Open Design Now: Why Design Cannot Remain Exclusive by Bas van Abel, Lucas Evers, Roel Klaassen Citations; Metrics; Reprints & Permissions · PDF Open Design: Contributions, Solutions, Processes and Projects. IKEA HACKERS / DANIEL SAAKES | Open Design Now . homeranking.info~ rwakkary/papers/homeranking.info 2. Rosner, B, 'Learning from IKEA. homeranking.info: Open Design Now: Why Design Cannot Remain Exclusive ( ): Bas van Abel, Lucas Evers, Roel Klaassen, Peter Troxler: Books.
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Open Design Now is published as a book, and available for sale since June 2 Since then content was gradually made available for free until downloadable design contents in Open Design Now: (Un)Limited Design contest Experimenting with Open Design Bas van Abel Open. Open Design Now looks ahead to the future of design. Using key texts . Available online at homeranking.info
You can change your ad preferences anytime. This project has been completed. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Designerly ways - Open Research Online ; Designerly ways of knowing: If this is to become our future, if digital files will be so easy to distribute and turn into physical products, what will become of our post-industrial age? Although we have to take these problems seriously, they should not lead to the conclusion that we should avoid further development of open design.
The answer is that mass customization is part of the project of metadesign, but only part. In the main article I referred to the three dimensions of open design. In the case of mass customization, as with Nike, the aspect related to openness only exists in the output dimension, and even there the openness is rather limited: It would naturally be impossible to offer a detailed blueprint or road map for exactly what metadesigns will look like; this discussion is merely my reflections on the topic — or perhaps my considerations of a development yet to.
I think we should add one more value: It is my belief that this value will encompass all the others, presenting a great challenge for the meta-designer.
The OpenWetWare organization not only promotes the sharing of information, know-how and wisdom among researchers and groups who are working in biology and biological engineering, it also tries to prevent efforts to patent living matter, such as DNA.
I could list many more examples of the open movement, from open gaming to open love. We seem to be open to everything.
In the presence of so many trends towards openness, it does not come as a surprise that we also are witnessing the emergence of an open design movement, albeit slightly later than in many other domains. It seems to be part of a shift in the world of design from form via content to context, or from syntax via semantics to pragmatics. Input side On the input side we have voluntary contributors, who do not have to ask permission to participate, and use open and free raw material that is free of restrictive copyright ACTIVISM so that it can be freely improved and modified.
If no open and free raw material is available, as long as the option exists to create new one, then peer production is a possibility.
Process side On the process side, it is based on design for inclusion, low thresholds for participation, freely available modular tasks rather than functional jobs, and communal validation of the quality and excellence of the alternatives peer governance.
Output side On the output side, it creates a commons, using licenses that insure that the resulting value is available to all, again without permission. Fab Labs give individuals access to tools for digital fabrication; the only provisos are that you must learn to do it yourself, and you must share the lab with other uses and users. This sounds exciting — and indeed, it is.
However, there are also some serious problems connected with open design, three of which are associated with the open source movement in general.
The first problem is particularly linked with open source movements that deal with the production of physical objects. Where any immaterial project is concerned, as long as there is a general infrastructure for cooperation, and there is open and free input that is available or can be created, then knowledge workers can work together on a common project.
However, the production of physical goods inevitably involves costs of raising the necessary capital, and the result at least needs to recoup the costs. Thanks to the 3D printer, this problem seems to become less urgent every month. The first consumer 3D printer has been announced for this autumn, produced by Hewlett-Packard. Nevertheless, the laws of the physical economy will remain a serious constraint, compared to open source activities in the digital domain.
A second problem for the open design movement is that many people are not able or willing to join the open design movement. Human life is an eternal oscillation between openness and closedness, and this holds true for design. Many people do not have the skills, the time or the interest to design their own clothes, furniture, software, pets, or weapons see below, under the fourth problem.
Although we have to take these problems seriously, they should not lead to the conclusion that we should avoid further development of open design. It should urge us not to ignore or underestimate the potentially dangerous pitfalls of open design, and invent new strategies to face up to them.
Third, we should not automatically trust those who think that they are able to design. As long as the individual is happy with the result, this issue does not seem like a big problem. Unfortunately, crowdsourcing does not always result in wisdom; quite often, all it produces is the folly of the crowds. Suhrkamp, , p. Premsela Lecture , p. Available online at www. Knopf, More information at www.
Fourth, I want to address an additional problem. We should not forget that the 3D printers and DNA printers PRINTING in the Fab Labs and homes of the future probably will not be used solely to design beautiful vases and flowers; they could also be used to engineer less benign things, such as lethal viruses. This is not a doomsday scenario about a possible distant future. A Reconnaissance. MIT Press: Boston, , p. Non-Fiction The Penguin Press, London, , p.
Translated by Eliot Weinberger. Mushon Zer-Aviv describes his efforts to teach open source design as an attempt to investigate why collaborative work combined with individual autonomy has not been common practice in design, as it is in open source software development. He discusses whether what worked for code might just as easily be transferred to design: His work involves media in public space and public space in media. He explores the borders of collaborative models as they are redrawn through politics, design and networks.
Mushon defines open design as follows: Hacking is a bottom-up visionary practice attempting to introduce rapture and creative disturbance into these designed systems. Open design is a journey to discover the best of both worlds.
I have been teaching open source design since , in an attempt to figure out whether it can even exist. This article is an opportunity for me to reflect on and share my latest failures and successes in teaching what has yet to be learned.
This combination of collaborative work and individual autonomy intrigued me.
Coders were developing appealing political structures that were fostering creativity, collaboratively. Are they too afraid of trying? Do they just need a helping hand? Inspired by these initiatives, I started my own open source project, co-founding ShiftSpace. It was my enthusiasm about open development that inspired me, but I was surprised to find that this excitement was not shared by my fellow designers.
I set out to answer these questions, but trawling through online resources did not yield enough satisfactory writing on the subject. Similarly, there is no intrinsic sociable instinct that leads coders to one another.
The networked collaborative model of Free Software for coding is pragmatically the best way to go; any other way just makes much less sense. In this context, ideological reasons are secondary to simple pragmatism. I figured the classroom would be the first place to start, so I proposed a class for the Parsons School for Design entitled Open Source Design. I assumed that our exploration of design based on Free Software methods should probably start with interface design, since interface is an integral part of most of the software we use.
My hope was that I would be able to convince my students to contribute their design skills to some projects — have them get hands-on experience working on real projects while actually making some actual and much-needed contributions to Free Software. To drive home the point about collaboration and to scare off any students who might not be ready for the bumpy ride , I decided to kick off the first class with some bold statements: You can imagine the looks on their faces. Luckily for me, only some of them left as soon as the class was over.
My approach to this class was different than what I had done in previous classes I had taught. Rather than teach the students to use the technology, we learned how to figure things out on our own. Rather than memorizing every HTML element and what it might be good for, we learned to use Firefox and the Firebug extension to inspect the source code of every site.
Unlike in other classes, the students were encouraged to copy, to analyse, to understand and to implement code and design patterns they found on the web. In both cases, the students based their work on previous design decisions coded into these frameworks and explored ways of modifying the code or design to fit their needs.
We were using design foundations that were strong, but at the same time easy to modify. It made sense to the students; they understood why the concept of openness might actually be relevant for them. Teaching vs Learning Like many other design educators, teaching is one of the ways that I can stay up to date. I am required to constantly keep myself informed, constantly learning and make sure I actually understand new subjects enough to teach them. That is also a benefit of being involved in open source initiatives.
The professional exchange between coders facilitates a sustainable peer-to-peer learning environment — and one that extends beyond the structures of institutional education.
To extrapolate, if I learn by teaching students and geeks learn by teaching each other, maybe my students can learn that way too. Students were required to create a non-digital tutorial on something they already knew how to do, preferably a topic that others might not be familiar with.
They exchanged tutorials in class; over the following week, all the students had to follow the. A tutorial is an involved interactive design task, even when the tutorial is not digital. It also provided a framework for the semester that was constructed around knowledge sharing, documentation and peer learning. Art and design schools still nurture the image of the genius. Tutorial hunting has become a substantial part of the semester, as tutorials become a major source of pooled knowledge.
We used a class mailing list where students could submit technical questions and ask for creative feedback. I encouraged them to post their code and questions on the blog and refer their peers to the relevant blog post from the mailing list.
However, in many cases, a code snippet was not enough to get the full picture, reproduce the problem and help solve it; we needed to share the full code repository. I was concerned that getting the students on a version control system would be pushing them just a bit beyond the geekdom level that design students could handle in one semester, but it became unavoidable. I set them up on a centralized Subversion code repository, so every student would get every code update downloaded directly to their computers.
This worked well, but it had an unacceptable side effect: Symbolically, each class became an abandoned open source project. Obviously, that was not the message I wanted to leave the students with. I recently gave up on the Subversion system, which used centralized version control, and got my students on Git and the Github.
On Github, the students publish their code in public and other users not just the other students in the class, but also other users can easily fork, merge and comment on the code. When the semester ended, the students maintained control of their own repositories, beyond the context of the class. Pragmatic, Not Altruistic By that point in the semester, I have managed to convince the students why free and open source content available online is relevant to them and will advance their creative work.
But that was the easy part; I have not yet managed to convince them why they should contribute too, why they should give back to the commons. I initially set up the final assignment of the semester as an arbitrary task: The first semester of the Open Source Design class ended in disappointment; it was clear we were on the wrong track.
In the following semester, I understood that assigning an arbitrary contribution was the wrong way to go.
I had a smaller class that time around, and we chose to work together twice during the semester. First, we took part in the WordPress 2.
Later, the students chose to help some of their friends get their portfolios up online using the Indexhibit system. They wrote tutorials, they recorded screencapture videos, they wrote code examples and style comments. Finally, they posted their contributions. The second attempt had worked much better than the first one, but I knew its success had a lot to do with the qualities and personalities of the students in class.
They enjoyed working together but at its core, the Indexhibit documentation was still a relatively altruistic contribution to a project that they were not actually planning to use after the class ended. If they were not going to benefit from their own contributions, why should they contribute again once they were no longer required to for a group assignment? In the following semesters, I guided students to write the kind of tutorials they would have liked to find for themselves.
They not only covered the technical side of the technologies they documented; they also looked at the design aspects. At the end of the semester, the blog featured valuable, peer-reviewed and tested tutorials that benefited the students who had already completed the class.
Months and years after each of these semesters ended, these publicly available contributions constantly receive thank-you comments from random users on the web. And still, it was not enough yet.
Toward a Collaborative Design Process As far as knowledge sharing is involved, the tutorial approach has indeed proved itself. However, sharing technology and design tips is not collaboration. In this context, sharing has been happening post mortem to the creative act. Writing a wiki and coding software both benefit from a highly collaboration-friendly technology: Both types of content generation use a vocabulary predefined by language, which levels the playing field for the various contributors.
It poses implicit prerequisites literacy and it funnels the contributions through a finite list of the syntax options standardized by language. For better or worse, both visual and behavioural languages are not confined within.
In the last few decades, interface design emerged as an important cultural practice. There have been many attempts recently to coordinate and standardize this new language.
The critical discussion of interface linguistics does not happen in the academic arena, it happens in the blogosphere. These interface linguists document design patterns and evaluate best practices for following them. Many of them are advocating semantic content and structured data, claiming such approaches would support efforts to index and process this content.
The aim here is to serve artificial systems that are not intelligent enough to derive the meaning without external assistance.
At the same time, these index-based and component-based approaches help structure the creative process as well. We see it in Wikipedia, where the way that articles are structured helps to focus and process the collaborative act. And we see it in interaction modules, where code libraries encapsulate a single action which can still be modified externally through APIs. We will try to evaluate the legibility and readability of our messages; some might call it usability testing. The next frontier for the academic collaborative design lab that my students and I have been leading would have to involve the linguistics of interaction design.
We will start drafting characters, then words and then sentences; some might call it building a structured visual language. Winning by Design. There are currently a wide range of design specific. How can I download the PDF that comes with my audiobook?
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