This article contains Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14th Edition PDF for free download. This book has been authored by Gerard J. This 14th edition of the phenomenally successful Principles of Anatomy and Physiology continues to set the standard for the discipline. Written and superbly. Find all the study resources for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology by Gerard J . Tortora; Bryan H. Derrickson.
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principles of anatomy&physiology Gerard J. Tortora / Bryan Derrickson 14th Edition Experience + Innovation start here go anywhere Principles of ANATOMY. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 14th Edition Download tortora 14th edition pdf free download principles of anatomy and physiology 14th edition ebook. Gerard J. Tortora / Bryan Derrickson 14th Edition. Principles of ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY 14th Edition Gerard J. Tortora Bergen Community College Bryan.
Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting needed for generation and conduction of hormones. Blastocyst cavity sprout. Table 1. Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in their courses during the next academic year. Hoo Swee Tiang.
In the chapters that follow, you will study the anatomy and physiology of the body systems. You will also discover that all body systems influence one another. As you study each of the body systems in more detail, you will discover how. Skin and associated structures, such as hair, fingernails and toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands. Protects body; helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold; stores fat and provides insulation.
Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages. Supports and protects body; provides surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids fats. Health-care professionals and students of anatomy and physiology commonly use several noninvasive diagnostic techniques to assess certain aspects of body structure and function.
A noninvasive diagnostic technique is one that does not involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening. In inspection, the examiner observes the body for any changes that deviate from normal. For example, a physician may examine the mouth cavity for evidence of disease. Following inspection, one or more additional techniques may be employed.
An example is palpating the abdomen to detect enlarged or tender internal organs or abnormal masses. An example is auscultation of the lungs during breathing to check for crackling sounds associated with abnormal fluid accumulation. Hollow cavities or spaces produce a different sound than solid organs. For example, percussion may reveal the abnormal presence of fluid in the lungs or air in the intestines.
It may also provide information about the size, consistency, and position of an underlying structure. An understanding of anatomy is important for the effective application of most of these diagnostic techniques. Basic Life Processes Certain processes distinguish organisms, or living things, from nonliving things. Following are the six most important life processes of the human body: For example, digestive processes catabolize split. Specifically, skeletal muscle tissue—muscle usually attached to bones other muscle tissues include smooth and cardiac.
Define the following terms: At what levels of organization would an exercise physiologist study the human body? Refer to Table 1. Referring to Table 1. Development and Inheritance Development, inheritance, and homeostasis Both the genetic material inherited from parents heredity and normal development in the uterus environment play important roles in determining the homeostasis of a developing embryo and fetus and the subsequent birth of a healthy child.
Developmental biology is the study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that begins with fertilization; proceeds to implantation, embryonic development, and fetal development; and ideally ends with birth about 38 weeks later, or 40 weeks after the last menstrual period.
The ffirst trimester is the most critical stage of development, during which the rudiments of all the major organ systems appear, and also during which the developing organism is the most vulnerable to the dur effects of drugs, radiation, and microbes.
The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems. By the end of this stage, the fetus assumes distinctively human features.
The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. During the early stages of this period, most of the organ systems are becoming fully functional.
Did you ever wonder why the heart, blood vessels, and blood begin to form so early in the developmental process. First Week of Development The embryonic period extends from fertilization through the eighth week. The first week of development is characterized by several significant events including fertilization, cleavage of the zygote, blastocyst formation, and implantation.
Fertilization normally occurs in the uterine fallopian tube within 12 to 24 hours after ovulation. Sperm can remain viable for about 48 hours after deposition in the vagina, although a secondary oocyte is viable for only about 24 hours after ovulation. Thus, pregnancy is most likely to occur if intercourse takes place during a 3-day window—from 2 days before ovulation to 1 day after ovulation.
Sperm swim from the vagina into the cervical canal by the whiplike movements of their tails flagella. The passage of sperm through the rest of the uterus and then into the uterine tube results mainly from contractions of the walls of these organs. Prostaglandins in semen are believed to stimulate uterine motility at the time of intercourse and to aid in the movement of sperm through the uterus and into the uterine tube.
Sperm that reach the vicinity of the oocyte within minutes after ejaculation are not capable of fertilizing it until about seven hours later. During capacitation, sperm are acted on by secretions in the female reproductive tract that result in the removal of cholesterol, glycoproteins, and proteins from the plasma membrane around the head of the sperm cell.
Only capacitated sperm are capable of being attracted by and responding to chemical factors produced by the surrounding cells of the ovulated oocyte. For fertilization to occur, a sperm cell first must penetrate two layers: Acrosomal enzymes and strong tail movements by the sperm help it penetrate the cells of the corona radiata and come in contact with the zona pellucida.
One of the glycoproteins in the zona pel-. Its binding to specific membrane proteins in the sperm head triggers the acrosomal reaction, the release of the contents of the acrosome. The acrosomal enzymes digest a path through the zona pellucida as the lashing sperm tail pushes the sperm cell onward. Within a few seconds, the cell membrane of the oocyte depolarizes, which acts as a fast block to polyspermy— the inability of a depolarized oocyte to fuse with another sperm.
Depolarization also triggers the intracellular release of calcium ions, which stimulate exocytosis of secretory vesicles from the oocyte. Figure During fertilization, genetic material from a sperm cell and a secondary oocyte merge to form a single diploid nucleus. Sperm cell. Blastocyst Formation By the end of the fourth day, the number of cells in the morula increases as it continues to move through the uterine tube toward the uterine cavity.
When the morula enters the uterine cavity on day 4 or 5, a glycogen-rich secretion from the glands of the endometrium of the uterus passes into the uterine cavity and enters the morula through the zona pellucida. This fluid, called uterine milk, along with nutrients stored in the cytoplasm of the blastomeres of the morula, provides nourishment for the developing morula. Once the blastocyst cavity is formed, the developing mass is called the blastocyst.
Though it now has hundreds of cells, the blastocyst is still about the same size as the original zygote. Cleavage refers to the early, rapid mitotic divisions of a zygote. Polar bodies Blastomeres. The first division of the zygote begins about 24 hours after fertilization and is completed about 6 hours later. Each succeeding division takes slightly less time.
By the second day after fertilization, the second cleavage is completed and there are four cells Figure By the end of the third day, there are 16 cells.
The morula is still surrounded by the zona pellucida and is about the same size as the original zygote Figure During the formation of the blastocyst two distinct cell populations arise: It will ultimately develop into the outer chorionic sac that surrounds the fetus and the fetal portion of the placenta, the site of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the mother and fetus.
This shedding of the zona pellucida is. The molecules released by exocytosis inactivate ZP3 and harden the entire zona pellucida, events called the slow block to polyspermy. Once a sperm cell enters a secondary oocyte, the oocyte first must complete meiosis II. It divides into a larger ovum mature egg and a smaller second polar body that fragments and disintegrates see Figure The nucleus in the head of the sperm develops into the male pronucleus, and the nucleus of the fertilized ovum develops into the female pronucleus Figure Thus, the fusion of the haploid n pronuclei restores the diploid number 2n of 46 chromosomes.
Dizygotic fraternal twins are produced from the independent release of two secondary oocytes and the subsequent fertilization of each by different sperm. They are the same age and in the uterus at the same time, but genetically they are as dissimilar as any other siblings. Dizygotic twins may or may not be the same sex. Because monozygotic identical twins develop from a single fertilized ovum, they contain exactly the same genetic material and are always the same sex.
Separations that occur later than 8 days are likely to produce conjoined twins, a situation in which the twins are joined together and share some body structures. Implantation The blastocyst remains free within the uterine cavity for about 2 days before it attaches to the uterine wall. At this time the endometrium is in its secretory phase. As the called implantation im-plan-TA blastocyst implants, usually in either the posterior portion of the fundus or the body of the uterus, it orients with the inner cell mass toward the endometrium Figure About 7 days after fertilization, the blastocyst attaches to the endometrium more firmly, endometrial glands in the vicinity enlarge, and the endometrium becomes more vascularized forms new blood vessels.
The blastocyst eventually secretes enzymes and burrows into the endometrium, and becomes surrounded by it. The decidua separates from the endometrium after the fetus is delivered, much as it does in normal menstruation. Different regions of the decidua are named based on their positions relative to the site of the implanted blastocyst. The decidua basalis is the portion of the endometrium between the embryo and the stratum basale of the uterus; it provides large amounts of glycogen and lipids for the developing embryo and fetus and later becomes the maternal part of the placenta.
The decidua capsularis is the portion of the endometrium.
Implantation, the attachment of a blastocyst to the endometrium, occurs about 6 days after fertilization. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the ability to divide for indefinite periods and give rise to specialized cells.
In the context of human development, a zygote fertilized ovum is a stem cell. Examples include keratinocytes that produce new skin cells, myeloid and lymphoid stem cells that develop into blood cells, and spermatogonia that give rise to sperm.
Scientists are also investigating the potential clinical applications of adult stem cells—stem cells that remain in the body throughout adulthood. Recent experiments suggest that the ovaries of adult mice contain stem cells that can develop into new ova eggs. If these same types of stem cells are found in the ovaries of adult women, scientists could potentially harvest some of them from a woman about to undergo a sterilizing medical treatment such as chemotherapy , store them, and then return the stem cells to her ovaries after the medical treatment is completed in order to restore fertility.
Studies have also suggested that stem cells in human adult red bone marrow have the ability to differentiate into cells of the liver, kidney, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, skin, and organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
The decidua parietalis par-ri-e-TAL-is is the remaining modified endometrium that lines the noninvolved areas of the rest of the uterus. As the embryo and later the fetus enlarges, the decidua capsularis bulges into the uterine cavity and fuses with the decidua parietalis, thereby obliterating the uterine cavity.
By about 27 weeks, the decidua capsularis degenerates and disappears. The major events associated with the first week of development are summarized in Figure The decidua is a modified portion of the endometrium that develops after implantation.
Implanted embryo. An ectopic pregnancy usually occurs when movement of the fertilized ovum through the uterine tube is impaired by scarring due to a prior tubal infection, decreased movement of the uterine tube smooth muscle, or abnormal tubal anatomy.
Although the most common site of ectopic pregnancy is the uterine tube, ectopic pregnancies may also occur in the ovary, abdominal cavity, or uterine cervix. Women who smoke are twice as likely to have an ectopic pregnancy because nicotine in cigarette smoke paralyzes the cilia in the lining of the uterine tube as it does those in the respiratory airways. Scars from pelvic inflammatory disease, previous uterine tube surgery, and previous ectopic pregnancy may also hinder movement of the fertilized ovum.
The signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy include one or two missed menstrual cycles followed by bleeding and acute abdominal and pelvic pain. Unless removed, the developing embryo can rupture the uterine tube, often resulting in death of the mother.
Treatment options include surgery or the use of a cancer drug called methotrexate, which causes embryonic cells to stop dividing and eventually disappear. Where does fertilization normally occur?
How is polyspermy prevented? What is a morula, and how is it formed? Describe the layers of a blastocyst and their eventual fates.
When, where, and how does implantation occur? Fertilization usually occurs in the uterine tube. See More. James F. Tortora, my brother, my friend, and my role model. Courtesy of Bryan Derrickson His life of dedication has inspired me in so many ways, both personally and professionally, and I honor him and pay tribute to him with this dedication.
The structure of a part of the body often reflects its functions.
Developmental biology The complete development of an individual from fertilization to death. Cell biology Cellular structure and functions.
Functions of the heart and blood vessels. Systemic anatomy Structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory systems.
Exercise physiology Changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity. Regional anatomy Surface anatomy Specific regions of the body such as the head or chest. This very basic level can be compared to the letters of the alphabet and includes atoms, the smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions, and molecules, two or more atoms joined together. His life of dedication has inspired me in so many ways.
Jerry is the author of several best-selling science textbooks and laboratory manuals. Above all. He is a member of many professional organizations. Tortora To Reverend Dr. Your support and motivation have been invaluable to me.
Jerry is devoted to his students and their aspirations. He has served as a member of the Faculty Senate. He particularly enjoys the challenges of his diverse student population.
In recognition of this commitment. To my family: At Valencia. New Jersey. Courtesy of Gerard J. He is completely dedicated to the success of his students.
Inspired by several biology professors while in college. Bryan has always wanted to teach. James F. He also enjoys attending college basketball and professional hockey games and performances at the Metropolitan Opera House.
The all-important illustrations that support this most visual of sciences have been scrutinized and revised as needed throughout. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. We are also cognizant of the fact that the teaching and learning environment has changed significantly to rely more heavily on the ability to access the rich content in this printed text in a variety of digital ways.
It can also be an incredible challenge. Through years of collaboration with students and instructors alike. The design has been refreshed to ensure that the content is clearly presented and easy to access. We are pleased that this 14th edition meets these changing standards and offers dynamic and engaging choices to make this course more rewarding and fruitful. Nearly every chapter of the text has a new or revised illustration or photograph.
Clinical Connections that help students understand the relevance of anatomical structures and functions have been updated throughout and in some cases are now placed alongside related illustrations to strengthen these connections for students. Students can start here. We have designed the organization and flow of content within these pages to provide students with an accurate.
When blood pressure decreases. Introduced in the first chapter. Disrupts homeostasis If the response reverses the stimulus. To pressure via baroreceptor reflexes. Would this occur by way of positive or negative feedback?
Figure 1. The broken return arrow with a negative sign surrounded by a circle symbolizes negative feedback. Real Anatomy. In addition. Human growth hormone hGH and Erythropoietin regulates amount of insulinlike growth factors IGFs stimulate oxygen carried in blood by adjusting bone growth number of red blood cells Estrogens cause closure of the epiphyseal plates at the end of puberty and help maintain bone mass in adults Parathyroid hormone PTH and calcitonin DIGESTIVE regulate levels of calcium and other minerals in bone matrix and blood SYSTEM Thyroid hormones are needed for normal Epinephrine and norepinephrine depress development and growth of the skeleton activity of the digestive system Gastrin.
This choice offers you a full e-text to download and keep. WileyPLUS itself has been refreshed with a new design that allows easier discoverability and access to the rich resources including new 3-D animations. It provides you with everything you need for your course. Anatomy Drill and Practice. WileyPLUS now includes a powerful new adaptive learning component called ORION that allows students to take charge of their study time in ways they have not previously experienced and prepares them for more meaningful classroom and laboratory interactions.
Muscles in Motion. Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting needed for generation and conduction of hormones. An Introduction to the Human Body The human body and homeostasis Humans have many ways to maintain homeostasis. Disruptions to homeostasis often set in motion corrective cycles. Our fascinating journey through the human body begins with an overview of the meanings of anatomy and physiology. Body Systems Table 1. Renal physiology Functions of the kidneys.
Cardiovascular physiology Functions of the heart and blood Cell biology Cellular structure and functions. Histology Microscopic structure of tissues. For example. It was first studied by dissection dis-SEK-shun. Whereas anatomy deals with structures of Organization and the body. The structure of a part of the body often reflects its organs present in each. The bones of the fingers are Defined more loosely joined to allow a variety of movements.
What body function might a respiratory therapist strive Two branches of science—anatomy and physiology—provide the to improve? What structures are involved? This very basic level can be compared to the cal level of organization. Two familiar molecules found in the body understand anatomy and physiology: Chapters 2 and 25 focus on the chemi- 1 Chemical level. Certain atoms. From the phorus P. The levels of structural organization are chemical.
Your exploration of the human body will extend from atoms and molecules to the whole person. Supports and Functions: Protects body. Connective tis. Examples of cover that all body systems influence one another. An example of the system level. Its organs include the mouth. Just as words are the smallest elements tissue and connective tissue that reduces friction when the of language that make sense. Bone eliminates some wastes.
At the organ level different types of tissues are joined together. Fingernails T Toenails. Table 1. Shown in Figure 1. The uting blood vessels to other tissues. All the zation in greater detail. As you study organs are the stomach. The cellular level of organization most lining is an epithelial tissue layer that produces fluid and is the focus of Chapter 3. Similar to the relationship between sentences In the chapters that follow.
Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces. Nervous tissue and the hormone-producing endocrine system. Among the many kinds of cells in three layers of a type of muscular tissue called smooth muscle your body are muscle cells. Underneath are units in the human body. Chapter 4 describes the tissue level of organi. There are just four basic types of tissues in your system level. An organism OR-ga-nizm. The inner- of muscle cells in the body.
Molecules combine to form cells. Skin and associated Hair Components: Bones and joints structures. You will also dis- tions and usually have recognizable shapes.
A system or chapter in our language analogy surrounding them that work together to perform a particular consists of related organs paragraphs with a common func- function. Sometimes an organ is part of more than one system.
Tissues are groups of cells and the materials 5 System level. Muscular tissue contracts pancreas. Following inspection. The other phase of metabolism is vide information about the size. Define the following terms: Brain muscle tissue—muscle usually nerves. T Tendon internal and external environments.
It may also pro. An example is auscultation of the lungs during breathing to cesses of the human body: One phase of metabolism is resulting sound. An understanding of anatomy is important for the ing up of complex chemical substances from smaller.
Generates action potentials Functions: Participates in body Skeletal nerve impulses to regulate body muscle movements. Certain processes distinguish organisms.
In inspec. A noninvasive diagnostic technique is one that does not involve insertion of an instrument or device through the skin or a body opening.
In percussion pur-KUSH-un. Referring to Table 1. Following are the six most important life pro- sounds. An exam- ple is palpating the abdomen to detect enlarged or tender internal organs or abnormal masses. The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. Did you ever wonder why the heart. The ffirst trimester is the most critical stage of development. Developmental biology is the study of the sequence of events from the fertilization of a secondary oocyte by a sperm cell to the formation of an adult organism.
During the early stages of this period. Pregnancy is a sequence of events that begins with fertilization. The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems. Development and Inheritance Development.
Obstetrics ob-STET-riks. By the end of this stage. Sperm can remain viable for about 48 hours after deposition in the vagina. During capacitation. One of the glycoproteins in the zona pel.
Fertilization normally occurs in the and a secondary oocyte merge to form a single diploid uterine fallopian tube within 12 to 24 hours after ovulation. What is capacitation?