. Crops or any other property. The compaction shall be done with the help of suitable equipment such as mechanical tamper. The Contract unit rate for preparation of rock foundation shall be full compensation for cutting. Disposal of surplus excavated materials: Clause Backfilling shall be done with approved material after concrete or masonry is fully set and carried out in such a way as not to cause undue thrust on any part of the structure.
The Contract unit rate for transporting material from the excavation for structures shall be full compensation for all labour. Foundation sealing. Excavation over increased width. Preparation of rock foundation shall be measured in square metres.
Measurements for Payment Excavation for structures shall be measured in cu. Page 65 of The Contract unit rate for the items of excavation for structures shall be payment in full for carrying out the required operations including full compensation for: All space between foundation masonry or concrete and the sides of excavation shall be refilled to the original surface in layers not exceeding mm compacted thickness.
General Part 40 shall not be used as a fill material. The size of the coarse material in the mixture of earth shall ordinarily not exceed 75 mm when being placed in the embankment and 50 mm when placed in. Materials and General Requirements All embankments. Any fill material with a soluble sulphate content exceeding 1. The materials used in embankments. Such materials shall be free of logs.
Physical requirements: Materials with a total sulphate content expressed as SO 3 exceeding 0. These Specifications shall apply to the construction of embankments including subgrades. OH or Pt in accordance with IS: The following types of material shall be considered unsuitable for embankment: Borrow materials: Where the materials are to be obtained from designated borrow areas.
General requirements: Type of Work Maximum laboratory dry unit weight when tested as per IS: The work shall be so planned and executed that the best available materials are saved for the subgrade and the embankment portion just below the subgrade. The materials for embankment shall be obtained from approved sources with preference given to materials becoming available from nearby roadway excavation or any other excavation under the same.
Page 67 of Embankments exceeding 3 metres Not less than Subgrade and earthen Not less than Embankments up to 3 metres Not less than Government of India and the local bodies. The maximum particle size shall not be more than two-thirds pf the compacted layer thickness. Embankment Not less than 95 3. Haulage of material to embankments or other areas of fill shall proceed only when sufficient spreading and compaction plant is operating at the place of deposition.
Borrowpits along the road shall be discouraged. Ridges of not less than 8 m width should be left at intervals not exceeding m. Small drains shall be cut through the ridges to facilitate drainage. IBC of plants or siting of temporary buildings or structures. If permitted by the Engineer. It shall be ensured that the subgrade material when compacted to the density requirements as in Table shall yield the design CBR value of the subgrade.
The depth of the pits shall be so regulated that their bottom docs not cut an imaginary line having a slope of 1 vertical to 4 horizontal projected from the edge of the final section of the bank. The Contractor shall obtain representative samples from each of the identified borrow areas and have these tested at the site laboratory following a testing programme approved by the Engineer. Should the Contractor be permitted to remove acceptable material from the site to suit his operational procedure.
Expansive Clays a Subgrade and mm Not allowed portion just below the subgrade b Remaining portion Not less than 90 of embankment The Contractor shall at least 7 working days before commencement of compaction submit the following to the Engineer for approval: The acceptable materials shall be stockpiled separately.
The Contractor shall ensure that he does not adversely affect the Stability of excavation or fills by the methods of stockpiling materials. Where the excavation reveals a combination of acceptable and unacceptable materials.
Subgnde and earthen shoulders Not less than 97 2. No excavated acceptable material other than surplus to requirements of the Contract shall be removed from the site.
After the site has been cleared to Clause Due to any negligence on the part of the Contractor. In case where the difference between the subgrade level top of the subgrade on which pavement rests and ground level is less than 0. Stockpiles shall not be surcharged or otherwise loaded and multiple handling shall be kept to a minimum. Once the above information has been approved by the Engineer. If the embankment is to be constructed under water.
Care shall be taken to discharge the drained water so as not to cause damage to the works. If the foundation of the embankment is in an area with stagnant water. Topsoil shall not be unnecessarily trafficked either before stripping or when in a stockpile.
In localities where most of the available embankment materials are not conducive to plant growth. Page 69 of Should circumstances arise. The embankment and subgrade material shall be spread in layers of uniform thickness not exceeding mm compacted thickness over the entire width of embankment by mechanical means.
Page 70 of Any foundation treatment specified for embankments especially high embankments. Successive layers shall not be placed until the layer under construction has been thoroughly compacted to the specified requirements as in Table and got approved by the Engineer. Where the ground on which an embankment is to be built has any of the material types a to f in Clause After adding the required amount of water.
Moisture content of the material shall be checked at the site of placement prior to commencement of compaction. Where water is required to be added in such constructions. Spreading material in layers and bringing to appropriate moisture content If the material delivered to the roadbed is too wet.
Moisture content of each layer of soil shall be checked in accordance with IS: Where so directed by the Engineer. Expansive clays shall however. Each compacted layer shall be finished parallel to the final cross- section of the embankment. The motor grader blade shall have hydraulic control suitable for initial adjustment and maintain the same so as to achieve the specific slope and grade. The water shall be added uniformly and thoroughly mixed in soil by blading.
Only the compaction equipment approved by the Engineer shall be employed to compact the different material types encountered during construction. Smooth wheeled. Embankment and other areas of fill shall. All permanent faces of side slopes of embankments and other areas of fill formed shall. The procedure to be adopted for these site trials shall first be submitted to the Engineer for approval. The compaction shall be done with the help of vibratory roller of 80 to kN static weight with plain or pad foot drum or heavy pneumatic tyred roller of adequate capacity capable of achieving required compaction.
Each layer of the material shall be thoroughly compacted to the densities specified in Table A record of the same shall be maintained by the Contractor. Embankments and other areas of unsupported fills shall not be constructed with steeper side slopes.
Whenever fill is to be deposited against the face of a natural slope. Clods or hard lumps of earth shall be broken to have a maximum size of 75 mm when being placed in the embankment and a maximum size of 50 mm when being placed in the subgrade. Page 71 of The Contractor shall demonstrate the efficacy of the equipment he intends to use by carrying out compaction trials. Earthmoving plant shall not be accepted as compaction equipment nor shall the use of a lighter category of plant to provide any preliminary compaction to assist the use of heavier plant be taken into account.
If inspite of that the specified compaction is not achieved. Subsequent layers shall be placed only after the finished layer has been tested according to Clause Damage by construction plant and other vehicular traffic shall be made good by the Contractor with material having the same characteristics and strength as the material had before it was damaged.
End dumping of material from trucks for widening operations shall be avoided except in difficult circumstances when the extra width is too narrow to permit the movement of any other types of hauling equipment.
Both the upper and lower ends of the side slopes shall be rounded off to improve appearance and to merge the embankment with the adjacent terrain. The soil in the affected portion shall be removed in such areas as directed by the Engineer before next layer is laid and refilled in layers and compacted using appropriate mechanical means such as small vibratory roller.
The depth of the topsoil shall be sufficient to sustain plant growth. Where the width of the widened portions is insufficient to permit the use of conventional rollers. When earthwork operations have been substantially completed. Construction of Embankment and Subgrade under Special Conditions Earthwork for widening existing road embankment: Page 72 of If the cut is not sufficiently wide for use of required mechanical means for compaction the same shall be widened suitably to permit their use for proper compaction.
The work of repairing the damages including widening of the cut. Slopes shall be roughened and moistened slightly prior 10 the application of the topsoil in order to provide satisfactory bond. Finishing operations: Tests shall be carried out as directed by the Engineer to ascertain the density requirements of the repaired area. The topsoil.
If seeding and mulching of slopes is prescribed. Earthwork for embankment and subgrade to be placed against sloping ground: Earthwork over existing road surface: Where the embankment is to be placed over an existing road surface. For wet conditions. The material Page 73 of The embankment and subgrade shall be brought up simultaneously in equal layers on each side of the structure to avoid displacement and unequal pressure.
The fill material shall not be placed against any abutment or wing wall. The material used for backfill shall not be an organic soil or highly plastic clay having plasticity index and liquid limit more than 20 and 40 respectively when tested according to IS: Where the Contract requires construction of transverse subsurface drain at the cut- fill interface.
Where the provision of any filter medium is specified behind the abutment. Embankment and subgrade around structures: To avoid interference with the construction of abutments.
Unless directed otherwise. The sequence of work in this regard shall be got approved from the Engineer. Filling behind abutments and wing walls for all structures shall conform to the general guidelines given in Appendix 6 of IRC: The fill material shall be deposited in horizontal layers in loose thickness and compacted thoroughly to the requirements of Table The remainder of the embankment shall be constructed as specified in Clause Contractor shall then furnish the soil test data and design of high embankment for approval of the Engineer.
Where this exception is permitted. In case he desires to use different for his own convenience. Where required. Embankment construction underwater: Where filling: This exception to normal procedure will not be permitted where.
Construction of embankment over ground incapable of supporting construction equipment: Where embankment is to be constructed across ground which will not support the weight of repeated heavy loads of construction equipment the first layer of the fill may be constructed by placing successive loads of material in a uniformly distributed layer of a minimum thickness required to support the construction equipment as permitted by the Engineer.
Care shall be taken to see that the compaction equipment does not hit or come too close to any structural member so as to cause any damage to them or excessive pressure against the structure. He shall then bring the resultant level up to formation level with acceptable material.
Earthwork for high embankment: In the case of high embankments. Acceptable granular material shall consist of graded. The material placed in open water shall be deposited by end tipping without compaction. Where it may be impracticable to use conventional rollers.
The material should be non-plastic having uniformity coefficient of not less than Settlement period: Where settlement period is specified in the Contract. The cost of providing suitable traffic conditions for construction equipment over any area of the Contract will be the responsibility of the Contractor and no extra payment will be made to him. The Contractor. Subgrade shall be compacted and finished to the design strength consistent with other physical requirements.
It shall be ensured prior to actual execution that the borrow area material to be used in the subgrade satisfies the requirements of design CBR. Construction of high embankment with specified material and in specified manner shall be measured in cu. Subgrade Strength The duration of the required settlement period at each location shall be as provided for in the Contract or as directed by the Engineer.
Construction of embankment under water shall be measured in cu. Page 75 of The measurement of fill material from borrow areas shall be the difference between the net quantities of compacted fill and the net of suitable material brought from roadway and drainage excavation. Stripping including storing and reapplication of topsoil shall be measure cu. Control on the quality of materials and works shall be exercised in accordance with Clause Any damage arising out of such use shall.
Surface Finish and Quality Control of Work The surface finish of construction of subgrade shall conform to the requirements of Clause The actual laboratory CBR values of constructed subgrade shall be determined on undisturbed samples cut out from the compacted subgrade in CBR mould fitted with cutting shoe or on remoulded samples.
For this purpose. Filter medium and backfill material behind abutments. The Contract unit rates for the items of embankment and construction shall be payment in full for carrying out the operations including full compensation for: In case the Contract unit rate specified is not inclusive of all leads. Page 76 of Dismantling and removal of existing cement concrete pavement shall be measured vide Clause Description This work shall consist of measures as shown on plans or as directed by the Engineer to control soil erosion.
Page 77 of Construction Operations Prior to the start of the relevant construction. The Contract unit rate for providing and laying filter material behind abutments shall be payment in full for carrying out the required operations including all materials. Materials All materials shall meet commercial grade standards and shall be approved by the Engineer before being used in the work. This will also comprise of handling.
It shall include cost of instrumentation. Under no conditions shall a large surface area of credible earth material be exposed at one time by clearing and grubbing or excavation without prior approval of the Engineer.
Should seasonal limitations make such coordination unrealistic. Temporary erosion. Cut and fill slopes shall be seeded and turfed as required on the plans. Page 78 of Such work may involve the construction of temporary berms. The Engineer may limit the area of excavation. Measurements for Payment The soil erosion.
The Contractor may be directed to provide immediate permanent or temporary erosion and sedimentation control measures to prevent soil erosion and sedimentation that will adversely affect construction operations.
The temporary erosion. Where erosion or sedimentation is likely to be a problem. The surface area of credible earth -material exposed by clearing and grubbing. The Contractor shall be required to incorporate all permanent erosion and sedimentation control features into the project at.
In the event temporary erosion. At the time the sod is cut. Spreading shall not be done when the ground is excessively wet. Following soil preparation and top soiling. During wet weather. The sods shall be cut in rectangular of uniform width.
After spreading. Preparation of the earth bed: The area to be sodded shall have been previously constructed to the required slope and cross section. Thickness of the sod shall be as uniform as possible. Prior to placing the topsoil. Scope This work shall consist of furnishing and laying of the live sod of perennial turf forming grass on embankment slopes.
Placing the sods: The prepared sod bed shall be moistened to the loosened depth. Rates The Contract unit rate for different items of soil erosion. Materials The sod shall consist of dense. Soil on the area shall be loosened.