List of Journals - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Get your digital subscription/issue of Myanmar Internet Journal Magazine on Magzter and enjoy reading the magazine on iPad, iPhone, Android devices and the. Journal of the Myanmar Academy of Arts and Science Vol. XI, No. 6 Contents Section (i) Geology Sr. No. Title Page 1 Tun Naing Zaw, Ohnmar and Zin Mar Myint.
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Most of the rocks exposure in the study area is moderately to highly jointed and their dimension, spacing, opening and in filling of joints with various materials may be vary from place to place. An Empirical Assessment. The rock fall and circular failure are minor events. The deposits include sands, silts, clays and some placer deposits. Another powerful technique based on the work of experimental petrology is the calculation of equilibrium temperatures and pressures from the measured distribution of elements between coexisting phases.
Field Excursion, No. Kyaw Win and Thit Wai, Geology of the Arakan-Chin ranges. Paper read at VI. Burma Research Congress. Maung Thein, The Geological Evolution of Burma: Report, Univ. Miyashiro, A. Metamorphism and Convergence: Canada Special Paper, P.
Nyan Thin, Georeports, V. Thanyar, T. Some critical differences between alpine-type and stratiform peridotite-gabbro complexes: Wick, F. Serpentine texture and serpentinization.
The major rock types are biotite granite porphyry and non- porphyry and porphyritic biotite microgranite. Minor rock types are porphyritic two mica microgranite, hornblende biotite granodiorite, aplite, quartzo-feldsphatic and quartz veins.
Diorite and microdiorite xenoliths are observed in the biotite granite and hornblende- biotite granodiorite. Almost all granitoid rocks show medium to coarse-grained, hypidiomorphic granular texture although aplite displays allotriomorphic granular texture. Porphyritic texture, perthitic texture and myrmekitic texture are also recognized in these rocks. Alkali feldspar, mainly perthitic orthoclase, perthitic microcline, quartz, plagioclase and biotite are major constituent minerals of granitoid rocks.
Hornblende and muscovite occur as minor amounts.
The accessory minerals include zircon, sphene, apatite, epidote, chlorite and magnetite. Pyrite and molybdenite specks are observed in quartz vein and aplite dyke.
The location map of the study area is shown in figure 1. The study area forms a part of the Tanintharyi granite belts, which is actually a part of Western tin-bearing batholiths called Western Tin belt of South East Asia tin provinces Mitchell, ; Thein, ; Nyan Thin, and Cobbing et al, The study area is mainly composed of graintoid rocks of Costal Range Granite, Bender The granitoid plutons intruded the metasedimentary rocks of the Mergui Group Carboniferous , Brown and Heron Chhibber and Pascoe The graintoid plutons and batholiths are markedly elongated shape with the longer axes parallel to the NNW-SSE trend of the country rocks Mergui Group.
The granitoid rocks form as veins, dyke, pluton and batholith. The study area is formed a part of Certral Granitoid belt of Khin Zaw The Central granitoid belt is developed in the tectonic setting of subduction related magmatic arc, Maung Thein The regional geologic setting of the study area is shown in figure 2. Figure 2. The generalized geological map of the study area from the Geological Map of Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, Purpose of study Previous workers researched regionally on geology, mineral occurrences, geochemistry and geochronology of the granitoids rocks of Taninthayi, Mergui Archipelago, and Tavoy area.
There is no detail research on mineralogical, petrological and geochemical characteristics and geological map. So, the present research mainly focuses on petrography and geological map of the study area.
Method of study The 65 representative rock samples were made by thin section. Modal composition of the granitoid rocks was determined by point counting method.
The systematic classification of igneous rocks was based on the IUGS classification after Le Maitre, 1st edition, Geology of the study area The geological map of the study area is shown in Figure 3. Small patches of biotite granite found in porphyritic biotite granite unit in some place.
So, the contact of porphyritic biotite granite and non- porphyritic biotite granite cannot be sharply divided at the main range figure 4. Porphyritic biotite granite is a coarse-grained rock and the phenocrysts about 2cm x 6cm are exclusively alkali feldspars which are randomly oriented. This unit is highly weathered and grain size variation occurred in some place. Biotite granite non porphyry unit is well exposed at Myawyit area.
It is a coarse-grained, pale brown and reddish brown in weathered surface and light coloured on fresh surface. Small rounded or oval shape xenoliths are found in biotite granite at the seaside. Porphyritic biotite microgranite unit is the second major unit in this area. It occurs at the central part and the western flank of the main range. Feldspar phenocrysts show parallel alignment at the margin figure 4. Aplite dyke at least 15 feet in width and about feet long cut across biotite granite figure 4.
Molybdenite specks are observed in aplite at Myawyit area figure 4. It is trending nearly N-S, o — o. It shows sugary texture in hand specimen and is characterized by even grain- size that rarely exceeds 2 mm in diameter. Quartzofeldsphatic and quartz veins are found intruding into the older granitoid rocks. Pyrite specks in quartz vein found at Myawyit area.
It is mainly composed of alkali feldspar phenocryst, quartz, plagioclase and biotite. Zircon, sphene, apatite and magnetite are accessory minerals. Alkali feldspars are represented by perthitic orthoclase, microcline and microperthite. Orthoclose is euhedral in form and microcline displays cross-hatch twining. Alkali feldspar is intergrowths with albite, and showing perthitic texture. The size of perthitic orthoclase and microcline are between 4 mm to 6 mm in diameter.
Several types of perthite such as string, patch, flame, braid and microperthite are found. Microcline microperthite is well developed. Euhedral plagioclase is enclosed in perthitic alkali feldspar phenocryst figure 5. It indicates that plagioclase crystallized earlier than perthitic orthoclase. Sericitization is well developed in orthoclase. Normal zoning is common in plagioclase. Plagioclase is euhedral to subhedral in form and grain size varies from 1 mm to 4 mm in diameter.
The composition range of plagioclase is An Plagioclase is partly altered to epidote. Myrmekitic textures are also seen in boundary of plagioclase.
Quartz usually occurs as anhedral grain. Their size varies from 2 mm to 4 mm in diameter. It shows andulose extinction and sutured contact. The aggregrates of very small anhedral quartz grains along the margin of large grains found as garlin form and it is the characteristic effect of stress.
Biotite is observed as subhedral flaky form and 1 mm to 1. It shows yellowish to dark brown in pleochroism. Some biotite altered to chlorite along the cleavage.
Zircon occurs as inclusion in biotite and quartz. Anhedral sphene, prismatic apatite and magnetite minerals are also observed in it. Epidote forms as intergranular grains among the altered, untwined feldspar which showing ghost lamellar of former plagioclase.
Biotite granite non-porphyry It is a medium to coarse-grained rock and shows hypidiomorphic granular texture and mainly composed of alkali feldspar, quartz, plagioclase and biotite. The accessories consist of apatite, zircon, sphene, epidote, chlorite and magnetite.
Quartz occurs as anhedral large grain and size varies from 2 mm to 6 mm in diameter. It shows wavy extinction and it makes up at least 37 percents of total volume. Orthoclase shows simple contact twin and partly perthite. It is 3. Microcline is subhedral form and shows crossed-hatch twin. It intergrowth with sodic plagioclase to give perthitic texture Perthites are mainly of flame, braid and string perthite figure 5. Normal zoning plagioclases are abundant. These are euhedral to subhedral in form and the composition of plagioclase is An 9- 14 to be albite to oligoclase.
Some albites are twinned according to Carlsbad law. Corroded plagioclase is formed by replacement of quartz. Myrmekitic texture is characterized by the minute worm like bodies of quartz enclosed in sodic plagioclase, usually oligoclase.
It results from marginal part of potash feldspar especially in contact with plagioclase, owing to late magmatic or post consolidation reaction After Williams, Turner and Guilbert, Saussaritisation also occurred in plagioclase.
Biotite is subhedral form and 0. It shows light yellow, pale brown to dark brown in pleochroism and some are altered to chlorite along the cleavage plane. Zircon enclosed in biotite and apatite usually occurs as prismatic crystal in quartz grains.
Euhedral sphene is about 1 mm in diameter and show high relief with the typical lozen shape. Porphyritic biotite microgranite It is a medium-grained rock and shows porphyritic texture and hypidiomorphic granular texture. It is mainly composed of quartz, alkali feldspar and plagioclase.
Quartz and alkali feldspar are essential minerals. Plagioclase and biotite are minor constituents. The accessory minerals are sphene, zircon, apatite and magnetite. Alkali feldspar occurs as anhedral to subhedral grains and most of them are perthitic orthoclase and microcline. Orthoclase shows simple contact twin figure 5. String perthite and myrmekite are also found. Worm-like quartz is present along the plagioclase, given rise the myrmekitic texture. Most of the quartz is observed as interstitials and medium grains are also noted between 1 mm to 2.
Corroded quartz found in alkali feldspar phenocryst. Plagioclase is euhedral to subhedral in form and occurs as two generations host and inclusion. The composition of plagioclase is mainly albite An Albite twins are very common and saussaritisation occurred in plagioclase. Biotite mica is small in size 0. It shows one set of perfect cleavage and some are altered to chlorite along the cleavage plane. Euhedral zircon is found in quartz grain. Sphene is anhedral to euhedral in form and about 0.
It consists of alkali feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and muscovite. Alkali feldspar phenocrysts are greater than 5 mm in diameter.
Alkali feldspar occurs as simple twinned orthoclase 1 mm to 2. Quartz shows wavy extinction. Some occurs as inclusions in alkali feldspar phenocrysts. Two types of mica, biotite and muscovite are found in this rock figure 5. Biotite is altered to chlorite.
Zircon is found in biotite as inclusion. Muscovite shows one set of perfect cleavage and some muscovites occurred as inclusion in plagioclase. It is mainly composed of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, biotite and hornblende. It includes minor amount of epidote, apatite, zircon, chlorite and magnetite. Plagioclase is the most common mineral in this rock. The composition of plagioclase ranges An albite to oligoclase.
Plagioclase is mostly euhedral in form and coarser grain than others. Their grain size varies from 1. Zoning plagioclases are common and some altered to epidote.
Quartz and alkali feldspar are less abundant than plagioclase. Orthoclase shows simple twin with subhedral form and altered to sericite. Microcline occurs as minor amount and shows cross- hatch twinning. Cluster of apatite are enclosed in microcline and quartz as inclusion. Quartz occurs as anhedral grains and 1. Biotite is more abundant than hornblende in this rock. It shows strong pleochroism from yellowish to dark brown.
Their size varies from 1 mm to 3 mm in width and 1. Some biotite altered to chlorite. Hornblende shows subhedral form, strong pleochroism with yellowish green to dark green figure 5. It is about 2 mm-3 mm in diameter and maximum extinction angle is 26o. Zircon inclusions occurred in biotite and plagioclase. Aplite It shows fine to medium grained texture and allotriomorphic granular texture figure 5. It is mainly composed of alkali feldspar, quartz, plagioclase and minor amount of biotite and muscovite.
Magnetite and sphene are accessories. Plagioclase is euhedral to subhedral in form and altered to epidote along the cleavage plane. Two sets of perfect cleavage is found in basal section. Some altered to chlorite along the cleavage plane. Quartz usually shows undulose extinction.
Euhedral sphene is observed as wedge or spindle shape. Microdiorite xenolith It shows medium-grained texture and hypidiomorphic granular texture. It consists of plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, alkali feldspar and quartz, apatite, zircon, sphene and opaque.
The major rock types are biotite granite porphyry and non-porphyry and porphyritic biotite microgranite. Minor rock types are porphyritic two mica microgranite, hornblende biotite granodiorite, aplite, quartzofeldsphatic and quartz vein.
Diorite and microdiorite xenoliths are observed within the biotite granite and hornblende biotite granodiorite. The petrographic characteristics of granitoid rocks show medium to coarse-grained texture, hypidiomorphic granular texture although aplite displays allotriomorphic granular texture. Biotite is very common minerals in these rocks. Small patches of biotite granite found in porphyritic biotite granite unit due to variation of viscosity and cooling temperature of magma.
Acknowledgements This paper is part of my PhD research and I respectfully thanks to my supervisor, Professor U Hla Kyi who patiently guided my research work and discussion. My greatful thank want to Dr.
I also wish to express my appreciation to U Aung Kyaw Htun, formerly Lecturer of Geology Department of Mawlamyine University for his participation and suggestions in the field of the present investigation.
References Augustithis, S. Amsterdam, Elservier, Sci. New York, Wiley, p. Bender, F. Gebrder Borntager, Berlin. Cobbing, E. The granites of the South-East Asian tin belt: Overseas Memoir 10, British Geological Survey, p. Darbyshire, D. Khin Zaw, , Geological, Petrological and geochemical characteristics of granitiod rock in Burma with special reference to the associated W-Sn mineralization and their tectonic setting.
G, , Tectonic setting for emplacement of Southeast Asian tin granites: Journal of the Geological Society of Malaysia, Vol. Williams, Turner and Guilbert, These provinces are inherently unstable area because they have steep slopes, unstable geology and intense monsoon rains. The Arakan Coastal Zone is comprised of tightly folded sandstone and siltstones of dominantly Miocene age. According to the clay content map and the iron content map of the study area, the higher the clay content, the lower the iron content in this study area.
In the study area, land cover map reflects forest, bamboo, and grass land. The main factors that influence slope stability are Gravity and slope gradient, Hydrologic characteristic, the process of erosion and Man-made causes.
Along Sittway- Ann car road, the most common types of land slide are slump, flow and slide. For prevention the landslide, the excavation methods are designed to increase the stability of landslide. The chief methods are a Removal of head b Flattening of slopes c Benching of slopes d Complete removal of all unstable materials.. Drainage management has significantly improved slope stability of landslide.
Structural support measures improve the stability of slope by increasing stabilizing component of sliding mass. Structure support measures include retaining wall, anchored structures, rockbolts, earth anchors and rock anchor. Bio-engineering is the use of living vegetation to reduce shallow seated instability and erosion on slopes. Introduction Myanmar has experienced many types of geologic hazards including earthquakes, landslides and subsidence in karst area.
Among these, landslide is major hazard affecting the country. Geomorphologically, Myanmar has two mountainous provinces namely the Western Ranges and the Eastern Highland. Sittway-Ann car road pass through in the Western Ranges. Fig 1 This provinces is inherently unstable region because of steep slopes, unstable geologic condition and heavy monsoon rains.
These features make the landslide hazards in these regions. Fig 1. Field methods Tape and Compass Traverse method was applied in the field. The data measured was plotted in the field on eight inch scale field sheet and converted to one inch scale geological maps.
Representative samples were collected by using the GPS and hammer. Record details of locations and lithology in the field notes and took the photos. Slope and other geological structures were measured by Brunton Compass.
Representative petrographic thin sections were made from different lithologic units. Petrographic study was made by using transmitted light microscopy. Regional Geologic Setting Geomorphologically as well as tectonically, Myanmar has been divided into four major tectonic units, from west to east, namely Arakan Coastal Plain, the Western Ranges, the Central Lowlands and the Eastern Highlands. Geologically, Myanmar has two mountainous provinces namely the weastern Ranges and the Eastern Highland.
The study area lies in the western Ranges and Arakan Coastal Plain. Fig 2 The folded and faulted molasses sediments of late Tertiary age is overlying Early Tertiary flysch rocks, locally intruded by basaltic to intermediate dykes and plugs. Regional geologic Setting of the study area d Undifferentiated Eocene — Miocene Sediments These sediments are found in the western foot hills of Arakan Yoma to the east of the Arakan fault.
They are mostly indurate shale and clay, hard, well stratified, occasionally interbedded with very hard thin greywackes. According to the paleontological results, parts of the sediments contain fauna indicating Miocene age.
Due to infolding of later Miocene sediments, this may be in the Eocene. Table A Stratigraphic units of the Miocene Rocks. Kyauktan Formation Pliocene 5. Ngasanbaw Formation 4. Mayu Formation 3. Yezaw Formation Miocene 2. Laung Formation 1. The name has been applied to the large shale sequence underlying the Mayu Formation. The dominant lithologies are shales, clays siltstone and rarely sandstone.
Shales are blackish grey to grey, hard, fissile carbonaceous, micaceous and silty. Clays are grey, hard with nodular structure. Siltstones are associated with shale and clay beds. The sandstones are very fine to fine- grained, grey to brown, very hard and micaceous. The sequence is predominantly composed of shale and clay with occasionally interbedded thin sandstone beds varying from 6 inch to 5 feet.
Fig 3 In some places, individual sandstone bodies were found to have less than 50 feet in thickness. The shales are hard, thinly bedded, micaceous.
Clays are chracterised by nodular structure. Sandstone are brown to grey, hard to very hard, fine to medium grained, thinly bedded micaceous with ripple marks. The maximum thickness obtained in Madema- Yotarok section is feet. The upper and lower portions are predominantly composed of sandy shales and clays. In some places, they are interbedded with thin sand beds which are 6 inch to 3 feet in thickness.
Sandstones are grey to brown, hard, fine to medium grained and micaceous. Sedimentary structures such as current bedded and ripple marks are also observed. The shales are dark bluish grey with thin laminations of sand. Clays are dark grey and nodular.
Fig 4 The measure thickness is over feet. Fig 3. Outcrop nature of the Yezaw Formation 4. Mayu Formation Most of the prominent ridges are formed by this formation.
It is widely distributed in the northern part of the Arakan Coastal Area. It is mainly made up of sandstone, occasionally interbedded with shale and clay. Fig 5 The upper parts of sandstones are brown, medium to coarse-grained, micaceous and calcareous, rarely interbedded with shale partings.
The lower parts of sandstones are grey, hard, and fine to medium grained with shale laminations. Ripple marks and current bedding are fairly common. Shales are dark grey to grey with sand stringers. The maximum thickness is feet. It is mainly made up of shale, clay and fairly sandstone. Shales are grey to dark grey fairly hard, and sandy. Fig 6 The maximum thickness is feet.
The maximum thickness is about feet. Fig 7. This structure is formed between Tawbya River and Yo River. Minbya Anticline was first identified south of Minbya and extends up to the Myebon Area.
This structure is highly affected by longitudinalfaults. The structure is broad, wide and less disturb.
It was found to be highly compressed and tightly folded especially in the crestal part. Myohaung thrust fault can be traced from the north of Paletwa through Myohaung up to the Myebon Area for a distance of over sixty miles. Arakan fault Hpontha fault is a major thrust fault, situated near Hpontha village which separates the Miocene sediments from those of Arakan Yoma.
It extends to the north of Pyelongyi and southwards, it can be traced up to Gwa area, across the Arakan Yoma. It covers a total distance of over two hundard mile along the western foothills of the Arakan Yoma. The eastern limb of Ponagyun Monocline is cut off by the Ponnagyun fault. A series of regional strike and cross faults are also encountered.
Landsat TM Image Interpretation by Remote-sensing Techniques Radiometric interpretation of multispectral features is mainly applied to rock type classification. Colour composite of bands 4, 5, and 3 of landsat TM and bands 7, 3, and 2 of landsat TM are illustrated in Fig 8 and Fig 9. They are applied to classify rock types of the study area. The clay content map of the study area is illustrated in Fig 10 and the iron content map of the study area is also illustrated in Fig The higher the clay content, the lower the iron content in this study area.
Land cover mapping is one of the most important and typical application of remote sensing data. Land cover corresponds to the physical condition of the ground surface for example forest, grassland. Land cover map of the study area is illustrated in Fig NDVI normalized difference vegetation index map of the study area is also illustrated in Fig The term landslide is commonly used to denote the downward and outward movement of slope-forming materials along surface of separation by falling, sliding, and flowing at a faster rate.
Fig 14 Goodman, Fig The classification of landslide. Goodman, Causes of Lanslide Many factors affected slope stability. A change in any one or a combination of these factors can alter the steady and sometimes leading to slope failure.
The main factors that influence slope stability are 1 Gravity and slope gradient 2 Hydrologic characteristic 3 The process of erosion 4 Man-made causes 1 Gravity and slope gradient Shear stress and shear strength determine whether a body of rock debris located on a slope will move or remain stationary.
As a slope become steeper, the shear stress become larger. Fig 15 DEM of the study area is shown in Fig 16 Shear strength exceeds shear stress, the rock or debris will not move.
Groundwater rises up in the monsoon. Because of the rising of ground water table, it causes the saturation of the soil. It destroys the capillary tension in soil and reduces its cohesion because of increasing moisture content. Fig A slump is a type of slope failure involving rotational movement of regolith, that is downward and outward movement along a curved, concave-up surface Fig They are common along car road where bordering slopes have been over steepened by construction activity.
When a sufficiently large force is applied, any deformable material will begin to flow. The movement of such mixture is called flows. Debris flow involves the down slope movement of regolith whose consistency is coarser than that of sand Fig Slide involves rapid displacement of mass of rock or sediments.
It is uniform movement in one direction with no movement. They involve the movement of relatively coherent blocks of materials along well-define planes. Fig 21 Slide are common in high mountain where steep slope abound. Slope failure give rise to slump along Sittway-Ann car road. Debris flow occur on the mountain side. Fig 21 Slide involve the movement of relatively coherent blocks of materials along well-define planes. Prevention The excavation methods are designed to increase the stability of landslide.
The chief methods are a Removal of head b Flattening of slopes c Benching of slopes d Complete removal of all unstable materials. The slope ratio of the road-cuts should be 1. Some of the landslides were associated with drainage problem.
Gebruder, Borntraeger Berlin-Stuttgart. Chhibber, H. Macmillian and Co. Keller, S. Fifth Edition Merrill Publishing Company. Plummer Charles, et al. Sixth edition,Wm. C Broum Communications,Inc. They are found in a great diversity of geological environments resulting in diverse mineral assemblages and gold- bearing minerals. Native gold is the common form found in nature. The next most common is electrum, an alloy of gold and silver, which have been identified in the gold- silver epithermal deposits at Kyaukmyet and Shwebontha of the Monywa district.
Copper-gold systems have been reported from Shanganlon, Kawlin, Patun, Banmauk and from skarn deposits of Shweminbon, Kalaw. Gold tellurides occur in the Kyaukpazat Mine, Wuntho.
In Mandalay region the Phayaung Taung ores are Free-milling. Most of the Myanmar deposits, gold occurs as fine particles disseminated and locked in sulphide grains such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. They are known as refractory gold ores which can cause low recovery in processing even when cyanidation is used. Gold ores from Kyaukpatho are highly refractory. In gold mining, the mineralogy of the gold ores greatly influence the proper choice of metallurgical process route for treatment.
Key words: Electrum, Gold tellurides, Free-milling gold, Refractory gold. Introduction This research paper focuses on the mineralogy of gold ores from Myanmar deposits. In Myanmar gold deposits occur from Putao in the extreme north to Kawthaung in the extreme south. Gold deposits are found in a great diversity of geological environments resulting in diverse mineral assemblages and gold-bearing minerals.
Gold occurs in a variety of rock types in different geological ages, in the Chaung Magyi turbidities of Precambrian terrains to sub-aerial volcanics of the Popa region. Purpose of Investigation To understanding the mineralogy of the gold ores, the mineral assemblages, fineness and their refractoriness will help in the proper choice of metallurgical processes for treating the diversed typed of gold ores found in Myanmar. This can be a valuable aid to increase recoveries and eventually increasing revenues.
Geological Settings of Gold Economic gold deposites of Myanmar occur in four major metallogenic provinces. They are: Andesitic rock, volcanolastic sediments and I-type granitoids are the principal rock types. General medical journals Publications established in Quarterly journals English-language journals Academic journals published by learned and professional societies Academic journals published in Myanmar.
Hidden categories: Articles with topics of unclear notability from July All articles with topics of unclear notability. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. This page was last edited on 2 March , at The President himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses must not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country.
The constitution makes it difficult for the candidate from civilian to become president and also banned Aung Sang Suu Kyi who is the hope of the country to become president of Myanmar and till today there is no agreement for Aung Sang Suu Kyi to become president. Democracy will be difficult in Myanmar if all the seats are not elected fully. Until and unless the constitution is amended, democracy becomes very difficult.
So the constitution makes it very difficult to amend the constitution. This shows that the constitution was framed to serve the purpose of the military. Military The first democratic government formed after the independence ended with the military coup in March Everything is controlled by the military and claimed that rebelling minority groups are one of the main reasons for military rule Enckevort, , p.
The military held elections in the country as a process of democratization but failed to democratize the country and also failed to keep its promises after the military refused to hand over power to the elected civilian government in At the initial stage when the military announced the intention of changing its name, most of the rebel groups put down their weapons in Democratization is going on in Myanmar but the military on the other hand wants to delay the democratization process because they feared that action might be taken against them by the civilian government in reaction to their brutal action against the people and their property might be ceased.
So, even though military wants democracy they want to delay it and played delay tactics. The intention of military to democratize the country may be because of the fear of international reaction. There were influences from international community to democratize the country. The international community including United Nations pressured the military government to take positive approaches towards democratization.
Democracy in Myanmar is possible only when military agreed to democratize the country. But, the country is facing three important challenges which need to be solved to democratize the country.
Democracy is difficult in Myanmar because there are diverse ethnic groups demanding for separate autonomy. There is general perception that democracy leads to good governance and stability but in case of Myanmar where one hundred and thirty five ethnic communities live together demanding for different political status, democracy is difficult to sustain.
The constitution also obstructs democratization in Myanmar. So, amendment is necessary to contest all the seats. Until and unless all the seats were contested Myanmar cannot be called true democracy.
Military remain the greatest challenges in democratic transition in Myanmar. So, fully democratization is difficult in Myanmar and will take time to consolidate democracy even though civilian government comes to power after the election. References 1. Amaruso, John. Growing Challenges to Democracy in a Reforming Myanmar. Democracy Chronicles. Retrieved from http: Alvandi, R.
Editorial Introduction: Stair 2 2 , Abdication or Institutionalization of Military Rule? Ten Critical Challenges. The Asia Society. Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar September, Ministry of Information. International Democracy Promotion: Patiently Redistributing Power. Frieden and Sicherheit. Democracy in Myanmar: Challenges Ahead.
The Global Intelligence. Devi, Konsam Shakila. Myanmar under the Military Rule Diamond, Larry. Is the Third Wave of Democratization Over? An Empirical Assessment.
Working Paper No. The Opening in Burma. Journal of Democracy, Volume Doorenspleet, Renske. Reassessing the Three Waves of Democratization. Enckevort, Els van. The case of Burma Myanmar. Masterthesis, Radboud University, Nijmegen. Ghali, Boutros Boutros. An Agenda for Democratization. United Nations, New York. Gohlich, Carola. Democratization in Burma?
Holliday, Ian. Voting and Violence in Myanmar: Nation Building for a Transition to Democracy. Asian Survey, Vol.
Hofmeister, Wilhelm. Myanmar Perspectives on Political Change. Kas International Reports, Keling, Mohamad Faisol. Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, Vol. Kuppuswamy, CS. Martin, Michael F. Implications of the New Constitution and Election Laws. Congressional Research Service. Pereira International. Myint, Sithu Aung.