homeranking.info Fitness SIGNS AND SYMBOLS OF PRIMORDIAL MAN PDF

Signs and symbols of primordial man pdf

Sunday, March 24, 2019 admin Comments(0)

The signs and symbols of primordial man; being an explanation of the evolution of religious doctrines from the eschatology of the ancient Egyptians. The Evolution of Religious Doctrines From the Eschatology of the Ancient Egyptians. "In writing the explanation of the Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man . homeranking.info - Ebook \` ithout these homeranking.infoation of the Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. only.


Author: CURT SCHEPENS
Language: English, Spanish, Dutch
Country: Saudi Arabia
Genre: Religion
Pages: 124
Published (Last): 03.09.2016
ISBN: 163-2-18033-975-4
ePub File Size: 20.77 MB
PDF File Size: 16.49 MB
Distribution: Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Downloads: 35890
Uploaded by: ROZELLA

Druids and Israelites Compared-their Manner of the Burial of the. Dead the same as the Egyptians. Brother Goa/d': " Researches." Cesar Drbdorur and Me1a'.r. The Signs And Symbols Of Primordial Man. byAlbert Churchward. Publication homeranking.infope: application/pdf homeranking.info: English. The signs and symbols of primordial man; being an explanation of the evolution of religious doctrines from the eschatology of the ancient.

Anlr Cross from Dartmoor The Heaven. Our brethren may take D and F as the representatives of the two. Figure showing position Symbol of celestial terrestrial divisions and.

In the Solar Mythos of the Egyptians. This double axe. The House of Ptah. A As every Freemason some others we lodges only have it is as a knows. Y uibe. From the "Mrzxnoza Comix. He wears the two crowns. The High Priests of the Druids held the same power here before they That the word was very were deposed. In other texts it repre" " " one self-produced-all primeval matter-powers neter Kheper-Tchesei' pant. They vere told that this place was called "The Place of the Axe.

Prototype of M. I have risen up in the form of a hawk nctri. The High Priest of each great city or nome in Egypt bore a special title. It is interesting. Boy nctri heir of eternity. Amongst Freemasons. Egypt at - ' We do not agree with Dr Budge in his translation of " " " " as matter paut " a handful of earth. It isa collective noun.

All the different amcs mentioned on page of Dr Seler's article are different ames of Sut. Great Seer. Horus and Shu. Bureau of Ethnology. It may be read as follows: We shall refer to this later. The meaning is precisely similar to that of one of the Aats or Domains. W or Ab. In earliest times they portrayed by " " ".

With the a.

Symbols man pdf signs and of primordial

In the Egyptian' the god of the double tians did. In all Mexican and Central American pictures where we see the opening of the body and thc heart being extracted it is carefully preserved by the embalmers.

They also preserved the heart as the Egypas the Ab also represents "The conscience of a man and a heart represents a new or rebirth. Solar power. Sacred Spear. These Dinkas must be a remnant of the early Nilotic Negro. The natives of New Guinea have the same peculiar way of standupon this Spear are " " " " " " ing and the same Totem ceremonies.

Amongst the Dinkas. His Ba is shown hovering over. Sec judgment Scene in Papyrus of Ani. How soon all these native customs. He places himself under self-hypnotism and then tells-the Chief and others the message he has received from heaven through this sacred medium.

At the present time the Spear has taken the place of the original Stone Axe which is the natural outcome of their knowledge of working in metals. Only allowed to people go near it.

The signs and symbols of primordial man

It was the heart that was put into the scales against the Maat. This is quite sufficient proof. Plularch informs us that as rejoicing. These prototypes were the Three Grand Originals "--symbols of the first Trinity. Let all students read through this book carefully before they form any opinion. In the M. Amongst the Nilotic Negroes and those that followed. Lodge the V.

These we find all over the with the world same meaning. To summarise this sign and its meaning we must take this the original sign used by the Pygmies. Ra would represent the head or principal of the Trinity or Triad. I Wfd? Shu at the equinox or centre and " Three Sut at the south or bottom.. The situation would be Horus I. Shu and Sut.. Shu in the centre and Sut at the at Horus top Cubes. Printed by ].. When the Stellar Mythos was evolved into the Solar.. Drawn on stone by Robert 0'Callaghan Newenham.

Brahma as the Creator. In India. The Christians have their Trinity. The Druids in their temples or Lodges had the same. Every the. This is well depicted in our R. These three cubes of Evans. It is remarkable that every mysterious system practised in the Triad of Deity. They represent: Strength and Beauty. Theirs was the first as Stellar Trinity. The chief High Priest sat in the east on a high throne in all his glory.

Egyptian these three cubes of Evans. We are of an entirely different opinion from Evans in his " decipherment of all these early Grecian remains. Shu's is absent. From published records. The natural argument against this is that all these cubes were the same size. With two cubes only. Mr Evans. They were not " " of the Egyptian taken from the hieroglyphic pictures from but the cursive characters which the Egyptians monuments.

Shu at the middle or equinox.. Mycen aean or. To understand all the different Signs and writings find throughout the we world. These objects. Lunar and Solar.

Egean formed the first alphabet that These cursive characters really all existed. Not only in Yucatan. Pages and " of these those and therefore of course pre-Phoenician. The Sign placed above in the Egyptian and Assyrian figures is well known and used by R. The art of weaving ' was practised in the two hemispheres in. ThereU fore the Egyptians were the inventors of the alphabet.

Remains of good examples of the first and last here in H. But all these differences are to be found well preserved in each hemisphere. There are differences in form between thc polished stone hatchets of the two hemispheres. Woven-fabrics have been found in the Swiss Lake dwellings. The markings on all these were similar in many forms-i. Also the art of sawing stone-also the aboriginal art of making pottery vas carried on in a similar manner. Scrapers have also been found in both hemispheres and in all ages.

We fail to see the force of arguments or reasons for assuming that these various natives and prehistoric people have each and separately evolved all their ideas and Totemic ceremonies. They also name children as Leah named her " in child.

The whole past history of the tribe may be said to be bound up with these Totemic ceremonies. The class and Totem systems variously modified. What we have to deal with isa great continental area. The most striking fact in regard to these customs at the present day is that.

These are performed as sacred mysteries in various modes of Sign Language.. Each Totem or clan was recognised by its special. These ceremonial rites were established as the means to memorise facts in Sign Language.

1913__churchward___signs_and_symbols_of_primordial_man.pdf

It is the figure of a total. Each tribe. In being Totemic she was recognised by her Zootype-i. The hrst thing to regulate primitive marriage was the Totem given to the girl at the time 'of the pubescent or marriageable state. In these.

Totemic or religious. The Egyptian sign of Tem-tu is the Hieroglyph from whence the name is derived. The dual motherhood is followed by the twin brotherhood. In Totemism the motherhood is divided between two sisters or a. In the social aspect Totemism was ameans of regulating the supply of food. When the clans divided. Totemism is not derived from Mythology-it was prior to Mythology. In Totemism the mother and motherhood. In a state of sexual promiscuity the first thing of importance was to determine the mother-blood-thus the primary need for the Totem.

These were but the names of the Totemie Zootypes assigned to the mothers of the clans. There was no individual love allowed or. It is very often difficult to distinguish between the human mother in Totemism and the Great Mother in Mythology because the same types were employed.

The human race did not descend from beasts. These cannot be as a metaphysical whole. The mother was first for many thousands of years-the child vas known as hers from the beginning. These began the Sign Language and first evolved articulate sounds. The remains of these little men have been found in the lower and upper quarternary period. Each of these powers.

And before. We see that they represented death. The serpent was often a representation of regeneration either of the soul or life because they noticed that the snake cast its skin and.

When man began to observe and think he would see different forces at work throughout all nature. This would be before he had worked out Totemism proper. Dozens of other examples we could but are sufficient to explain their ideas.

Its head. These are acted symbolically and dramatically.. One may certainly. It is of very little use trying to find the Origin of Totemism and what it originally meant by studying only the Australian.

To arrive at any degree of certainty on the subject one must go to Inner Africa. Pacific Islands. But the study of these people and their Totemic Ceremonies all over the world gives you a most important and conclusive proof of one fact.

Of course the perfect definition of any being or animal or bird always includes the definition of the name whereby it is called. From these " would imbibe their Spiritual Ideas.

This when he observed the various the source of life to man and all else. The question would arise how far has he been initiated?

Except he proved to these people that he believed in Hypnotism and Clairvoyance. Here only shall we find the key to the true original meaning of the "Spirit Worship. After the tribes were subdivided and redivided. The marital or sexual relations were at first promiscuous. It these are of Egyptian origin and "religious conceptions.

The Eagle Hawk is rethe of and Crow. The fundamental idea. The royal families of the Incas. Mr Lang believes that the Eagle Hawk and Crow were creatures in some mythos. The belief in reincarnation must be traced back to the change of the Pole Stars in the circle of precession. New Guinea. Solomon Islands and others. In proof of the above. It is given to theinitiate with his sacred name on it. One of the most interesting points. We must survey these to a complete idea of them.

Emu food for us. The mark M. A " " Mark thus presented for the purpose of obtaining a favour is said to be pledged. Spencer l that it is the custom amongst the various tribes to lend their Sacred Churingas to each other. This is on the same equivalent as.

The secret name is never uttered except on some most solemn occasion. Lang's idea ofthe Arunta and Kaitish tribes-" thattlzey alone believe in the Churinga Nanga "-is too ludicrous to discuss. The same marks are found in Portuguese Neolithic sites and Paleolithic sites. New Guinea and the Hebrides Islanders. The natives have forgotten their origin. These marks we see on the Churinga are found in our own islands. The markings on those Churingas and sacred objects differ amongst various tribes.

In the Stellar Mythology. Mexicans and tribes of Central America is Yax C ocahmut. All this shows and proves that with these the maternal was prior to the paternal. I will give him to eat of the hidden and I will give to him a white stone. Lord of. Trinity College. Each of these. Sut and Horus had been the twin builders and the founders of north and south. A in The Book ol the Dead. Walpari and Wulmala.

Shu followed with the new foundation in the equinox-the horizonsThe " " here above shown. The " " North Pole was called Nurtunga and the other Pole. We find the same disc amongst the North American Indians connected with the Swastika'Totem-see later.

“SIGNS AND SYMBOLS OF PRIMORDIAL MAN.”

The two Hawks-as Isis and Nephthys may be seen depicted in the Papyrus. T here are many Totemic ceremonies. Where tribal marriages took place. There is also another reason why this ceremony is and was practised. Egyptian the Solomon Islands. Book of the Dead. On the! Sze Appendix. This might have been one of their beliefs. In all probability they found that circumcision was not sutiicient in some cases to prevent disease being contracted. Isis-Mut-sometimes depicted by or tribes and countries.

Ziff A ndrew Lang. Hathor bird. Sign Language. PM em. An uncircumcised native is not considered can of it the we at a remote we either for fighting. Africa ". It was also practised amongst the Makalanges.

Probably meaning some in tribes New Solomon Islands and Guinea. There is a history on record. It is still practised by the Fan or Fang Tribes. The rite proves the nonentity and not allowed " of manhood Fetishism of W. The motherhood. This figure in the mythologyof Egypt.

You might also like: HIGH RISE MANUAL PDF

The creation of man or men and women 'lffl was mystical in one sense and in another if Yi Totemic. The self-mutilation " " or cutting of the male member of Ra or Atum Ra was a mode of showing the derivation from the human father in suppression of the motherhood. The creation here is "blood re-if tclies-a ashesh-na em Shu tefnet-na em and spirit.

It is in Atum or Tum. The same story is found amongst the Guatemalans. In the section which says that the eye of Nu was unable to make itself seen until after Shu and Tufnut hadcome into being" means: A very important passage. From reading the records of the past it is impossible for anyone not to comprehend the fact that they had the knowledge of evolution.

In this text we find that Khepera had made another eye the first eye being our Sun. I worked-or willed-or sent " " from my heart. Nu may be said to represent the watery vapour.

The tears of Horus here mean or reprein your name of men. The sun was considered the greatest fecundator. Daylight or Sun's Rays. Shu presented the Sun as one and the first Eye of Khepera. In the 17th chapter of the " His names together compose the cycle of the Ritual it says: The great battle between Sut and Horus primarily is spoken of in later texts as The night of Conflict "-i. At the same time we must not forget that all these different names of gods were simply the various attributes of the One God.

Australians have The Great aboriginal Father Spirit. Then vas conflict in the entire universe. It is company of the gods as God.

And man of signs pdf primordial symbols

That the aborigines of Australia practise the imitation of this former rite is another good proof to those we shall bring forward. The "Children of Failure " at the approach of the which melt and vanish ness. See Nu represented the watery vapour surrounding this earth. Dr Badge. In our opinion all the facts found up to the present time are against it. Then Ra came into being and Osiris: Asia and the rest of the world obtained all their knowledge originally from the Egyptians.

This was followed by the Lunar and then the Solar doctrines. These he converts into ethnical personages and glorified natural heroes. These are mentioned and " shownvin the Pylon of the Twelfth Division of the Tuat. In Australia this is impossible. He great was the Lord of Life and Light. Horus first the evil the fought in the Stellar Eschatologically.. The Arunta have stone which is only seen by the initiated men.

Hence we contend that the -proof we advance is indisputable. This would only prove that the whole of the inhabitants dated back still further away in the remoter ages. Four serpents are also shown on the stones found at Ollamh Fodhla. As regards traditional history. It is not necessary to describe all these ceremonies. Later on we shall show the connection between Totemic ceremonies and the signs and symbols found amongst the aboriginal Australians and Nilotic and Bantu negroes.

Originally it meant " The Chief. Our object is only to draw attention to them and to state that our belief is that the present explanation given by the natives is one that has been substituted for the original. It is immaterial whether we date the exodus of the Australians before the traditional history of Osiris. The Only point which occurs to the author is this. In the Rilzml serpents were often used to denote cardinal points.

These two feet would correspond with the two feet of Buddha. The brow of the waters-the God wherein is Aasekhem. They are identical with those found on the stones among the Druidical remains in the British Isles.

Aat of the Khus. The tank of flame. The seven Aats.

'+_.H(b)+"

Mexico and Egypt. Two feet are also depicted on the Rock drawings in several places. This is plainly shown in the Ritual or the Book " of the Dead. Several of these are parts of the fourteen Aats or domains or divisions of Sekhet-Anru.

Egean and Proto-Egyptian-are undoubtedly Egyptian Hieroglyphics. Osiris was only another name evolved in course of time out of the more ancient doctrines and tales. Those found and tabulated by Evdns-Cretan. Ha-Sert-the God wherein is Fa-Pet. The browof fire-the Godwherein is Fa-Akk. Cooqlc L. Drawing for the Stomach ek during lo Unripe Plum. Dnwing for the Back. Pwu Tu: Drawings for the Back and Su: Drawings the Boys during the Ceremony of throwing them up in the Air.

Dnwing for the Back..

Of primordial pdf symbols signs and man

D1 u Dnwx for the Buck and Stomach he stme. There is also another proof! The Australians use the boomerang. This probably is the oldest evidence we have of the boomerang having been known and used in Egypt at the time of the Stellar Mythos.

We only wish to draw amongst attention that to Egypt we must go for the original. The idea here suggested is either the weapon held by the god is a real serpent.

Anhar-Kerasher and Netchemet. This is a very to recognise. It is also portrayed in the most ancient tombs Lepsius Dcnekim. It must be remembered that the boomerang is found in use other nations in various parts of the world-in America it was in use amongst the Northern and Southern Indians 3 but this has been fully written on by other authors and it is not necessary to enlargeon the subject here. And furthermore. Roth says that the triangles found on the boomerangs. It is a significant fact that on some of the boomerangs the three triangles.

At Springvale in the Boulia district. For which we are much indebted to Mr G. These points should be particularly noticed as we shall draw attention to these triangles later on.

Symbols ' Taking into consideration that these people must have left Egypt at a very early period and that they have brought down to the present day many other signs and symbols. From the evidence we have from Spencer and Gillen we know that the Totem was first of all eaten by the members of the group as their own especial food.

Be it quite understood that these figures we bring forward are quite distinct from those writings and mark" " ings found on the sticks carried from one tribe to another as messengers-in one case the aborigines will give you their meaning and translation. The ethics of these aboriginal Australians are still objective The individuals are or tribal.

The form of burial at the present time is the same aswe find at Naqada. It is mighty to be feared Reproduced by which is therein The God vhose name is the Lofty One.. These translated from another version may be read as " follows: Ha-hetep and Qa-ha-hetep is also Horus as Guardian in the form ofa pole.

Horus is also the Guide of the Northern Horizon. The roarings which are therein are the roarings of Sut. Budge states in his " Gods of the Egyptians. He maintaineth life in the Two Lands. Budge assumes. Celestial and Terrestrial.

Our opinion is that it was North and South and afterwards East and West were added. North and South. I am the Guide to the Northern Horizon. Lord of the Double East and West. Solomon Islands and those of the New Hebrides. In the lIexican Nezahualpilli. Nev Guinea. Whether this be so or whether these forgotten" and the Mexican and American Indians have retained the other parts of the Ritual. This was still Horizon.

East and West. Egyptian Stellar -Mythos. The tvo poles. Thus we see that these people actually are at the present day symbolically out and performing part of the ceremonies of the earliest ritual of the Ancient Egyptians. The evolution from myths into Stellar Mythos.

The two divisions. All these were originally Egyptian customs. Zapotecs and Seri.. Photo from F. The Picts. We give the photograph here of one returning after the ' " All who are initiated must use this sign on Intichiuma.

The grass rope used in connection with the expiation of Sin will be referred to under our Cable Tow. These traditions alone are. Amongst the Makalanga tribes of South Africa. In every family residence there is a place under a raised platform of poles. Festivals Our May-pole Dance and Festival is the remnant of the same. W hat occurred were Festivals.

At the present day they have the sacred triangle. Although we have no knowledge at present of any copper having been found in this nov well-known place. Mafeking is an Egyptian word for copper. These men have the same three rods or bars as the Druids. Mr H " festival of the New Moon. As we shall point out and prove later rays of light are the name of I. Brother Lt. These natives still know many of the Star the have but most present day probably at " signs.

Ve cannot agree with Mr H all and others who have come to this conclusion. Many of the OF natives still wear the "Hows hair-lock. That others visited and inhabited these regions afterwards. Great Zambabwe. Facts are true. This gold was brought from the Land of the South.. Mr antique. T here is evidence also that although these nationsstill have and practise these " " " " " " ".

No doubt many of the customs are the same.

They all believe in the spirit of their ancestors. Mohammedanism was the first of the breakdown in their ancient worship. Mexicans and Maya Indians in the forest. Ancestor Worship as well as Here we have an early belief of Spirit Worship. Their skulls correspond to those of the Egyptian. Luban vorship has now. Borgian Codex. The ancient Spirit Houses. The Torditcs practise tribal scarring. Book V. At Philze. The ear of corn.

These two forms or ceremonies correspond with the two Histories of Creation by the Egyptians-see pages Young unced.

Prince of the Emerald Stone. The Rihml says: There is everything shown plainly in these old codices. This is the. The people of these countries Central America had to express same gross way their spiritual ideas in the as the ancient Egyptians did. I hold myself in thy inclosure": I know the name of it. It will be dijusing incorrect interpretations. Hence the use of the Bull Roarer as a warning of danger to women and others or that the evil one was abroad in that neighbourhood!

Anyone reading the toteniic ceremonies and the traditional history of the great snake. The pole over the serpeut's hole. This is what Spencer and Gillen say: The name of the instrument in Egyptian is Mcnait. It lives now in a large water-hole. Reproduced by kind permission from Native Tribes of Northern Australia. Baldwin Spencer and F. There is no doubt that the building of the mound and stroking it is to p'ease " when the old the snake.

Warramungi tribe. Fundamentally similar are all tribes of natives: Tordites throw food and bodies into the Lake Crater the same as in Central Africa. Crown of the land of the South or " Crown. The two human footprints. Totemic ceremony place called Ununtumurra. Reproducedpby kind permission from Native Tribes of Northern Australia..

See photos of Sut and Horus.. MAN 83 god was lost.. In all periods of history. A most striking feature of the designs is the tracks of a man following until' these have reached the head. It was related to the Python family. The one at Glen Feechan. With the Australians it represents the same. These track-steps represent the footprints of Horus. And here we have these poor aboriginal Australians practising at the present time the Totemic Ceremonies of this myth their ancestors brought with them from Egypt.

Isaiah lxvi. Sut changed himself into a serpent. Nev Zealand and other parts of the world. V V We must recognise that all these Totemic ceremonies of the Australian and other natives. Commencing with the delta of the Nile' as the entrance to the Tuat. See valleys ' ' Appendix. Ur IV. Chief of the Bureau.

Sut then became the type of the Great Fiend. God Horus or Iu. Over the centre of the body is the head of Horus. On the right. In the have a very interesting reading as " regards the Father Nu "-i.

Sut is here depicted bound or tied up or chained-see Ritual-" Horus succeeded in fettering Sut and binding him in chains "-parallel to Satan being bound in the Christian doctrines.

Although this is Mexican. When the Solar took the place of Stellar doctrines. Below this isthe phallus. In the lower part. Sut has taken refuge in a hole. This plate is divided into three parts: See Ritual. Horus is thus represented as Heru-Khcnt-an-Maati. In two plates. Horus says: Pole of heaven and the powers of all the gods are my powers.

The five different characters represented on the band are five different attributes of him-Shu. Chepas and Yucatan. The two primary gods formed Shu the Sun. In chap. I am he whose names are hidden and whose abodes are mysterious son eternity. On the right he is crushing the great evil fiend with his left footsce overthrow of Apepi-and then is chained. Having his mouth open and tongue out signifies. In his right hand he holds light and splendour and division of time: He is seated on the throne of the two lands.

The head in the centre. He is portrayed carrying Horus in his hand and holding him aloft as the True Light of the World. Note left foot. Horus is now supreme and reigns as the Everlasting Light and Saviour of the World.

Dr Seler's decipherment. We quote what he says: It gives also one version. The pictures shown here. On the other slab a rabbit is shown and beside it circles. One figure c. Saville has interpreted these two tablets quite correctly. In plate vi. In the of this another part temple of Copan. His God of the Night is Anubis. The different which he is inclinedto regard as the struggle between darkness and light-yes.

The Mexicans also have this deity under the name of MacuilXochetle. His "figure of a blazing star" " he wishes the hieroglyph ce Acatl "reed" to represent. Amongst the Zapotecs they have a record of a deity of the name of Xipe. Dr Seler and others can only read these correctly through the " Ritual of ancient Egypt.

The former has the "Horus " " plainly visible. His Gods of Drunkenness. For a true explanation we must know and recognise that it is one and the same. It is immaterial whether we find the goddess Hatlior in one form or the other: The ancient temple of Tepoxtlan contains the representative of Horus I.

In the Christian doctrines we have the Madonna.. We A enabled to give two figures from photographs of " Two Gods recently discovered near the ruins of Mitla. The most famous city in old Yucatan. La represented Memoires de la Mission Francaise..

Man pdf and signs of symbols primordial

Horus as represented as a bringer of food and water. It is a type of Horus as the brxngcr of food. The one on the right has a Crown on his head. In front. Photographs of these. In each case the figure is seated on a Throne-4 stones of equal size. The reading of these. The 4 Powers or Supporters of the 4 Corners. Symbolical of a Power bringing death. The Mayas copied the Egyptians. Mr Salomon Reiuach in his Orpheus has fallen into the same error as most other writers on these subjects.

It was the jackal as Anup who carried Horus. Dieseldorj and M r Forstemmm is. Anup is my bearer "-chap. Shu-Anhur is addressed under various names connected with his deeds: That the two are one. Dieseldor cannot understand or account for. Red God who orderest the block of execution to whom the double " " Horus at his second coming. We wish to make this clear to our readers. Thou strikest the Menti and the Seti in the name vhich is thine ' of Young-Elder!

Thou strikest upon the heads of the wicked in the name which is thine of Lord of Wounds. The primary was the Zootype. He was bearer of Symbolic Utat.

We have here the" yellow and black Bacahs. G Lower Egypt. Flowers A and who may not understand why " G. D is " proclaiming to 'G V M. Our brethren may take D and F as the representatives of the two. It is the book of the Mysteries.

R " hcrc is represented by Anubis. This will be sufficient explanation to all Masons. To I our Those of brother Masons. Stephens gives a plate in his book of this figure from Central American States. F is seeing that this is properly performed and instructing him in the sign. Price 25 s. To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink. By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Article metrics. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subscribe Search My Account Login. Abstract THIS is a book well worth reading, difficult to describe, and impossible to criticise. Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube. Rights and permissions To obtain permission to re-use content from this article visit RightsLink.

About this article Publication history Issue Date 12 December Comments By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.