Indian Art and Culture is the most important topic you have to cover when it comes to the preparation of UPSC Civil Download Art And Culture books for free by CCRT. Yojana Magazine February Download in PDF. The sources from where we can prepare Indian culture. 1. NCERT History books of Class VI, VII, VIII, XI and XII. 2. Indian Culture by SPECTRUM 3. CCRT Notes Pdf Download - Indian Culture Notes Free Download - Nitin Singhania Notes Indian Culture free Book Also Available Click on.
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The Centre for Cultural Resources and Training (CCRT) has been producing a variety of publications for the benefit of people associated with the field of culture . culture will be enhanced. Students do not often get an opportunity to study actual art objects or reproductions of Indian art. It is hoped that this cultural package. CULTURE OF INDIA ‗Culture' is derived from Latin term ‗cult or cultus' meaning cultivating or refining and worship. The term ‗Sanskriti' has been derived from.
Kadagam originated as a ritual dedicated to the worship of Mariamman. The lips. Bijapur and Golconda. Teen Darwaza Maharaja's Palace at Mysore and M.
Stephens Church at Walbrooks. University and Lakshmi Villas Palace at Baroda. John at Calcutta inspired by St. Painting declined and lost much of its earlier quality. Bijapur and Golconda. A large number of miniatures comprising portraits. Jodhpur and Nagour etc. Jammu and Garhwal in UP.
Using brush and ink from the lampblack. Bihar have painted colorful auspicious images on the interior walls of their homes on the occasion of domestic rituals since at least the 14th century. Lucknow and Haathras.
Kutch and Kathiawar. Mathura and Brindavan can be seen. Kurma tortoise. Vivida Vadham. Vaman dwarf. Rasa krida. Kooli and Koimbidar Nandikeshvara are all heavily made-up.
Buddha and Kalki. Krishna or Balram. Bengal Orissa. She is known as Murki. Jagran and Kirtan. The ten incarnations are Matsya fish. Bana Yudham. Narsimha lion-man. Varaha boar. Lav-kush Yuddh. Draupadi swayamvar.
BaaliSugreeva yuddha and Panchavati. Abhimanyu vadh. Karna-Arjun yuddh and from Ramayana i. Subhadra vivah.. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Mahabharata and Puranas. Andhra Pradesh. Togalu Gombeyatta. Tholu Bommalata. Putul Nautch. Ilathalam and Shankha the conch. Two Main Types. Bowed instruments. There is also mention of a kind of a flute called the Nadi.
Excavations of the Indus civilizations have shown bird whistles of clay. On the Tabli there is a bridge made of ivory or bone. There is reference in the Vedas to an instrument-the Venu which was used as an accompaniment to chanting and recitation.
The simplest of these instruments is the flute. Generally flutes are made of bamboo or wood and the Indian musician prefers these due to the tonal and musical attributes of these materials. Wind instruments are roughly divided into two categories on the basis of how sound is produced. They are: Some musicians do not tune this drum to an accurate pitch. Sound is produced by striking both sides with sticks or fingers. The earliest references to such instruments have been found in the Vedas where there is mention of Bhumi Dundhubhi.
The tail of the animal was used for striking the animal hide and thus sound was produced. Tabla has a wooden body with a covering of animal skin. Alingya and the waisted or the Damaru family of drums. Prominent among these are the Tabla pair and Chenda. The main categories are-Oordhwaka. Seals which have been excavated of the Indus Civilization show figures of men playing the horizontal drums hung from the neck. Between the straps and the wooden body. Carnatic music of South India.
Jhanj Player. Different tones can be produced by hitting different areas of the pot with different parts of the hands.
An airy low-pitch bass sound.
Once constructed. The ghatam usually accompanies a mridangam. Huddaka is struck with the hands while Timila is hung from the shoulders and played with sticks and fingers.
The finale of the piece is a series of well designed rhythmic lines reaching a climax. The person who conducts the dance recitation is the Nattuvanar. Mime and gestures were perhaps added later on to make the recitation more effective. Bharatnatyam leans heavily on the abhinaya or mime aspect of dance. The performance ends with a mangalam invoking the blessings of the Gods.
Kathak became highly stylised and came to be regarded as a sophisticated form of entertainment. Dancer here performs complicated well graded rhythmic patterns in two speeds showing the control over rhythm. A poetic line set to music is interpreted with gestures in other numbers.
A Kuchipudi recital is usually concluded with tarangam. Both in nritta pure dance and the abhinaya mime there is immense scope for improvisation of presenting variations on a theme. Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or the North Indian music. Torso movements emerge from the change of the shoulder line rather than through the manipulations of the backbone or upper chest and lower waist muscles. Both the drummer here the drum is either a pakhawaj. Now other gods are also invoked.
Earlier the invocation was limited to Ganesha Vandana. One such number is tarangam inspired by the Krishna-leela tarangini of Teerthanarayana Yogi.
Being the only classical dance of India having links with Muslim culture. The Sun Temple at Konarak. Satvika characters are noble. Krishnattam and Ramanattam are few of the ritual performing arts of Kerala which have had a direct influence on Kathakali in its form and technique. Many of today's gurus of this style belong to the gotipua tradition.
The movement of the eyebrows. These dance movements. The lips. Around this time. A mixture of rice paste and lime is applied to make the chutti on the face which highlights the facial make-up.
The chowk is a position imitating a square. With the lower half of the body remaining static. Bodos etc. The dancers in a Oja paali chorus not only sing and dance but also explain the narration by gestures and stylized movements.
These are used in a variety of intricate combinations. Great training is required for this control so as to avoid any shoulder or hip movement. D by the great Vaishnava saint and reformer of Assam. The tribhanga is a very feminine stance where the body is deflected at the neck.
Sankaradeva included Vyah Goa Ojah into his daily rituals in Sattra. Mahapurusha Sankaradeva as a powerful medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith. There are certain foot positions with flat. In Manipuri Ras. Krishna and the gopis. The whole community participates as song and dance form part of daily life expressions. The masculine aspect of dance the Choloms are a part of the Sankirtana tradition. Krishna wears a yellow dhoti.. Besides the Ras and other leelas.
The principal performers are the maibas and maibis priests and priestesses who re-enact the theme of the creation of the world. The male dancers play the Pung and Kartal while dancing. The Kirtan form of congregational singing accompanies the dance which is known as Sankirtana in Manipur. The Pung and Kartal choloms are performed at all social and religious festivals. The martial dancers of Manipur.
The main musical instrument is the Pung or the Manipuri classical drum.
The Manipuri classical style of singing is called Nat. The unique coiffure with hair gathered on the left side of the head reflect it's aesthetic appeal. Literally meaning the Dance of the Enchantress. Though both men and women perform this dance. Bihu ushers in the sowing time and also the season of marriage. What is unique is the easy going rise and fall of the body. The movements are never abrupt. The traditional costume worn in Mohiniyattam is white with a gold border.
It is traditionally performed during Krishna Janmashtami celebrations and the themes are taken from the Mahabharata. Of all the classical South Indian styles. The Nagara is the main instrument used.
Mohiniyattam can be singled out with admirable distinction. The glances. The regional system of music that Mohiniyattam follows is the SOPANA style which in it's lyricism is evocative of the spiritual element. Women dance in slow rhythmic movements. It is essentially performed by women. Kirji Kumbh is a poisonous flower which blossoms every 12 years. BIHAR Jhijhia is usually performed by a group of young women dancers and portrays the offering of prayers to please the King of Gods-Lord Indra-for a good monsoon and a rich harvest.
Performed by a group of young boys and girls dressed in their best.
Garba is performed during Navratri and during weddings. GOA The metal lamps are traditional handicrafts of Goa and the Samai dance is performed with these traditional metallic lamps or deepaks. The pot is the symbol of the body and the lighted lamp inside the pot signifies the divine soul. It may appear to be a hunt-dance with only the imitation of the frisking.
During religious gatherings the dance is performed to the accompaniment of slow singing. Villagers march in a procession to destroy the flower before it sheds its poison into the mountain streams.
The men and women balance the samai on their heads and perform various movements. The dance builds up gradually and acquires a fast tempo in the end. Circular movements with speed and grace are the main features of Ras. The two and three tier formation moves clockwise and anti clockwise. Daang dance centers around the social life. The accompanying songs are full of satire and humour and refer to contemporary events. It is vigorous. This dance is usually performed during Holi and other festivals.
Ras is a unique synthesis of folk dance. Junagarh and Surat. The dancers then form a circle and the tempo of the dance is accelerated. They follow Muslim religion and dance to the beat of drum on the eve of the Urs of their Prophet Baba Gaur.
They settled in the coastal parts of Gujarat like Bharuch. The movements are made by holding body weight on one foot and moving forward. The women climb on the shoulders of men and form a human pyramid. Interesting circular formation is created centering around the accompanists who stand in the middle of an open space. The girls form semi-circles and start singing and clapping.
Indian Sculpture. Indian Painting. Indian Literature. Hindustani Classical Music. Carnatic Classical Music. Regional Music. Musical Instruments. Theatre Forms. Puppet Forms. So, you can refer these notes along with some standard books. So, These are some of the important notes for Art and Culture. Also along with these notes you can refer book by Spectrum.
Download free study material for IAS Exam. Share this: Like Loading In Chhau dance, the fight between good and evil always culminates in the triumph of good over destructive evil.
Powerful movements, immense concentration, the dazzling costumes, the rhythmic drum beating and the shehnai characterize the Chhau dance form. This dance is popular in Jharkhand also.
Accompanied by folk musical instruments, the performers dance gracefully to a rhythm, creating a lively and a colourful spectacle. This particular rhythm is known as Badhai from which this folk dance has acquired its name.
Animals also take part in Badhai Nritya and in many villages, mares female horses are seen at such performances. The Baredi folk songs and folk dances are presented during the fortnight commencing from Deepawali Kartik Amawasya to Kartik Poornima. They wear a typical attractive dress specially meant for this occasion. One of the performers with a rhythm sings two lines from the poem called Baredi and the other participants present a vigorous and sprightly performance, the Baredi dance.
This dance is presented with a worship of Govardhan Parvat. It is believed that the Lord Krishna himself participated in these Baredi dances alongwith his gwal mates.
This dance originated during ancient times for celebrations when the armed forces returned victorious after war. This dance was performed in merriment celebrating victory. Danced throughout the year, it conveys the spirit of joy and exuberance of the people of Bundelkhand. It is primarily, a female dance, where the dancers with veils on their faces, move their feet and whirl body in rhythm to the accompaniment of vocal and instrumental music. Algoza, mridanga and dhapali are the main musical instruments used in this dance.
Although, there is no restriction regarding the choice of themes for a Lavani performance, this art form is at its best when dealing with themes of bravery, pathos, love and devotion, Music, poetry, dance and drama intermingle with such perfection in the rendering of Lavani, that it is almost impossible to separate their various components. Usually performed during the Yaoshand festival or the festival of colours , the dance expresses love and creativity, with an intricate interplay of dhols and fireplay.
Dhol Cholom belongs to the Manipur sankirtan traditions. Specially it is having base in a Akhada Martial Art tradition of Maharashtra. It is performed in every corner of Maharashtra.
This dance is occasionally performed in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat also. The instruments used in this dance are dhol, tasha and jhanj etc. Hajongs observe various festivities of the Hindus. The Lewatana is usually performed by the Hajong during the Diwali festival. In this dance, the young men and women form a group and while dancing and singing various folk songs, they compare man with nature.
Performed on all festive occasions, it is also known as the Bamboo Dance, as bamboo forms an integral part of this folk form. Two long bamboo staves are kept crosswise and horizontally, parallel to ground and the male dancers clap the staves, resultantly producing a sharp sound setting the rhythm for the dance.
The female dancers, on the other hand, attired in colourful traditional costumes- puanchei, kawrchei, vakira and thinna-step in and out from between bamboo beats with tremendous skill and precise timing, maintaining all the while their elegant poise. In addition to the musical pattern created by the clapping of bamboo staves, drums and gongs are also used for effect.
In the present form, the Gotipua dance is more precise and systematic in its conception. The repertoire of the dance includes vandana-prayer to God or Guru, sarigama-a pure dance number, abhinaya-enactment of a song, and Bandhya Nritya-rhythms of acrobatic postures, a unique presentation where Gotipuas dance and compose themselves in different acrobatic yogic postures creating the images of Radha-Krishna.
Musical accompaniment is provided by mardala-a pakhawaj, gini-small cymbals, harmonium, violin and flute. This is a martial art form of dance where the dancers walk and dance on sticks Ranappa with special gestures on rhythms of drums. This is an imitation of mock fight.
This is something unique, the dancers exhibit their skills in balance on sticks. Performed in the month of Chaitra, it is associated with the worship of Shiva and akin to the Mayurbhanj Chhau. Dressed in brightly coloured plumed turbans, traditional tehmats, kurtas and waistcoats, the dancers perform to the robust rhythms of dhols, bolis-typically rustic Punjabi folk songs and other traditional instruments.
Energetic and infectiously lively, Bhangra is a spectacular dance, the popularity of which has crossed the borders of Punjab. The dance consists of singing, clapping, enacting the Boli as well as pure dance. The dancers form a circle and participating in pairs, take turns to come centre stage and perform a Boli. Towards the end of the Boli they dance vigorously in sheer abandon, while those in the circle sing and clap in unison.
The refrain is sung times, then the performers withdraw to be replaced by another pair and a new Boli. The Boli deals with the day—to—day life situations of rural folk. Giddha is accompanied by the dholak drum or gharah earthen pot. The dance highlights the unparalleled virtuosity of the dancers often reminiscent of the graceful and supple movements of the snake.
The dancers whirl around in circles in colourful skirts appearing like spinning tops thus deriving its name Chakri, which means moving in circles, or spinning. Usually performed at weddings and on festive occasions, Chakri is accompanied by the rhythm of daph, manjira and nagara.
Most famous Chakari dancers come from Baran Kola district in Hadauti area of Rajasthan but is popular in district of Kota and Bundi also. It is also known as Damphu as it is performed to the accompaniment of a native musical instrument called damphu.
Usually performed during Dasain or Dussehra, it depicts the colourful lifestyle of the hill people, amply reflected through their lavish festive celebration and dances full of fun and vigour. Tamang Selo is performed by traditionally attired young men and women.
At the two ends of the pole he was supposed to carry the favourite hills of Muruga, the popular deity of Tamil Nadu. The carrying of Kavadi by pilgrims is symbolic of Idumban with the hillocks poised on the pole.
There are several kinds of Kavadis. Under the spell of the hypnotic music provided by the drums, nadaswaram and thavil, the devotees proceed to the shrine by singing the song "Kavadi Chindu" with quick and vigorous movements.
The Kavadi is never touched by the dancer while dancing. The ritual is performed during the month of August when the idol of Mariamman is carried in procession. A ritual pot filled with water is adorned with beautiful decorations, several feet high, and is carried by the priest. The colourfully attired performers carry decorated vessels vertically on their heads and dance to the tune of nagaswaram, thavil, muni, udukkai and pambai and also perform acrobatic feats as they follow the procession.
The occasions in which Reang women perform Hozagiri are known as Mailuma and Maiktah, signifying the festival of new harvest and worship of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and prosperity. The Reangs believe that when the goddess is pleased by entertaining with dance and songs, she blesses them with bumper crops. Thus, the theme of this dance is mostly connected with cultivation.
Standing on the pitcher, they move the metal plates while dancing on it while keeping the bottle on the head atop which is a oil lamp alight or pick up a flower from the ground bowing their body back.
All along the dance they twist their waist with much finesse. The dance is basically in the form of a dance-drama.
It usually begins with the recital of a couplet in praise of the Almighty. Amongst the dancers, one person wearing a royal costume enters the arena riding a dummy horse followed by other dancers. The group of musicians also stand behind the dancers playing their instruments. The dance begins with the music provided by drums, cymbals and ghunghroos which are tied on waist and ankles. A traditional wind instrument, called ransingha, which is the centre of attraction plays a significant role in boosting up the tempo of the dancers.
The dance is accompanied by Bhojpuri and Awadhi folk songs. Both the systems of music received their nourishment from the same original source. Whereas the Indian music of the Northern part of India assimilated some features of the music of the Persian and Arabic musicians who adorned the courts of the Mughal rulers of Delhi, the music of the South continued to develop along its own original lines.
Nowadays Ghazals have become very popular as the 'light classical' form of music. Dhrupad is essentially a poetic form incorporated into an extended presentation style marked by precise and orderly elaboration of a raga.
The exposition preceding the composed verses is called alap, and is usually the longest portion of the performance. Dhrupad is in decline since the 18th century. This is the most prominent genre of Hindustani vocal music depicting a romantic style of singing. Khayal is dependent to a large extent on the imagination of the performer and the improvisations he is able to incorporate.
A Khayal is also composed in a particular raga and tala and has a brief text. The Khayal texts range from praise of kings or seasons, description of seasons to the pranks of Lord Krishna, divine love and sorrow of separation. There are six main gharanas in khayal: Gwalior Gharana is the oldest and is also considered the mother of all other gharanas. The song compositions are mostly of love, separation and devotion. Its most distinct feature is the erotic subject matter picturesquely portraying the various episodes from the lives of Lord Krishna and Radha.
There are three main gharanas of thumri -- Benaras, Lucknow and Patiala. The texts are as amorous as those of Thumris. The major difference is that dadras have more than one antara and are in dadra tala. Singers usually sing a dadra after a thumri. Here the compositions are specifically in praise of Lord Krishna. This music, sung in the dhamar tala, is chiefly used in festivals like Janmashthami, Ramnavami and Holi. The compositions here describe the spring season.