𝗣𝗗𝗙 | Research methodology is taught as a supporting subject in This well- organized book deals with the variety of research methods used. first of all iwant to say thank u very very much. and want to appreciate you for contributing ur knowledge in the field research. it is really a great thing someone . of various chapters for the benefit of students, and (iii) every page of the book has been read Research Methodology in all disciplines of various universities.
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A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library . 18 Research methodology and practice evaluation. What is evaluation? Why evaluation?. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . PDF | The book is essential for student, scholars, Researchers, teachers and professionals in all fields of study where research is required for academic.
A research comprises of two types of statistical data analysis, such as descriptive and inferential. Illustrations given are meaningful and relevant. Graphical examples are also provided by writer respectively. Its format and example are also provided along while definitions from renowned writers such as Ruth Strang and Von Dallen are also contextualized. Log In Sign Up. Historical Method By reviewing this chapter, why past is studied, what is history, its meaning and definition, purpose and types, approaches to study it and its limitations are understood.
Such as accumulation of facts, observation for their relevance, cause and effect relation, irrelevance of facts and explanations. Source of problem is equally significant, because time and energy is committed by a researcher for academic purposes and bases to precede with a problem.
Few of them narrated by author are personal experiences, extensive study of the relevant field or subject, developments and innovations in the field and most importantly experiences of scholars and supervisors of research because all of them will provide a handful insight of the problem and mark weightage of problem and its proximity.
Criterion for selection of a problem are either personal or external, where external is availability of data and resources while personal is interest, specialization and curiosity of investigator. To reach the core of problem usually starts from analyzing it periphery and impacts first, so in case we have to define and pin point the problem, Dr. Singh exemplified it as thread bare analysis. He identified needs of defining it, ways of defining, precautions and steps to be followed and finally formulating a statement to isolate the problem and to mark out the course of study.
He also quoted Kerlinger who specified the elements a good problem statement must possess such as it could be tested empirically and should be clear and definite etc. The necessity of delimiting a problem is to confine the efforts of researcher in a particular direction and achieve forecasted results as it may delimit to the certain variables, to sample size, area etc. But more importantly in contemporary research it is evaluated on the basis of availability of data, significance of issue, its newness and feasibility.
It comprises of clear and short statement of the problem, hypothesis involved, acknowledgement of the worth of the problem, definitions of significant terms, assumptions and limitations, insight of correlated literature, an analysis of projected researchers, and a time bar. All of these elements combined together in a proposal to map the research and providing a blue print of it.
It is evaluated by its significance, quality, and reasonableness of budget and qualification of researcher and adequacy of facilities such as labs or sampled area etc. Appraise of Related Literature In this chapter author defined the term of review of literature by human nature of preserving, transmitting and advancing knowledge. A researcher has to be certain and proximate to literature of the subject or area of study, any problem cannot be built in vacuum and must possess underlying foundation of previous knowledge.
Reviewing theoretical and research literature is an early and developmental stage of a research. Author provide us with different definitions by renowned scholars such as Good, Barr and Scates, W.
Borg, Charter V. Good and John W. Main objectives to consider appraising literature before conducting a research is to have an insight of theories, ideas and hypothesis which can aid in formulation of new ones. It provides us with evidences already available to solve a problem, sources for explanation, suggestions to opt methods and techniques appropriate to the problem, and last but not the least, a comparative analysis of conclusion of former with latter ones.
In regards Bruce W. Tuckman furnished four simple purposes, first to discover the vital variable, then to distinguish what has already been done, to produce available knowledge in present perspective and to pin-point the proximity and deviation of research with previous ones.
While Edward L. Vockell refers the relevance of literature review to build credibility of author by readers and relating it to already acquired knowledge.
Literature review, in general, furnishes the limitations of previous studies and lacking points that should be carried out in research but under certain rules and principles. Under this title author connected the researcher to means of literature reviewing and specially to the source where one can easily find literature relevant to the subject or area o study.
Singh said that to review literature, author provide several sources while categorizing them under three main sources such as books and textbooks, periodical literature and general references.
Books and text books are catalogued by their publishing dates in cumulative book index, book review index and so on. Sources of information are organized on basis of author names, title and their works. They are to identify the recent trends, and subjects matter under study. While other are abstracts, encyclopedias, Almanacs, Handbooks, Yearbooks etc. Reviewing literature is a hectic process and take weeks and sometimes months as well, and in order to carry out this tiring process efficiently and effectively there are certain parameters one need to follow such as starting from a text-book to have an understanding, meaning and nature of problem; it will elaborate the theoretical concepts and variables of field as well.
Along this investigator have to review empirical researches of the area systematically and thoroughly by keenly taking notes side by side. Foundation of Hypothesis In this chapter author provided an insight on term hypothesis, its nature and functions and significance in a research.
He also illustrated its types and difference among its usage in those various types, relationship with variables, its characteristics and criteria of evaluation. Hypothesis is second step of a research and is a tentative solution for a problem statement and every researcher formulate hypothesis of his research at the beginning.
In other words, it is a pre-assumed preposition which needs to be investigated and seek in a research. So, it is clear that it is verification of a solution to a problem and stimulus to critical thought, a leap into dark. Author furnished several definitions in regard by several renowned scholars and research experts such as James E.
Greighton, John W. Accordingly, it is composition of two or more variables needed to be verified in a given specific frame of reference. Furthermore, mostly confused terms by researchers are differentiated by author, for example Assumptions, Postulates and Hypothesis.
All of them deal with supposition but differ in its practices. Then observations are differentiated from hypothesis and designated as a tool to gather evidences and solution provider of research problem. Nature of hypothesis It is verbal declarative statement, a conceptual one, future oriented and comprises of variable which are yet to be proven because they lack empirical evidences. Hypothesis is pivot of any research and all activities in a research are carried out to seek answers of its premise.
Author narrated the functions of a hypothesis by quoting H. Ashan, that it is temporary solution and it delimit, sensitize and form as basis of research by providing means for collection of evidences.
Young as a tool which helps preventing blind search, Good Barr and Scates say that it binds the facts and information by relevance to the problem, D. As per authors discrimination among its types, they vary on the basis of function. Another exciting difference between this kind and others are that it is formulated in fifth step of research while general hypothesis is second step of research. Variables are basis formed for testability of research hypothesis and usually occur in five forms such as independent, dependent, moderate, control and intervening variable.
All of them differ on the basis of functionality and considered by a researcher to limit or neutralize their impacts on research environment.
After deciding variables, an investigator have to pass through another check of operations, where any misleading element is subtracted from hypothesis to keep research aligned and synthesized.
Role of hypothesis is described as a pivot to research and an initial step towards theory, principles or law. It is a cyclic process subjected to verification.
Sources of hypothesis are almost same as of research itself such as reading relevant academic and researched material, strong observation by specialist of field, considering needs and practices, extensions and offshoots of research etc. In general, how hypothesis is formulated in discussed by providing two logical methods, such as inductive from specific to general and deductive approach which is deduced from general to a specific expectation.
Finally, fundamental basis of hypothesis is discussed where researcher have to face reality on two levels, as operational and conceptual. And evaluation of hypothesis and criteria of its evaluation where its logical possibilities, verification through empirical means, value and scope of study, inherited roots in theories, simplicity of explanation, suitability and level of explanation is overviewed. Research Planning and Sampling Overview of this chapter includes terminologies of research design, methodology or strategy, Sampling design, Choice of research tools, and Choice of statistical technique.
To empower a researcher to plan and control the variance, according to Kerlinger. Research design is defined as a strategy to collect and analyze the data and report the findings. Formats and general design of research are provided which aid an investigator to not derail from objectives of a research. Features of a good design are discussed, which are logically planning to attain results proximate to hypothesis and practically feasible in given resources.
Another character of planning is to impose control over the situation and lever to enhance those set of controls. In comparison bad research designs are also pointed where biases can be induced, lacking adequacy to support hypothesis, measurements and techniques are included.
Validity of methodology is taken in account methodology is defined by webster as a scientific arrangement, internal validity control , and external validity sampling.
Control validity refers to the variables and their erroneous relationship while external validity refers to the representation of sampling and its correlation with internal validity. Definition of sampling as a technique to research, its significance because of limitation to not able to study whole population, being an economic approach and collecting nearly accurate desired results by randomizing the sample is conferred.
Sampled chunk of population is one with insurance that selection of one may not affect other. Methods of sampling, its limitations and types are also added to vest the very idea of quantitative research and its understanding to researchers. Sample designs such as probability sampling and systematic sampling, their subtypes, pros and cons are elaborated by author.
Multiple sampling, multi-stage, purposive and quota sampling are other types of sampling and opted as per nature of research to be conducted. Errors that could be minimized are also pointed out. Sizing a sample and its reliability is a debate to be pondered upon. Author narrated the notion clearly for readers understanding and utility in historical and experimental types of researches are also stated with examples.
Survey Method Moving on to the next step of research, methodology, specific to quantitate one is possible through survey. Along this he also provided definitions by other authors, such as, M.
Verma, Webster and Broudy. All of them define it as distinguished element of research and matter is necessary to determine the appropriate methodology. Here, term matter is classified into three heads such as Theoretical problem which requires surveys and experimental method, factual problems opting for historical and genetic methods or case studies and finally application problem and action research as its method of finding.
A method comprises of tactics and strategies, orderliness and regularity forming a structure. Also refers to the structural approach of data collection and means or devices.
Furthermore, strategy is defined in terms of a military approach and usage of terminology in academic research, named as research strategy. Procedure embraces five steps, first to observe a phenomenon and in sighting, second to identify the problem, third to develop and implement study design, fourth is analyzing and testing third step, and final one as conclusion. Certain assumptions necessary for scientific methods and its usage are discussed to recognize the need of assumptions and postulates etc.
In addition, types of research methods are provided by George J. Mouly, in three categories as survey, historical and action methods. Implications of survey methods are it only study the phenomenon under study and it is further classified into four types, as, Descriptive, analytical, School survey and Genetic.
These types are further divided into sub-types to furnish a detailed image of typology a choice of right method for a research.
Similarly, historical method is classified into three types as historical, legal and documentary. It is to study past and connect it with present prospect. Likewise, experimental method is to analyze the relation between means of prediction and controlling occurrences and its sub- divide is in four categories. Author also provided another type of classification to examine the phenomenon, which is longitudinal and cross-sectional approach, comprising of same methodologies discussed above.
These groupings of methods are to map the means and their usage in a particular research. Purpose of survey method is to access direct source of preliminary knowledge concerning behavior and patterns of humans as more controlling and objective methodology for a research. Thus, answering what exists, what we want and how to get it. Beside this, a distinction between descriptive and analytical method is presented by author in this chapter, with reference to other types of researches.
This explanation demarcated the divide among other types of researches and their usage to survey method and its nature. Later on, social problems of surveys are discussed, regarding sampling size and validation in measuring a trend.
Three basic types of surveys as, survey tests, questionnaire and interviews are elaborated with their pros and cons and characteristics in details. To prove the adequacy, follow-up studies are conducted which is itself evaluation of study. Author illustrated these types of survey with examples to educational systems and its problems.
Historical Method By reviewing this chapter, why past is studied, what is history, its meaning and definition, purpose and types, approaches to study it and its limitations are understood. Further chapter comprises of functions of history and steps to interpret it in academic forms and criticism of history are narrated in an orderly manner to empower a historical researcher. Definitions of history are provided by different historians and writers; such as by M.
Verma, A. N White Head, Bernard Shaw. Various definitions state that history is mean of aiding society in understanding its current organization, structure and functions and transformation process. History lies purpose of recording human progress and providing direction of that progress with a scale to measure the speed of our development.
Composition of history is a constructive process which answers the past problems and stance of humans on selection and understanding these problems and its documentation-Good and Scates. Answering the question of what is historical research, author related it to scientific method of acquiring facts about past problems, its relation and evaluation to current scenario and future. Whereas purpose of historical research lies in having a vivid perspective of past in present and a desire to reach at accurate account of past.
In addition to this, author of book provided us with approaches to conduct historical researches by two approaches, named as perspective and retrospective approach. Former one is to study events from past to present while later one is contrary, studying present to past.
Reviewing sources of historical research, we came to know that collection of data through primary sources such as documents and relics etc.
Similarly, criticism of data and its presentation also allow researchers to better understanding. Later on, types of historical researchers are classified on the basis of approaches, subject matter and techniques. Procedure and steps taken in account in historical researches are mentioned by writer, comprising of identification of problem, collection of data and its criticism.
Criticism here is in two steps as well, one is internal and other is external and both are to authorize the data but first one deals with authenticity of material itself while other is to verify the genuineness of content it contains. Later in this chapter writer peeks into presentation of data in chronological and theme wise order and dealing of a researcher with its unbiased and continuous interpretation of history by bridging gaps.
Making sense out of multitude of factual data collected by researcher is the purpose of historical researches. In writing historical report, objectivity is emphasized.
Examples of historical researches in educational background are provided with problems in past and present and its significance as a source of comparison of time.
But there are also limitations to this type of researches such as hindering objectivity, difficult to manifest cause and effect relations, researcher must stand at a special historical perspective and this method is at decline due to use of scientific methods in social sciences. Philosophical Method Author of book has attempted to provide an outline of philosophic methods to research in this chapter.
Starting from its meaning, need, scope, methods and assumptions, procedure and its relation with education is discussed in this chapter of book. Author tried to establish that what is philosophy and how philosophical method and researches act as building blocks of theory and knowledge.
Meaning of philosophy is defined by famous Emmanuel Kant to seek intangible conditions of possibility. While author analyze it with Indian word Darshan, means seeing, in larger perspective it is viewing the reality.
He also tried to establish the construct by telling what is not philosophy and confer that it is disciplined and logical study of universe and experience, could be called supra natural. Its need is defined as well, by Martian, a philosopher stating that it is utmost necessity of human beings and its purpose is to study the ultimate preposition such as existence, life, death, happiness etc. In other words, it is a thought process which lack practical utility but it offers endless scope of research and coexist with human and life.
Philosophy of education is highlighted by author as principles and facts applied to the educational dynamics and so did Adams. John Dewy consider this relation as vice versa, he narrated that philosophy is principles of life but education is its practical implementation and education is the only way by which philosophy is made practical.
Pondering upon scope and limitations of philosophical methods to research, two approaches are significant in regard. Quantitative and qualitative approach and these are illustrated by author through an example of series of questions that how mathematics should be thought and what are effective ways of doing so where he stated that former one is quantitative while latter one is qualitative.
These constructs act as foundation of education. Although its implications are not same to historical methods but still two prominent problems exist, first to ascribe system of thoughts to nations or community at certain time period, second criticism of ideas of great personage.
Another significant underlying limitation is that, this type of research only depends on the availability of authentic source material. Whereas techniques to this type offers freedom to researcher and use knowledge and its analysis. So, it is evident that it is confined to consult library and analyze content available but require familiarity of researcher with major school of thoughts of philosophy.
And primary tool is logic itself. Procedures are little different from other types of research, as it embraces themes, aims, reporting and list of references upon which whole debate is constructed and argued. And at the ending of chapter, comparison between historical and philosophical methods are demonstrated by author in form of table, in order to demarcate the porous divide. Experimental Method Writer start from realizing readers that experimental method is scientific method in which experimenter consider the situation being researched never existed.
Method is defined by quoting definitions of several authors such as Jahoda who related term to test hypothesis, F. Chapin denoted it with observation under controlled environment, W. Monro and M. Engelhart expressed it as type of research where variables are controlled and John W. Best, Festinger, Ernest and Greenwood all state the same phenomenon in other words. Law of single variable is narrated as experimental method which is supposed to be the basic assumption of this methodology by J.
Mill, stating that one variable is either added or subtracted from other to get results. How experimental method is enumerated in research and how its controlling factor and characteristics play a vital role in tailoring a research phenomenon is described by author in form of points with examples to educational research and how this method is attributed in real- time scenario.
Nine steps of experimental methods are discussed, which differ from other forms by its experimental design and measurement of outcomes, while rest of steps are same as other methods discussed in forth mentioned chapter.
In this edition a new chapter The Computer: Its Role in Research have been added keeping in view of the fact that computers by now become a indispensable part of research equipment.
The other salient feature of this revised edition, subject contents have been developed and restructured at several places. New problems have also been added in various chapters. Adoption of appropriate methodology is an essential characteristic of quality research studies irrespective of the discipline with which they are related. The present book provides the basic tenets of methodological research so that researchers may become familiar with the art of using research methods and techniques.
The book contains introductory explanations of several quantitative methods enjoying wide use in social sciences. It covers a fairly wide range, related to Research Methodology. The presentations are uniformly economical and cogent. Illustrations given are meaningful and relevant.
The book can be taken as a well-organised guide for researchers whose methodological background is not extensive. The book is primarily intended to serve as a textbook for social science students of all Indian universities.
It will also serve as a text for the students of M.