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Layout Artist's contribution to the animation process is extremely important and that 2-D . have their own unique composition and perspective. The nuts. Layout and Composition for Animation 3 be set up to employ artists who will work together, but never meet face-to-face. Artists move from one production. (c) >>> page 1 of 7 PDF File: Layout And Composition For Animation x By Ed Ghertner.
Imprint Routledge. But each chapter moves through the fundamentals at a slow pace covering every step along the way. Great animation can always be simplified and reduced down to smaller parts. In addition to being used as display devices for computer operators, cathode ray tubes were used to render text for phototypesetting. Some companies like Disney have officially stopped 2D films and will only use 2D for television animation. The book publishing process.
This really is a solid practical guide for 2D animators who want real exercises they can practice. Nancy offers her own take on the bouncing ball and flour sack animation exercises common to new 2D animators.
Many chapters include custom illustrations from Disney animators who share their process creating lifelike characters from scratch.
This naturally requires a graphics tablet and plenty of experience constructing objects from imagination. Author Tony White covers all the basics of animation starting with foundational knowledge and moving through classical techniques showing how they work in a digital environment. The disc also has a few clips of White explaining the differences and techniques of pencil-drawn animation compared to digital 2D animation.
All-in-all a really cool book that can help traditional artists move their 2D animation work to the computer screen. Great animation can always be simplified and reduced down to smaller parts. Author Wayne Gilbert has years of experience animating including commercials, video games, and even the Star Wars films.
In this book he shares tips for designing with simplicity. These ideas apply to animation but carry over to character designers, illustrators, and comic artists. Every animation can be studied to break down the fundamentals like balance, pose, composition, and structure. The newest version of this book has info on character design and planning out the structure of a custom animated sequence.
Human animation is some of the toughest work but also the most rewarding. Character Animation Fundamentals is a massive tome with pages full of exercises, tips, and techniques for animating realistic characters. This book is written for both 2D and 3D animation so it works well for anyone. Early chapters introduce the concept of animation explaining how it works and how you should think about sequential movement.
Many of the later chapters delve into 3D rigging and animation software which is fairly pointless for someone who only wants to do 2D. And the tips in this guide still apply to all forms of animation so you can learn a lot about movement and motion just by reading through these chapters. Note you will need solid drawing fundamentals before you even pick up this book. If your drawing skills need improvement then pick up some beginner books first and get your fundamentals down.
Most animation books focus on movement which involve characters and creatures moving between frames. But backgrounds and layouts play a huge role in every animated scene. Layout and Composition for Animation is a detailed book focusing solely on background designs and compositions. I do not think this book is the perfect guide to background painting there is no such guide. But I do think this book offers clarity for animators who want to learn more about the background design process.
The Nine Old Men is a book spotlighting all nine animators, their history, and their unique skills in the field.
This book is not a how-to book nor will it cover specific features of animation. Instead it offers a deeper look into these nine incredible animators that radically improved a growing art form. But if you want to learn more about animation history and how these guys made an impact then this is the book to get.
This might seem like a weird book to suggest since Pixar is a 3D-only studio. But Designing with Pixar gazes into the character design work and methodologies that typically start with 2D sketching and brainstorming.
Each chapter covers a different principle of design including shape, form, and color among others. Overall these chapters blend together to create a guide for aspiring character designers and animators. The sketches are not very detailed but they do provide enough to help you capture the vision of a character. I only recommend this book to animators who want to delve further into character design.
This is both a philosophical book along with a more book discussing animation cels, frames, keys, and poses. However much of the book is focused on the art of animation itself. It uses plenty of examples from film history to demonstrate what makes a great animated scene and what grabs attention from viewers.
There is no perfect solution to animation. Most of it is about testing and trying new ideas to see what works. But thankfully many animators in recent history have already tried this and made it work. Upcoming animators can now study the classics and learn from the old masters.
I know this list is huge and it can be overwhelming. Start small by organizing your current goals. Do you want to learn more about animation from the classic masters?
Then a book like The Illusion of Life is a great read. Or maybe you want to dive right in and start animating. Learning 2D animation by yourself is tough but completely possible. If you put in the work, follow these resources, and just keep practicing then you will make steady progress. Resources Animation Books Disclosure: This post may contain affiliate links.
The final layout would be constructed in a "form" or "forme" using pieces of wood or metal " furniture " to space out the text and images as desired, a frame known as a chase , and objects which lock down the frame known as quoins. This process is called imposition , and potentially includes arranging multiple pages to be printed on the same sheet of paper which will later be folded and possibly trimmed.
An "imposition proof" essentially a short run of the press might be created to check the final placement. The invention of hot metal typesetting in sped up the typesetting process by allowing workers to produce slugs —entire lines of text—using a keyboard. The slugs were the result of molten metal being poured into molds temporarily assembled by the typesetting machine.
The layout process remained the same as with cold metal type, however: Offset lithography allows the bright and dark areas of an image at first captured on film to control ink placement on the printing press.
This means that if a single copy of the page can be created on paper and photographed, then any number of copies could be printed. Type could be set with a typewriter , or to achieve professional results comparable to letterpress, a specialized typesetting machine.
The IBM Selectric Composer , for example, could produce type of different size, different fonts including proportional fonts , and with text justification.
With photoengraving and halftone , physical photographs could be transferred into print directly, rather than relying on hand-made engravings. The layout process then became the task of creating the paste up , so named because rubber cement or other adhesive would be used to physically paste images and columns of text onto a rigid sheet of paper.
Completed pages become known as camera-ready , "mechanical" or "mechanical art". Phototypesetting was invented in ; after keyboard input, characters were shot one-by-one onto a photographic negative, which could then be sent to the print shop directly, or shot onto photographic paper for paste-up. These machines became increasingly sophisticated, with computer-driven models able to store text on magnetic tape.
As the graphics capabilities of computers matured, they began to be used to render characters, columns, pages, and even multi-page signatures directly, rather than simply summoning a photographic template from a pre-supplied set.
In addition to being used as display devices for computer operators, cathode ray tubes were used to render text for phototypesetting. The curved nature of the CRT display however, led to distortions of text and art on the screen towards the outer edges of the screens.
As of flat panel displays have almost completely replaced CRT displays. Printers attached directly to computers allowed them to print documents directly, in multiple copies or as an original which could be copied on a ditto machine or photocopier.
WYSIWYG word processors made it possible for general office users and consumers to make more sophisticated page layouts, use text justification, and use more fonts than were possible with typewriters. Early dot matrix printing was sufficient for office documents, but was of too low a quality for professional typesetting.
Inkjet printing and laser printing did produce sufficient quality type, and so computers with these types of printers quickly replaced phototypesetting machines.
With modern desktop publishing software such as flagship software Adobe Indesign  and cloud-based Lucidpress ,  the layout process can occur entirely on-screen. Similar layout options that would be available to a professional print shop making a paste-up are supported by desktop publishing software; in contrast, "word processing" software usually has a much more limited set of layout and typography choices available, trading off flexibility for ease of use for more common applications.
A finished document can be directly printed as the camera-ready version, with no physical assembly required given a big enough printer. Greyscale images must be either half toned digitally if being sent to an offset press, or sent separately for the print shop to insert into marked areas.
Completed works can also be transmitted digitally to the print shop, who may print it themselves, shoot it directly to film, or use computer to plate technology to skip the physical original entirely. Since the advent of personal computing , page layout skills have expanded to electronic media as well as print media.
E-books , PDF documents, and static web pages mirror paper documents relatively closely, but computers can also add multimedia animation, and interactivity.
Page layout for interactive media overlaps with interface design and user experience design; an interactive "page" is better known as a graphical user interface GUI.
Additional technologies such as Macromedia Flash may be used for multimedia content. Web developers are responsible for actually creating a finished document using these technologies, but a separate web designer may be responsible for establishing the layout.
A given web designer might be a fluent web developer as well, or may merely be familiar with the general capabilities of the technologies and merely visualize the desired result for the development team. Projected slides used in presentations or entertainment often have similar layout considerations to printed pages.
The magic lantern and opaque projector were used during lectures in the s, using printed, typed, photographed, or hand-drawn originals.
Two sets of photographic film one negative and one positive or one reversal film can be used to create positive images that can be projected with light passing through. Intertitles were used extensively in the earliest motion pictures when sound was not available; they are still used occasionally in addition to the ubiquitous vanity cards and credits.
It became popular to use transparent film for presentations with opaque text and images using overhead projectors in the s, and slide projectors in the s. Transparencies for overhead projectors could be printed by some photocopiers.
Computer presentation programs became available in the s, making it possible to lay out a presentation digitally. Computer-developed presentations could be printed to a transparency with some laser printers, transferred to slides, or projected directly using LCD overhead projectors.
Modern presentations are often displayed digitally using a video projector , computer monitor , or large-screen television. Laying out a presentation presents slightly different challenges than a print document, especially because a person will typically be speaking and referring to the projected pages.
Consideration might be given to:. Grids and templates are page layout design patterns used in advertising campaigns and multiple-page publications, including websites. A page layout may or may not stay within those guidelines, depending on how much repetition or variety the design style in the series calls for.
Grids are meant to be flexible. Using a grid to lay out elements on the page may require just as much or more graphic design skill than that which was required to design the grid. In contrast, a template is more rigid. Using a template to lay out elements usually involves less graphic design skill than that which was required to design the template. Templates are used for minimal modification of background elements and frequent modification or swapping of foreground content.
Most desktop publishing software allows for grids in the form of a page filled with coloured lines or dots placed at a specified equal horizontal and vertical distance apart. Automatic margins and booklet spine gutter lines may be specified for global use throughout the document. Multiple additional horizontal and vertical lines may be placed at any point on the page. Software templates are achieved by duplicating a template data file, or with master page features in a multiple-page document.
Master pages may include both grid elements and template elements such as header and footer elements, automatic page numbering, and automatic table of contents features. Static layouts allow for more control over the aesthetics , and thorough optimization of space around and overlapping irregular-shaped content than dynamic layouts. In web design , this is sometimes referred to as a fixed width layout; but the entire layout may be scalable in size while still maintaining the original proportions, static placement, and style of the content.
All raster image formats are static layouts in effect; but a static layout may include searchable text by separating the text from the graphics.
In contrast, electronic pages allow for dynamic layouts with swapping content, personalization of styles, text scaling, image scaling , or reflowable content with variable page sizes often referred to as fluid or liquid layout. Dynamic layouts are more likely to separate presentation from content , which comes with its own advantages. A dynamic layout lays out all text and images into rectangular areas of rows and columns. As these areas' widths and heights are defined to be percentages of the available screen, they are responsive to varying screen dimensions.
They'll automatically ensure maximized use of available space while always staying adapted optimally both on screen resizes and hardware-given restrictions. Text may freely be resized to provide users' individual needs on legibility while never disturbing a given layout's proportions. The content's overall arrangement on screen this way may always remain as it was originally designed.
Static layout design may involve more graphic design and visual art skills, whereas dynamic layout design may involve more interactive design and content management skills to thoroughly anticipate content variation. Motion graphics don't fit neatly into either category, but may involve layout skills or careful consideration of how the motion may affect the layout.
In either case, the element of motion makes it a dynamic layout, but one that warrants motion graphic design more than static graphic design or interactive design. Electronic pages may utilize both static and dynamic layout features by dividing the pages or by combining the effects.
For example, a section of the page such as a web banner may contain static or motion graphics contained within a swapping content area. Dynamic or live text may be wrapped around irregular shaped images by using invisible spacers to push the text away from the edges.
Some computer algorithms can detect the edges of an object that contain transparency and flow content around contours. With modern media content retrieval and output technology, there is much overlap between visual communications front-end and information technology back-end.
Large print publications thick books, especially instructional in nature and electronic pages web pages require meta data for automatic indexing, automatic reformatting, database publishing, dynamic page display and end-user interactivity. Much of the meta data meta tags must be hand coded or specified during the page layout process. More complex projects may require two separate designs: In this case, the front-end may be designed using an alternative page layout technology such as image editing software or on paper with hand rendering methods.
Interface design and database publishing may involve more technical knowledge or collaboration with information technology engineering in the front-end.