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One use case is where the tracker detects the level of sleep of the user and uses lights to simulate a sunrise inside the bedroom. Integrated shipboard information system ISIS. TECH NEWS objects are stuck-in and trapped at the core and a highintensity cage that envelopes an object and holds it in place from all directions. Marshalling radar-DAIR combo is a high-precision system enabling controllers to track every aircraft effectively. RF-Capture transmits wireless signals and then analyses those reflections to piece together a human form Image courtesy: Hence, before performing a soldering process, one needs to ensure the cleanliness of the surfaces.
Almost every day, WWW. The copper clad board that is unstuffed with components is known as a PWB. Printed circuit board PCB. When the above said board is stuffed with components and it starts functioning as a circuit, it is known as a PCB. Reducing the occurrence of solder balls and other defects. The hot solder tip should not touch the solder wire while soldering a joint. The solder wire should be kept on one side of the job and the tip on the other side or on a different location on the job but as close as possible.
This should be practiced in order to avoid the occurrence of solder balls. Some components, such as transistors, can get damaged by heat when soldering. It is wise to use a heat-sink clipped to the lead between the joint and component body, as shown in Fig. You can buy a special tool, but a standard crocodile clip works just as well and is cheaper! Ensuring reliable solder connections. Reliable solder connections can only be accomplished with trulycleaned surfaces of copper pads and component leads.
But usually the pads and component leads may be contaminated due to the film of oxide layer formed over their surfaces. This could cause poor soldering. Hence, before performing a soldering process, one needs to ensure the cleanliness of the surfaces.
For this purpose, fluxes are used. These consist of natural or synthetic rosins as well as chemical additives called activators. It is the function of these fluxes to remove oxides and keep these removed during the soldering operation. This is accomplished by the flux action, which is very corrosive at solder-melt temperatures and accounts for the fluxs ability to rapidly remove metal oxides. In its unheated state, however, It is the fluxing action of removing oxides and carrying these away as well as preventing the reformation of new oxides that allows the solder to form the desired intermetallic bond.
Total-heating method: Wave soldering and SMT reflow soldering Parameters for validation. In this process, parameters to be considered for validation are pre-heating temperature, flux clean or no-clean flux as appropriate level and its level of foam generation, solder combination of tin Sn and lead Pb , solder level, its temperature and level of wave generation.
Last, but not the least, is conveyer speed. Pre-heating is required to avoid thermal shock and get better cleaning during flux contact, which, in turn, gets better solderability. Optimum levels of flux contacts help avoid formation of solder balls and allow for better solderability with proper wetting.
In the reflow soldering process, parameters to be considered for validation are size of the pad and selection of solder paste grain sizes. For instance, a smaller-size pad will require an appropriate amount of solder paste having solder powder with smaller particle diameters. Other parameters include temperature profiling throughout the reflow oven at different stages and the speed of the conveyor.
Profile stages of an SMT reflow process. The four profile stages of an. SMT reflow process are pre-heat, prereflow, reflow and cooling.
This phase conditions the PCB assembly before the actual reflow takes place on the pad. It removes dirt and oxides by the volatile flux action flux compound present in the solder paste itself depends on the selected solder paste and reduces thermal shock to the PCB assembly. In this phase, surfaces the pad and components are prepared to get joined by removal of dirt or oxide layers and other impurities present in the solder paste. This is where the actual reflow of the solder alloy creates the mechanical and electrical bond through the formation of solder tin-lead and copper intermetallic bonding.
This phase is important because formation of the grain structure of the solder joint happens now. Most reliable solder joints are achieved by the appropriate cooling rate set by proper validation results.
Reducing the possibilities of defects. When validations are ineffective, these give rise to pin holes or blow holes, poor wetting, cracks, less or excess solder, among other issues related to soldering. Other defects are component failure due to high soldering temperature or sustained heat transfer due to low conveyor speed. However, a good visual inspection and touch-up by hand soldering can avoid residual defects after setting up a proper validated process.
Possible defects in the reflow soldering process include voids due to poor cleaning action on the pad surface and graping, which is a phenomenon that appears as poor reflow of solder particles at the top of the solder. Smaller components are also susceptible to tomb-stoning, wherein components get lifted from the pad with uneven solder paste filled underneath. Higher temperature and long sustenance of heat makes components susceptible to component failure. This may be immediate or latent.
L Janani Gopalakrishnan Vikram is a technicallyqualified freelance writer, editor and hands-on mom based in Chennai. Today, we continue to see innumerable developments in this segment, right from space and power saving to smartness and smart uses to make other objects smart. Philips new GrowWise indoor farm will revolutionise food production Image courtesy: Royal Philips, a company that has been into horticultural lighting for several years now, has recently opened GrowWise City Farming Research Centre in the Netherlands for developing tailor-made LED light growth recipes that will help farmers to grow tasty, high-yielding crops indoors, all round the year.
Their research will first focus on leafy vegetables, strawberries and herbs, and later branch out to find ways to grow more carbohydrate-rich crops like wheat and potatoes indoors. The large facility is a clean and sterile environment that completely blocks off natural light and air to exercise full control over the growing conditions.
It has four-layered mechanised planting racks in each of its eight climate rooms, which makes a total growing surface of sqm. Each plantation layer is equipped with connected, fully-customisable LEDs, including blue, red and far-. Since LEDs are highly energy-efficient and produce less heat, these are much cooler and can be placed closer to the plants and positioned optimally for uniform illumination. This research of Philips is very crucial for future sustainability as more and more farming land is being engulfed by the expanding cities.
Growing food indoors at optimal conditions with minimal effort and resources, and the ability to grow foods closer to home, will encourage more people to take up farming, too. Controlling the functioning of humans One of the key focus areas of this years Strategies in Light Conference held at Las Vegas, USA, was human-centric lighting projects, designed to optimise or improve some aspects of human behaviour.
Extensive research is being done around the world on how a human body responds to light exposure and how this can be used to improve the mental or physical state of a person. The Seattle Mariners stadium, a major league baseball stadium in Seattle, USA, for example, has fitted the home team locker room with new solid-state lighting that has features to tweak the players circadian rhythm for optimum alertness.
One of the speakers has described methods for integrating sensors into lighting systems to produce light optimised for a given activity. The noninvasive sensors automatically categorise occupants activities and adjust the lights for performance improvementof the person, not just the light! Philips SchoolVision is a similar solution that helps students to focus on their work, facilitates teachers to teach better and also results in energy savings for the school.
According to the time of the day and activity planned, teachers can choose between four modes that mimic the natural patterns of daylight that humans respond to. During a test, for example, Focus mode sets the light intensity to highest and the colour tone to cool, supporting focus and concenWWW. To calm a chattering class, Calm mode sets a standard intensity level with a warm colour tone. Other modes include normal classes and energetic sessions. Elsewhere in the world, National Science Foundation, USA, has funded a research by Brown University, Rhode Island, USA, to develop lighting systems that will influence kids natural circadian rhythms of sleeping and waking, so they can adjust to early morning classes in school.
This can also help adults, especially those recovering from health problems, to sleep better. CoeLux, recently nominated by World Economic Forum as one of the Technology Pioneers , has invented an artificial skylight that can light up a rooms ceiling as if it were lit up by sunlight.
Variants of the lighting system mimic the way sunlight appears at three different latitudes on Earth. It does this using special nano-structured materials that scatter light from the LEDs, just as tiny atmospheric particles scatter sunlighta phenomenon known as Rayleighs scattering. This project is funded by the European Commission, as it promises to improve the quality of life indoors, in offices, hospitals and many other closed spaces.
An organisation called Humanitas, for example, has installed CoeLuxs sun-like lighting in its radio surgery department. In contrast to the darkness maintained in radio surgery bunkers to protect technicians against radiation, the cheery sunlight tends to immediately perk up patients moods, alleviating their stress and helping them respond better to treatments. Smartcars have smartlights Smart lighting featured in automobiles are helping improve safety and driving comfort.
One example is the new lighting system being developed by Ford. The technology combines effective spotlighting with infrared IR cameras to draw the drivers attention to potential hazards on the way. At a time, the IR camera can detect up to eight pedestrians, cyclists or animals on the way. An in-car screen displays the image captured by the camera, highlighting the detected objects in yellow and marking the two riskiest ones in red.
The smart spotlighting system also cranks into action immediately. Moveable spotlights beneath the headlights illuminate the people or animals detected by the IR camera, casting a line along the road to make them more visible. The same system can also be used to keep an eye on road signs, to adjust and widen the headlight beam at road junctions and roundabouts to help drivers navigate easily.
Leading the pack of smartdevices When we speak of smart lighting, the first thing that comes to mind is connected, controllable light accessible through apps. However, light is also an enabler of smartness in other devices. LiSense is basically a system that enables the lights in your room to recognise you and your movements,. For example, as soon as you come into your home, slump onto the couch and wave your hand, light in the living room instructs the air-conditioner to turn on and your coffee maker to start brewing.
The team uses an advanced shadow based sensing system to recognise the users presence and gestures, and harnesses developments in visible light communications for transmitting instructions to other devices. Basically, information gets encoded as light intensity changes at high frequency, and since most currentgeneration smartdevices have light sensors, these are able to receive data by monitoring the changes in light.
This happens very subtly and is not visible to the human eye. According to Xia Zhou, lead author of a paper on the research, the team wants to use smartlights to turn every indoor space into a cognitive space. In the future, they hope to make the system capable of handling more than low-level gestures to monitor the occupants behaviour, observe changes and may be even detect diseases.
Ford is developing a smart headlight system that can highlight pedestrians, cyclists and animals in an attempt to make driving at night safer Image courtesy: Making cities safe, eco-friendly According to a recent Navigant Research report, 40 per cent of a citys power usage can be attributed to street lighting. While this is one of the biggest reasons compelling corporations to retrofit streetlights with LEDs, the ability to make these lights smart is also working in their favour.
Smart street-lighting systems offer dashboards that provide a birds eyeview of the whole citys lighting system as well as the ability to control it.
These systems also offer various ways to save power by, say, switching off and on at programmed times. One step ahead is Philips LumiMotion lamp-post that combines a streetlight with a motion sensor to automatically switch on when someone approaches. Such smartsystems can be combined with navigational headsets for visually-impaired people to help them understand their environment in various ways, say, by reconstructing their surroundings in sound or haptic formats.
This makes smart streetlights cost-effective, controllable and socially-friendly, and saves energy, too. This means that the use of LED lights for street lighting does not end with retrofitting. Countries have to research and completely understand their potential to ensure that these benefit the society, too. They are investigating options like controlling the system using iPads, making lights brighten when a vehicle or pedestrian approaches, managing parking and transmitting information about traffic, weather or air quality.
The cost at which lights sell today makes it seem impossible to fit the whole world with it. So while probing a bit into the core tech, we stumbled upon a four-yearold French company called Aledia that develops low-cost LEDs with a unique three-dimensional 3D architecture. Their special WireLED microwire technology enables the manufacture of LEDs at 25 per cent the cost of current technologies by growing high-density, coaxial gallium-nitride GaN microwires directly onto large-diameter silicon wafers.
This can be done using existing complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS foundries. Aledias technology uses economical silicon wafers with large diameters of 20cm or more and millions of vertical GaN microwires, or microrods with a diameter of less than one micron are grown on each wafer. Each of these microwires is an LED capable of emitting light from all sides. Use of large substrates significantly brings.
Moreover, this process also involves lesser time. The advantage of being able to manufacture and package the LEDs in existing CMOS facilities does away with large capital investments, making the new technology all the more attractive. Cost aside, WireLED chips are also believed to be technically superior because these are designed to contain microwires that emit light over a broad range of different wavelengths, making it possible to produce green or red LEDs using the same material as industrystandard blue GaN LEDs.
By combining different microwires on the same chip, white LEDs can also be manufactured without using phosphors. Lighting without electricity With the amount of research and development happening across the world, it is clear that smartlights are the future, be it at home, in industries or public places. Much into the future, lighting might get even smarterwith priorities moving away from smartness and control to simply saving our planet.
Dutch designer Daan Roosegaarde, for example, has come up with a completely off-beat approach to public lighting.
Learning from bioluminescence in natural systems, he has found a way to light up a smart highway in the Netherlands using glow-in-the-dark paint as road markings. The special paint absorbs sunlight during the day to glow in the dark at night. In collaboration with State University of New York, USA, he has also developed a prototype plant containing luciferin, the compound that produces light in creatures like fireflies and jellyfish.
With his team, he is now working on developing bioluminescent street trees that will produce a soft-green glow in the dark. When streetlights are replaced with these trees, these will not only work without electricitya fact too good to be truebut also make the highway look like a scene out of a fairy tale!
Dilin Anand is a senior assistant editor at EFY. Any conspiracy theorist worth his salt would have loved to jump on that line as a prediction of what is to come. Today we see the Internet of Things weaving its magic to revolutionise lighting. The latest bulbs let you adjust the intensity and colour to mimic natural light.
These can transform from a bright whiteyellow like the morning Sun to a warmer and more golden-red part of the spectrum in the afternoon. Or these can allow you to simulate an entire golden forest, which is what Japanese electronics component manufacturer ROHM did just last year.
What is enabling all this? A lot of changes have occurred since last year, such as the change from emitter technology to chip on board technology, different soldering processes for different chip manufacturers, driver requirements for various wattages and much more. This is a continuous process and a manufacturer needs to adapt according to. It uses visible light to send data at a rate of up to 1kbps. The do-it-yourself bulbs are designed to interact with other gadgets that may not have full Wi-Fi connectivity and instead read data using VLC that uses visible light between THz and THz.
ZigBee LightLink is a standards based solution targeting in-room lighting for residential applications. Improved dimming is possible by Android devices, infrared sensors and Bluetooth controllers these days. You also see motion sensors based WWW.
Hari Prasad from Omtronics. FLYON is a lighting device being developed by Quantum Dots, which glows while floating in air without any wired connection. It works on the amalgamation of maglev and Witiricity. FLYON involves lifting forces, electromagnetic suspension, position sensing, magnetic flux, flux orientation and frequency of operation including Witiricity.
Witricity power sources and capture devices are specially designed magnetic resonators that efficiently transfer power over short distances via the magnetic near-field, explains T. The blue die is referred to in the companys press release as a blue pump for its ability to pump phosphor to a white colour range. Overall, there seems to be a focus on improving the communications aspect of lighting as well as enabling greater precision with which these can be controlled. What happened to the controls A virtual home for every light bulbthat is what the future of smart lighting promises us and delivering, too!
By having an Internet address for every bulb to call home, we gain the ability to call it up and control it as we please from anywhere across the globe through the Internet. One innovative way to control lights is when wearable devices get in on the control game, too. Misfit is. Touch the Lights! At the event, every time a person ran a fingertip along an installed touch display, trees and cakes on the big screen would be decorated along with it.
One use case is where the tracker detects the level of sleep of the user and uses lights to simulate a sunrise inside the bedroom. Sensor based lighting systems are now being made smarter to fit in with human behaviour and responses. For instance, motion sensor systems that switch lights based on people entering the room can now differentiate between a pet and a person. These also do not switch off immediately when a person leaves, instead keep the light on for a few minutes as people tend to feel creepy when lights behind them shut off as they walk through a hall.
Lutron and Insteon have had their lighting kits designed to work flawlessly with Apples HomeKit de-. Lighting as a service A company named Enlighted is offering a Global Energy Optimisation programme that sees it offering lighting solutions as a service to companies.
Enlighted will take care of the upgrade costs and capital expenditure involved initially and will later collect a set rate from its customers depending on the saved electricity. The company guarantees savings of 10 to 20 per cent on the energy bill. This means users can control lighting by speaking to their phone or watch. These standards based systems gather a wide variety of data from the environment, including levels of humidity, CO2 and O2, UVA and UVB light, particulate matter, motion and seismic activity, video, sound and more.
There is one thing to be wary of, however. The problem with some app based systems is that, whenever you are activating lights through a mobile phone, you are going through servers from different countries. So full dependency is on the server located in that country.
This leads to a situation where external firms retain control over home automation systems. Even big firms have systems supported by servers in certain risky countries, explains Joy Biswas, product manager, Forbix Semicon. How is Forbix solving the problem? They are now working on a better system that works on webmail servers, where triggers are sent through webmail, thus allowing for redundancy in the case of disrupted communication. Plugging in some smarts Not in the mood to build your own smart lighting system?
There are some amazing products available that can let you plug in a smart lighting system into your home without having to get your hands dirty with code. Philips Hue has stepped things up a notch. You can now use your iOS phone to not just switch on and off bulbs, but also pick colour, brightness and program timing, too. It also lets you use If This Then That service to get your lighting system to respond to situations like flashing red for a call from, say, your in-laws.
Elgatos Avea is another Bluetooth Smart bulb rated at 7W and lm. Belkin has also brought out a WeMo light switch that lets you control dumb bulbs with your phone. If you really want to take things ahead with your existing lighting and home electronics, then LightwaveRF has a solution to swap your homes sockets with their Internet-enabled switches. GE Link is another option that lets you remotely control and sync to a connected device through an app called Wink.
For a more all-inclusive integration, Lutron has a product named HomeWorks QS that can control not just light but interior and exterior systems, audio-visual and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning, making it more of a home environment control system. In line with this concept, it also lets you create scenes, which are preset light and shade levels. For example, press Entertain button on the keypad in your living room, and lights and shades will adjust throughout your home to create the pre-planned ambience.
What will happen to the switch The US Navys design principle, Keep it simple, stupid, is now repeated by many designers. What can be simpler than a light switch? No switch! Smart lighting is built on the premise that not only can you control your lights from anywhere, you can also set these up such that these do the controlling on their own.
That means no more fumbling for the light switch when you get back home at night, or when you make your way to the kitchen in the middle of the night.
There is a possibility that a new product that is highly innovative might not necessarily be cost-effective, user-friendly or ecofriendly. But when a new product or component meets these three criteria and satisfies customer requirements successfully with high satisfaction, then change is inevitable, explains G. About a third of all current SoC designs are fault-free during their first silicon pass, with nearly half of all re-spins caused by functional logic errors. FPGA based prototyping allows speed ranges into tens of MHz and often offers the best cost-per-gate per MHz for software development and hardware regressions in the project phase when RTL becomes stable enough, so that fast turnaround time and hardware debug matter less.
A single prototyping platform can provide verification for hardware, firmware and application software design functionality before the first silicon pastime-to-market TTM period is shrinking.
It is typically limited in capacity and can take months to bring up due to modifications required in the design and subsequent verification. The benefit, once brought up, is a speed range in tens of MHz range that is sufficient for software development. In todays technological-driven society, new products are introduced rapidly, and failing to have a product ready at a given market window can cost a company a considerable amount of revenue.
If a product is released too late, the product could be rendered useless, costing the company its investment capital for the product. Today, state-of-the-art ASIC. Prototyping kits are operational out-of-the-box, and allow hardware and software developers to immediately engage in integration and validation tasks necessary to ship the next great SoC design.
With the increasing cost of mask sets and continuous decrease of IC size, minimising the number of re-spins is vital to the development process. Earlier, the most common hardware configuration on the FPGA prototyping board consisted between four to nine clocks, with the fastest clock running more than MHz. Key advantages and issues Prototyping is important because of high performance and accuracy, real-time dataflow and extended RTL testing and debugging.
FPGA based prototypes offer unbeatable flexibility, capacity and speed. The key advantage of FPGA based systems is speed and the main volume of FPGA based prototypes today is to enable software development and sub-system validation.
From a chip perspective, at about 60 per cent into a project, three main issues have to be resolved.
First, error rate in the hardware has to be low enough that design teams find confidence to commit to a tape out. Second, the chip has to be validated enough within its environment so that it works within the system.
Abstraction levels Prototyping today happens at two abstraction levels, namely, using transaction-level WWW. Virtual prototyping based on TLM models 2. RTL simulation 3. Emulation 4. FPGA based prototyping 5. Bringing up. So only the efficient combination of the four engines, namely, emulation, virtual prototyping, RTL simulation and FPGA based prototyping, provides a complete solution.
Emulation extends verification to the full chip and at the chip-in-system level by enabling connections to real system environments like PCI, USB and Ethernet. The main advantage of processor based emulation is fast turnaround time for bring-up, which makes it ideal for the project phase in which RTL is not quite mature yet.
Standard software debuggers can be attached using JTAG adaptors or virtual connections. Virtual prototyping. Virtual prototyping can enable software development as early as a fortnight after the specification is available. It does not allow detailed hardware debug, which is the initial strength of RTL simulation. Used initially for RTL development, IP integration and design verification, RTL simulation can extend to the complexity of sub-systems and is a sign-off criterion for gate-level simulation and timing sign-off.
It allows the WWW. Little, Tensilica data-plane processor IP blocks. To better extend to sub-systems and the full SoC, verification acceleration moves the device under test into hardware and can allow enough speed up for bare-metal software Fig.
An example of how multiple platforms are used in development. Techniques There are two general ways to solve the problem, referred to as Emulation and RTL simulation are combined to achieve simulation ac- direct and indirect implementations.
In the case of direct implementaceleration. It Emulation and FPGA based prototyp- may not be the same as the one used ing are combined to combine the in an SoC but it is an implementation speed of bring-up for new portions nonetheless. Mapping emulates the of the design in emulation with the function of the intended hardware. Hardware assisted verification In indirect implementation, mechanisms are devised that allow effects Starting at RTL level, the ultimate goal is to make the model execute of concurrency to be evaluated even though the simulator is actually incafaster than it could in a software simulator.
Another issue is that, software pable of doing more than one thing simulation slows down significantly at a time. EMBEDDED Simulation accelerators contain a large number of simple processors, each of which simulate a small portion of the design and then pass results between themselves. Each of these processors runs slower than the processor on desktop, but the accelerator may possess millions of these smaller processors and the net result is a significantly higher execution performance.
These can deal with parallelism directly as all the processors are running in parallel. An example of this type of hardware-assisted solution is Palladium product line from Cadence. The custom chip could also contain debug circuitry, visibility mechanisms and a host of other capabilities. Each chip is capable of emulating a small piece of design, and larger designs are handled by interconnecting many chips together, again with sophisticated interconnect capabilities.
An example of this type of emulator is Veloce from Mentor Graphics. Another way to implement an emulator is by using off-the-shelf components such as FPGAs. As with the custom chip, multiple FPGAs can be put together to handle arbitrary design sizes. In in-circuit emulation, an emulator or accelerator is connected into a real-world application.
Most emulators can only muster a few MHz of clock speed, especially when full visibility is made available. So it is necessary to insert a speed bridge that can handle the difference in execution rates on each side of the bridge.
This involves data buffering or manipulation of protocols to artificially slow down the real world to the rate that the emulator can handle. The next major way these are used is standalone, wherein the entire model fits into the emulator or accelerator, along with a set of stimuli to exercise the model. These can run as fast as the emulator, stopping only when additional stimulus is required or when captured data has to be flushed out of the device.
If the design contains a processor, it is also likely that a version of the processor exists for the emulator. Emulator vendors provide special boards that make many popular processors available. But if parts of the design or testbench cannot be mapped into the emulator, it has to be coupled with a software execution environment.
This is called co-simulation, as it inherently involves two simulation engines cooperating to solve the problem. The emulator can now only run as fast as the simulator, or actually even slower because the communication makes it even slower. A more modern alternative is what is called coemulation.
The primary difference between the two is that communication is raised to the transaction level rather than being at the implementation level. It is used in a wide variety of applications, including automated equipment testing, crystal growth monitoring, semiconductor fabrication and X-ray generators.
It typically employs an integral microcomputer to control and monitor power supply operations. A power supply equipped with a computer interface may use proprietary communication protocols or standard protocols and device control languages such as Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments SCPI. There are two basic types of programmable DC power supplies that are commonly used: Bus Interface.
Linear power supplies operate by rectifying AC line power to create DC and then filtering and regulating it to produce user-selectable voltage or current levels. These are heavier because the 50Hz or 60Hz transformer and associated filters are physically larger. Switch-mode power supplies start out the same way, rectifying and filtering AC line input voltage; however these chop the DC into AC.
These are significantly smaller, lighter and more efficient than linear ones, and have replaced linear supplies in many applications. Linear power supplies continue to be a popular choice for test equipment. These are generally durable, accurate and deliver power with little noise. Their simple, direct feedback mechanisms deliver excellent load regulation and overall stability. Microprocessors receive input from the user interface or the remote interface. A digital-to-analogue converter DAC takes the digital setting and translates it into an analogue value, which is used as reference for the analogue regulator.
Setting resolution and accuracy are determined by the quality of this conversion and regulation process. Some common parameters to select a programmable DC power supply are given below: Resolution and accuracy.
Programmable voltage and current settings have resolution and accuracy specifications associated with these. Resolution determines the minimum increment in which the output may be adjusted, and accuracy describes the extent to which the value of the output matches international standards.
A DAC with more bits will have more resolution of its output and be able to deliver more distinct values for the control loop to use as reference. Accuracy in WWW. Number of channels: Number of outputs: Read-back accuracy is sometimes called meter accuracy.
It determines how close the internally-measured values are to the theoretical values of the output voltage after setting accuracy is applied. Read-back resolution is the smallest change in internally-measured output voltage or current that the instrument can discern. It is usually expressed as an absolute value, but may also be given as a percentage of full scale. Load regulation. It is the measure of the ability of the output voltage or output current to remain constant during changes in the load.
Line regulation. It is a measure of the ability of the power supply to maintain its output voltage or output current while its AC line input volt-. Remote sensing. A programmable power supply is equipped with remote-sensing capability. Remote sensing is required in applications where load is located at some distance, typically more than 3m 10feet , from the power supply output terminals.
You can also use remote sensing if the measured voltage at the load input power terminals is significantly lower than the voltage measured at the power supply output terminals.
Difference in voltage is based on the amount of current and the load lead size and length. It uses a fourwire connection Fig.
Analogue interface. DC programmable power supplies typically provide a standard and isolated analogue interface, through which a supplys DC output voltage, current and overvoltage protection can be set. These values are controlled by supplying a voltage signal, a current signal or by connecting a resistor to the analogue input.
For example, you can use the analogue output of a PLC to control the output voltage of a power supply. Residual AC. Output of these DC power supplies is not perfect DC. Some AC is to be expected on the output. For some applications excessive AC on the output can produce unexpected circuit behavior, so it helps to know the amplitude of the residual AC.
Spurious AC components on the output of a DC supply are called ripple and noise, or periodic and random deviation. These terms are often used interchangeably. Transient response. Transient response specifications indicate how quickly the output settles to a stable DC value after a change in load or settings. Most power supplies have a significant capacitance in parallel WWW.
When this capacitance is placed in parallel with load resistance, a time constant results that varies with load impedance. Voltage transient response of programmable power supplies is given for three conditions: Variable output impedance. These supplies incorporate a variable output resistance feature, which enables test engineers to test the DUT under actual operating conditions. The variable output impedance allows them to simulate the internal impedance of a battery.
Digital interface. In general, output voltage and current of a programmable supply is set most accurately, with the highest resolution, through its digital interface. In addition to hardware, most DC power supply companies also supply the software you need to easily integrate your DC supply into your system. This makes system programming and system integration much simpler. Programmable AC power supplies Programmable AC sources used in test applications must not only supply a stable source of AC but also simulate power-line disturbances and other non-ideal situations.
Todays switching AC power sources offer great specifications and powerful waveform-generation capabilities that allow users to generate complex harmonic waveforms, transient waveforms and arbitrary waveforms more easily than ever before. Some can even provide both AC and DC outputs simultaneously and make measurements as well as provide power. This level of flexibilWWW. Current requirements. To select an AC source you must consider the current your unit under test will draw.
Be sure to include inrush and transient currents that may occur during intentional input voltage swings and during different modes of operation. Worst-case input current. Rectifier-type power supplies and motors have inrush currents anywhere from two to ten times the nominal run current. AC power sources are designed to protect themselves from excessive loads current by either folding back voltage current limiting or shutting down output current-limiting shutdown , and in many cases this is user-selectable.
Crest factor. Crest factor is the ratio of peak current amplitude to rms amplitude of AC. It is important to select an AC source with low impedance and high peak instantaneous current capability.
Many AC sources can only support a crest factor of 1. With a crest factor rating of up to 3. Power factor. Power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit. A load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor for the same amount of useful power transferred. Regulation and distortion.
Load and line regulation should be tight and distortion low. Typically, quality AC sources will have a voltage accuracy of 0.
The answer is thermography. Thermal infrared IR imaging devices are excellent tools for increasing the life expectancy of devices by getting realtime imagery of temperature distribution as well as development of heat on objects in a board through a contact-less tool. Nip it in the bud Higher-resolution thermal imaging cameras can spot overheating in individual components like transistors and resistors across the whole printed circuit board PCB. This means that engineers can use it in an earlystage design to sort out circuitry damages.
For example, a component that is not designed to go above 85C could end up above C and get stressed by overheating. The thermal camera immediately catches the over-heated component in its viewfinder without the engineer having to probe each component individually. This means that chances for an over-cooked component to ruin a PCB are far lesser since the engineer can see almost the entire board at a glance.
Earlier this year, Keysight had announced higher-temperature models, targeting electrical and electronic applications where these can be used to detect variations over a wider temperature range. Fluke and FLIR also launched similarlynamed models: Both these models have very good. Flukes TiX series of thermal imagers feature per cent diamond-turnedgermanium lenses covered with a special coating that is designed to transmit energy to the detector with very good efficiency.
FLIR also released Muon core for thermal imaging, which simplifies the integration of thermal imaging capabilities for original equipment manufacturers. You might find it inside upcoming thermal imagers from other firms, too. Thermal image overlaying CMOS images technology Most innovative advances in thermal imagers for electronics engineers over the past few years include thermal image overlaying complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS image technology.
It offers a better thermal and image resolution for object identification to locate the bug from thermal gradient of circuitry, easily and quickly. We are able to offer a wider industrial temperature range of thermal cameras to bridge the original industrial IR thermometer user and commercial thermal camera user with a better resolution of thermal cameras with CMOS overlaying graphic features and precise distance-to-spot ratio laser in circle indication.
David Ko, general manager, Flex Instruments Co. Upgrades for displays and sensors Flukes new expert series thermal imagers called TiX and TiX come with an articulating lens that can rotate as well as a large touchscreen LCD featuring a resolution of The camera also WWW.
Detector resolution , fine resolution in-camera IR pixels. Line voltage range: Range 1: Optical resolution: It also comes with HDIR lenses that claim to deliver more accurate measurements from a greater distance. FLIR claims twice the distance as legacy systems. Additionally, it features video recording along with continuous auto-focus.
FLIR also packs in some software tools that allow users to analyse data, change colour patterns and generate detailed reports. Keysight U series is also claimed to be among the first to come with four times in-camera fine resolution of pixels from a pixel detector that comes with manual-focus. It can sense a range from C to C. It features a distance-tospot ratio of Flex Instruments thermal camera model number TG features a pixel thermal image after interpolation. Birds-eye view of the trends 1.
Decrease in product price due to availability of lower-resolution devices. Vendors have introduced many entry-level devices with lower feature sets that enabled them to bring down the price 2. Decrease in product cost due to sensor manufacturers moving from Many new products with better protection from environmental influences like rain, fog and sunlight as well as the capability to survive a roughly 60cm drop 4.
Better image-processing solutions in addition to higher resolutions 5. Laser focus system introduced in thermal imagers 6. Wi-Fi connectivity for data transfer through smartphones. How the ease of use of thermal imagers improved over the years Many things got developed over the years as listed below: Movable optics: One of the major problem a user used to face in the field was pain in the neck while continuously using the camera, especially in the case of harsh environmental conditions.
This design eases the operation with almost no pressure on the neck while using the unit for looking at hotspots on electrical installations or places that are not easy to see. PDF report generation in the field by camera: The same can even be transmitted over Wi-Fi using smartphones in the field. This reduces the report time to a few minutes and brings in efficiency. Quality of image: As very high NETD levels of nearly 20mK are available in uncooled cameras at 30Hz frequency, the images are very crisp and clear, resulting in excellent image quality.
This helps to pin-point problematic areas quickly. JPEG format: Images taken in the field can also be viewed on mobiles or PCs that do not have dedicated software installed. Images can be stored in JPEG format and can be viewed even with basic picture-viewing software. Complete range: Making it easier to use thermal cameras FLIR TG was announced late last year, which is an easy-to-use thermal imager built for do-it-yourself users and for industrial professionals who require a compact low-cost tool for quick troubleshooting.
Last year, Fluke talked about its introduction of a laser focus system in thermal imagers where a laser beam was used to measure the distance, which aids the user to focus properly on the object. FLIR TG comes with dual rotating lasers to visually mark the size and location of what is being measured, while an onscreen crosshair pinpoints. FLIR C2 was also launched last year as a pocket-size camera designed to show hidden heat patterns due to energy leaks, bad wiring, HVAC issues and other problems.
FLIRs T1K also comes with a rotating block that houses the optics so you can use it on tougher angles while holding your head in different positions when you are using the touchscreen to operate the device. Start debugging those electronics You can now pick up a thermal imager and start working on debugging your circuit board.
It will help you find that one overheating chip in the board that is causing the embedded system to fail, or quickly identify that short in the circuit. In this part, we look at the various computer forensics tools available. Computer forensics techniques are essential to successfully prevent, detect,.
Logicube forensic SF kit, the ultimate weapon against cyber crime. Each category may require a separate forensics tool or hybrid tool.
Let us take a look at the various tools that help in digital forensics and investigation process. Many of these tools are open source, while the others are proprietary. These tools may be evaluated based on various criterion such as completeness in functionality, time taken by the tool to perform its task, user friendliness and ease of use, cost and acceptability of the tool in the court of law.
Table I features some general computer forensics tools that the investigators may use. Windows, Analyses volumes, file systems, user and applications data, extracting meta-data, deleted and hidden items Debian, Ubuntu www. A PHP script to parse Windows event logs www.
A live USB; this is a feature in Windows 8 Enterprise that allows Windows to boot and run from mass storage devices such as USB flash drives and external hard disk drives. Forensic-analysis and fraud-prevention software; full text search, extracts emails, credit card numbers, IP addresses and URLs; skintone analysis; support for ingesting Windows, Mac OS, Linux and mobile device data. Windows, Linux Stream based forensic feature extraction of email addresses, phone numbers, URLs and other identified objects.
Database application for storing file hash signatures www. Memory-analysis tool that analyses Windows OS memory and extracts information about the OS and the running processes www. Memory forensic software that helps incident responders find evil in live memory www. Easy-to-use memory acquisition and analysis capabilities for Linux system www. WindowsSCOPE is the next generation in live cyber forensics tools and memory forensics technologies www.
A completely open collection of tools, implemented in Python under GNU general-public licence, for extraction of digital artefacts from volatile memory RAM samples www. A simple editor for raw data of files. This type of program is also called hex editor or binary editor www.
A hexadecimal view on screen or paper of computer data, from RAM or from a file or storage device www. A universal hexadecimal editor, particularly helpful in the realm of computer forensics, data recovery, low-level data processing and IT security. An advanced tool for everyday and emergency use; inspects and edits all kinds of files, recovers deleted files or lost data from hard drives with corrupt file systems or from digital camera cards Fig. A command utility that creates a hex dump of a given file or standard input; can also convert a hex dump back to its original binary form www.
These are often used in incident response situations to preserve evidence in memory that would be lost if a system is shut down and to quickly detect stealthy malware by directly examining the OS and others The various computer memory forensics tools are given in Table II.
Such tools are used for everyday and emergency uses. These inspect and edit all kinds of files, recover deleted files or lost data from hard drives with corrupt file systems or from digital camera cards. Some tools are listed in Table III. However, there are many other tools which we are unable to list here due to limitation of space. These include tools for: Those interested should be able to find these through the Internet, with some effort. Let us take a look at air operations in this part.
Kamalanath is a technical writer. He is also a research scholar, pursuing Ph. D in military technology. Air operations Though air operations also fall under strike warfare, these are specialised operations of a carrier and, in turn, carrier strike group CSG. Air operation from carriers is highly complex and highly dangerous. To support air operation, a myriad of electronic systems are installed in the carrier.
A combat aircraft is launched from the carrier through a system called catapult, which is driven by steam. Since aircraft on a carrier do not have sufficient distance to run and take off, the catapult proves very useful. An aircraft is placed on shuttle of the catapult and launched; aircraft is airborne in just two seconds.
Steam pressure that has to be maintained is controlled through electronic systems much similar to industrial systems. The catapult launches aircraft in air and. After that, it leaves for its area of responsibility. Ensuing combat actions are out of purview of this article, however the return leg is covered here.
For retrieving and receiving an aircraft on the carrier, a plethora of electronic systems support the eventual landing on the carrier. But before landing, aircraft must navigate towards the carrier. Navigation In the sea, even gigantic carriers appear smaller than a dot for their aircraft flying at heights greater than 10km. At those heights, visually sighting the carrier becomes impossible. To retrieve the launched aircraft, the carrier must reveal its position to the incoming aircraft. Through appropriate antenna arrangement, it maintains a cardioid radiation pattern for this transmission.
These receivers compare aircrafts bearing with the direction of the signal reception and give the bearing direction of the carrier to the pilot. Then, by knowing the time at which the receiver had sent the interrogating pulse and the time it received the reply, it calculates the roundtrip distance time. This time minus the 50s delay is the actual round-trip distance time. With the speed of the radio waves known, WWW. Typically, a TACAN transponder of a carrier can provide navigational data to approximately aircraft, simultaneously interrogating at a time.
Direction and range are displayed in the aircrafts moving map display as waypoints and also as pointers in the pilots head-up display HUD. The next task is to control the movements of outbound and inbound aircraft. Appropriate commands and support are given to inbound aircraft for landing. This is done by carrier air-traffic control, which is generally called amphibious air-traffic control.
Air-traffic control Since both the carrier and aircraft are moving, air-traffic control is much more complex and elaborate than their land based counterparts. All these operations are controlled from a command centre called carrier air-traffic control centre CATCC. This command centre is situated on the top-most storey, called Pri-fly, above the flight-deck of a carrier.
All aviation-related data like aircrafts flight plans and approaching aircrafts status are assembled at this centre for air operations to be monitored and controlled. For these control operations, many radar systems play a crucial role. Outbound aircraft are allotted a 3D air corridor through which these leave without interfering with incoming aircraft. Incoming aircraft from various locations are first marshalled to another air corridor and then assigned height, direction and speed to fly in a pattern around the CSG.
Depending on the status of the aircraftwhether low on fuel or hit by enemy but in a flyable condition or having technical snagthese are assigned priorities. As incoming aircraft of high priority keep landWWW. As aircraft keep landing, a landing sequence is formed where aircraft trail behind each other by kilometres. Once aircraft are lined for landing, these are transferred to approach and landing controllers, that help the pilots in landing the aircraft.
During high-intensity air operations aircraft come and land every 30 seconds. For this, a radar called marshalling radar is used, which is the air-traffic control radar. In direct addressing mode, all 12 bits are provided by the instruction. In indirect addressing mode, the instruction provides the pointer and from that pointer, 12 bits are con- jured to compute the selection of the bank and the address of the intended location in that bank.
Raspberry Pi. It is capable of doing everything that is expected from a desktop com- puter, from browsing the Internet and playing high-definition video to mak- ing spreadsheets and playing games. The system has the ability to interact with the outside world and has been used in many projects, from music machines to weather stations. Interfacing of the camera module is an interesting application of Raspi.
It can take high-definition videos as well as still photographs. I have two questions. First, how does a processor or controller access data from memory? Second, what is Raspi? Megha Wali Through email A1. Accessing data from memory in a microcontroller MCU.
Therefore an arrangement is needed for reaching a location in the data memory space, where the desired operands required by an in- struction are stored and where the results after execution of the instruc- tion, if required, are to be stored. Addressing modes depend on the design of the central processing unit CPU , memory space and organisa- tion of registers. These differ from MCUs of one brand to another.
There are different ways for ad- dressing a location in the memory space, which are called addressing modes. Some of these are immedi- ate, register direct, absolute, address register indirect, address register relative and relative. In short, data is lodged in data memory space and has address.
To get the data, the ad- dress is computed by the addressing mechanism. Let us see how data memo- ry is managed in microcontroller Q2.
Which, according to you, is better? Differences between the two are: A carrier must accept any GSM-compliant phone, so GSM car- riers do not have total control of the phone you are using. CDMA carriers use network based white lists to verify their subscribers.
GSM is based on time-division sys- tem. Voice is transformed into digital data, which is given a channel and a time slot. The receiver listens only to the assigned time slot and pieces the call back together. CDMA is a code-division sys- tem. Each receiver has the unique key to divide the combined signal into its individual calls. Here are a few websites that could help you understand more bosch-mobility-solutions.
Bosch improves the quality of life worldwide with products and services that are innovative and spark enthusiasm. The website is a good place to learn more about the latest in automobile and electronics technology. The forum has a dedicated section for discussion on automotive electronics. In order to participate, you need to register, and registration is free. The website works as a learning centre for available electronics products for the automotive industry.
It has e-learning and Videos sections that can be of interest to people interested in automotive electronics. Members of OAA share a vision for the connected car and are committed to collaborating around a common platform to make this vision a reality.
The website is a place to know who, why and what about OAA. The website is a rich resource for learning these topics. It has details of electronics systems for automobiles. Since the robot does not have any pre-programmed knowledge on its environment, it can successfully assemble basic objects after several attempts. Eventually, it applied the same algorithm that it learned from the toy airplane to its second task on Lego bricks and finished the task almost right away.
Technology to put electronics into the brain Latest technologies have allowed a paralysed man to drink from a cup unaided using a robotic arm, the deaf to hear and the blind to see, using brain implants that are electrical devices inserted into or attached to the brain.
At present, implants require invasive surgery and are often made of metals that may cause scarring. Brain implant technology is hampered by how long implants can stay in the brain without losing functionality. Now, a tiny new brain implant makes a breakthrough in this area. It can be injected directly into the brain using a syringe, minimising damage to brain tissue.
The flexible mesh mimics the interconnecting structure of the neural network and the softness of brain tissue. It is made of materials that the immune system is less likely to reject, resulting in less scarring in the brain. The implant contains very fine metal lines of circuitry embedded on it, with electrodes and sensors mounted at intersections of wires. After being injected into the brain, it unfolds to about 80 per cent of its original shape without losing function.