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Missiology 16 2: I shall discuss this phenomenon in a later section. The Path to Spiritual Growth. E pur si muove! Ervin, Howard M. Spirit Works: Discernment of spirits in the early to medieval church period Beginning with Chrysostom and Tertullian, Christians were expected to be able to discern false prophets and evil spirits.
Finally rotational model completelly asing bagi hebrew people, but sovereignity of God is not. After all, this is a very good effort to explain from the scientific point of view of creation. Further comments: Karena tulisan ini lebih ke arah science, justru perbedaan yang ada yang saya berikan di atas akan mengajar pembaca untuk melihat pergumulan antara science dan faith.
Jadi rekomendasi saya adalah publish as submitted. Introduction Malaysia is an ethnically diverse and religiously pluralistic nation. Within its population Christians number 9. It is thus not surprising that any non-Christian to Christian encounter should implicate followers of Jesus, who are trying to understand whether non-Christians may be following the right path towards truth and also whether the spirits they worship are in any biblical sense the Spirit of truth of which Jesus speaks Jn.
Biblically, all Christians are called to discern the spirits 1 Jn. In Mt. How can we tell if a person is merely psychotic or actually demonized Moore ? And what about non- Christians who share about dreams telling them follow Jesus Musk ? I submit that in Asia such questions are contextually and theologically important, socially and religiously relevant, and pastorally urgent. Almost everywhere, the presence of spirits being real and constant, whether they are perceived or experienced, is a reality one must deal with at some time or another when doing ministry in Asia.
Even so, few writings from western Christians have engaged with this reality. Instead, most materials on interreligious relationships deal with dialogue, service, friendship, or other areas, but hardly on how one might relate to the spirits that exist in other religions. The spirit world with its evil spirits, it seems, hardly exists or is considered unimportant for discussion. Where they are present, such writings are mostly popular and academic evangelical Christian works. This article asks whether this manner of understanding and discerning the spirits is overly simplistic.
In addition, it will briefly survey and critique the practice of spirit discernment historically in the church as well as the psychological, anthropological, and biblical aspects.
In particular, Amos Yong, a Malaysian-born theologian that now resides in America, and his theology of discernment of spirits will be examined. In the final section a proposed hermeneutic of spirit discernment will be constructed by utilizing the strengths of Christian reflections across the disciplines, traditions and history as well. The discernment of spirit in anthropology and psychology The warrant for discerning the spirits is found in 1 Cor.
Identifying and discriminating them is also an ideological act, a social interpretation, and an epistemological statement that defines good and evil, and also includes the boundaries between them Caciola It is an interpretation because local understandings of the spirit world and their self- interest as exigencies of power among the observers come into play ibid.
A proper understanding of the religious experience, i. The character of such supernatural forces naturally predisposes a discussion concerning the identity of such spiritual forces, i. On this subject there is a wide debate concerning the ontology, identity, and warfare aspects of these forces e. I am not interested in identifying, mapping, or warfare involving the spirit world but merely to develop a methodology of discernment.
Such a venture may risk an over concern or preoccupation in a world populated by entities to the detriment of other more important missiological or pastoral concerns. Nonetheless, I make this attempt because of an observed limited Christian attention in this area as well as the obvious biblical call and warrant for it.
There, we see experimentations with alternate states of human consciousness ASC and experiences involving the human spirit and its life after death experiences or interests in spirit guides Eadie ; Hillstrom Examining these experiences reveals some common features Hillstrom They appear to convey a spiritual message. All the experiences seem very real. The experiences are timely. Many are associated with ASC. Apparent spirit contacts that convey similar messages are involved.
These apparent spirit contacts are followed by "paranormal aftereffects". Such ASC experiences opened people to receive spirit guides that were accessible through drugs, trances, deep meditation, and sleep Hillstrom These occurrences are also common in Asian religions, particularly in animism. Hillstrom comments that True separations of body and spirit that are deliberately induced and have nothing to do with death simply do not fit with scriptural teachings.
According to the Bible, the separation of body and spirit is synonymous with death for instance, see 1 Kg. It was ordained by God as a punishment for sin Gen. Hillstrom Other ASC occurrences such as dream sleep or trances, near-death experiences NDE , channeling, and extra-sensory perception ESP may be areas where the supernatural intersects with the psychological Hillstrom Concerning channeling or the use of mediums, Christians are not to contact them Lev.
Even if such experiences seem to be uplifting to the person, discerning the content of these experiences is important; for there are also negative NDEs that include troubling or hellish visions ibid.
Psychologically, the human spirit and mind also has as much a role in any expression of spiritual phenomena apart from supernatural causes; in fact, it may explain many of the above experiences. While modernity dismisses malevolent spiritual influences as a cause of bodily ills, in ancient times it was not so Wiebe If demonic influences affect humans, according to Paul Tillich He also It is "a psychological disorder in which people exhibit behaviors that suggest that their personalities have been segmented" Wiebe In this area multiple personality disorder or dissociative identity disorder DID is of interest.
Theologians however admit difficulty distinguishing between demonic influence related to mental illness and ecstatic experiences Guillet For Yong I shall discuss this phenomenon in a later section. Here, some distinctions must be made between the disorder and the demonic: However, for those who experience divine ecstasy, the human mind goes beyond reason itself, even beyond the subject-object structure of normal thought.
Here reason is neither denied nor negated, while demonic possession destroys them ibid. We should note that Scripture never informs Christians to suspend their mind or consciousness in any engagement with the supernatural. Rather, the injunctions to prove 2 Cor. Where meditation is concerned Josh 1: Interestingly, if opposition arose against the work of the Lord, God could inflict bodily harm to them as well Acts In fact Scripture never suggests Christians should seek meditation for its own sake.
Rather, it is a way to pursue God alone. Where so called Christian ASC experiences like visions or dreams may be experienced, they are not directly sought after but come unbidden Gen.
In summary, anthropology and psychology open up the possibility for Christians to understand that unusual spirit expressions may not necessarily be demonic or divine but may be caused by the human spirit.
Christians thus cannot ignore this dimension but must judge such phenomenon as either divine or demonic Moore Hence, the importance of the criteria of discernment in Israel" McNamara The Old Testament provides some criteria that may reveal the spirits that influence seers Guillet In the New Testament the supreme discerner of spirits was Jesus.
Even Paul had to exorcise a spirit that proclaimed the truth of his ministry Acts Thus while demoniacs could testify divine truths, they were rejected by Jesus and McNamara Interestingly, the four Gospels seldom mention Jesus discerning the spirits among people Matt.
Rather, the evil spirits announced themselves to him, fearing his power and authority over them Mk. Peter Acts 5: Even so, the ability to identify which spirits are at work does not necessarily resolve whether it is demonic or divine in origin e. For example, in 1 Kg. What one could generally say was that if a spirit was intent on human destruction, it was likely evil; on the other hand, the Holy Spirit would save or empower people to assist others to safety Wiebe Even then, this observation is not a foolproof criterion.
Discernment of spirits in the early to medieval church period Beginning with Chrysostom and Tertullian, Christians were expected to be able to discern false prophets and evil spirits. For Chrysostom, it was "knowing who is spiritual and who is not; who is a prophet and who a deceiver" Thistelton The age before the Nicene period was strongly empirical with phenomena that were supposedly caused by evil spirits.
Among the discernment criteria were: If it were demonic, then yielding to these spirits would produce spiritual and societal anarchy.
Also, if the possessed were a mystic saint, they would be venerated; but if it were a demoniac, they would be rejected ibid. The task of spirit discernment was difficult because no one could observe the inner spiritual disposition of a person but could only scrutinize the outer comportment or behavior ibid.
Especially problematic was that Satan could masquerade as an angel of light 2 Cor. To better discern the spirits, the church "politics of knowledge production" began to shape the social and religious epistemology of the times; medieval Catholics used 2 Cor.
For example, pronouncements of divine oracles made by many ordinary people were tested. At that time large numbers of mystics were women, a matter that threatened the male ecclesiastical order ibid.
Eventually, when the first exorcism manuals were published in medieval times, the "very grammar of the texts assumed that the demoniac would be female" ibid. Interestingly, when one compares medieval Catholic discernment typologies, Scriptural mentions of a gender being influenced or possessed by demonic spirits all involve males see Matt. This logically led to late medieval Christian art depicting fallen angels or demons with physical similarities to women's bodies!
Conversely, good angels were all males, and demons were all females ibid. Compounding the problem was also a simplistic categorization of the phenomenon that such experiences were either divine or demonic.
In this context the connection between demon possession and mental illness was made. Even today, Christian diagnoses of people characterized by mental illness are still easily confused with demonic possession. The final criterion for discerning the medieval demoniac was that they were antisocial in character; demonization divides the victim from her own senses and community by individual reclusion, frequent fasting, reports of raptures, trances, revelations, penitential One exception is Luk.
Thus, if one should establish any gender markers for those who seem more susceptible to demonic possession, it seems more valid to presume males. Interestingly, in American horror films, women are always portrayed as the subject of possessions, not men, whether fictional or based on true events e.
The exceptions are zombie movies. However, they do not involve spirit possession but viral infection. The result was that an "identity may be entirely subverted and overwhelmed, as she wholly adopts the new personality and expression of the indwelling spirit that controls her body" ibid. In spite of these observations, there were reports of demoniacs producing inspired preaching to accept the truths of the Scripture or to castigate others for sin.
Even Thomas Aquinas encountered difficulty distinguishing between divine and demonic possession. However, it was possible that people who were revered especially females among the lower socio-economic classes could be tempted to use these manifestations to socially uplift oneself ibid. Later, Matt. However, most medieval Christians were still ultimately unable to truly discern the spirits unless it was believed one was gifted to discern them ibid.
By the fifteenth century discerners constructed other criteria to mark demoniacs: Still, no objective tests were presented in which to judge the spiritual content of such expressions. Though it advanced the hermeneutics of spirit discernment, it still assumed external actions accurately confirmed the inner spiritual state. Throughout the medieval period, church leaders remain convinced that God's Spirit would work only through the church office, not weaker vessels or lay individuals ibid.
Among the markers were paranormal activities such as speaking in unknown tongues, clairvoyance, and levitation to madness in animals and "normal" activities such as physical deformity, delusions, sudden disease, irrationality, inordinate lusts, paralysis—the latter category of which were all attributed to evil spirits but many which are now judged as natural.
Weibe also adds that "[t]he phenomena that provide the strongest intimations that a malevolent form of transcendent reality exists are those that leave traces in the spatio-temporal-causal world or are intersubjectively observable … such as levitation, unusual strength or the ability to speak unlearned languages ….
On the final criterion, Ignatius remarked that peace is not just peace and joy is not just joy and desolation is not just desolation … We have too often seen peace taken to be a movement from and towards God, while in actual fact it was no more than the result of a conflict ended; we have seen joy taken to be the fruit of the Spirit while actually the movement was nothing but Satan moving man into false security, or even the result of a good meal.
Desolation was taken to be a movement through which Satan alienates man from God, while in fact the movement was an excess of consolation, of God overwhelming the poor soul with an unmanageable abundance of his peace and love. Peters Guillet To Ignatius the encounter of the human spirit with "two created otherness or spirits stood between the 'border' of the human being's mind" Bossche This differentiation was not concerned about discriminating between good and evil spirits nor discernment aimed at knowing God but knowing God's will ibid.
Here, discernment confronts me with the Other who makes me be myself. This confrontation becomes knowledge, in so far as a differentiation occurs. Discernment effects a triple differentiation: In this differentiation itself, God is known as the One who makes me live, who gives what is given, and most importantly: Ignatius was also aware that because discernment was a charism or gift, this action must be preceded in prayer, exercising caution in "methods, techniques and so on" Peters The discretio spiritum in the Catholic church is still founded on Ignatius' principles in his Spiritual Exercises.
For Roman Catholicism the term means discernment of the "inner movements of our minds and hearts to find and to interpret those that arise under the prompting of the Holy Spirit or the prompting of some spirit in opposition to the Holy Spirit or without the prompting of the either of these" Toner It is the discernment of the heart and attitudes rather than that of the spirits.
This discretio spiritum is about the preparation for assent to the Holy Spirit, but also as a prevention against connivance with all that is opposed to [God's] designs, with whatever is against true and total love for the Lord and our brothers. Therefore, by the discernment of spirits is meant the process by which we examine, in the light of faith and in the connaturality of love, the nature of the spiritual states we experience in ourselves and in others. Weibe observes that by , the New Catholic Encyclopedia adopted a "cautious stance on the topic of diabolical possession".
This newer understanding "exhibits the impact of 60 years of science and biblical criticism on the Catholic church since the older encyclopedia was published". However, Gabriele Amorth, Rome's present chief exorcist disagrees with the new orthodoxy noting that present Catholic leaders prefer to speak about the "spirit of evil" rather than "evil spirits" ibid.
Amorth thus proposed a more lenient criteria than the encyclopedia to discern demonic activity: Ignatian discernment is still used today and is concerned with the spiritual progress of the Christian in life. Often, case studies for practical applications of the hermeneutic are needed as no proper discernment of spirits can remain purely theoretical; it must be exercised in real life where people experience the moving of the spirits.
Modern Catholic criteria for the principle of discernment involved in uncovering the [demonic] deception is this: Toner Today, much of contemporary mainline Protestantism avoids or even denies the presence of the demonic in the Christian life. Where spirit discernment occurred, they meant instead attitudes, feelings, and moods under the realm of psychology.
These conclusions reduced experiences of the spirit to psychologically induced states that were dreamlike or illusory. All in all, religion was a social construct of humanity in response to societal woes. Any "God-talk" was merely personal. Evangelical discernment of spirits For evangelical Christians, God and demons were real. Their basis rested on their more conservative and literal interpretation of Scripture, its inerrancy and the historical The exceptions include Paul Tillich, Wolfhart Pannenberg, and Walter Wink.
For Tillich see the later section on this. For Pannenberg, though he is relatively sparse concerning direct religious experiences, he validates it Dumas Concerning Wink, see the later discussion on him with respect to Yong. However, evangelicals also tend to downplay or deny experience, a role in personal guidance or theology Leibschner Even if experience is allowed, they question whose experience and by what criteria should such experience be accorded such a role other than Scripture as the basis for testing the spirits 1 Jn.
Yet, their emphasis on reason and the Word alone are insufficient. For example, Augustine, noted that for Scripture, the emphasis is on knowledge, or should we say experiential knowledge, since in order to better understand the Scriptures and tradition, a Christian should existentially 'experience' truth.
However, truth must be mediated [as] religious doctrine must not only be understood but it must also be experienced. Reason must penetrate the heart; only then, can the mysteries of faith be experienced as a genuine link to the ultimate reality.
Geybels Paul Hiebert Does the particular manifestation bring glory to God, honor the Lordship of Christ, and agree with Scriptures? Does the person by whom the manifestation comes exhibit the fruit of the Spirit?
Does he or she demonstrate maturity in the faith and a balance in presenting the whole of the gospel? Does the particular manifestation promote unity in the body of Christ or is it divisive? Others such as the Wesleyans point out in their quadrilateral argument that "Scripture never exists in isolation but only in relation to the tradition of the Church, our exercise of reason and what we experience" Guillet Thus, any hermeneutic, not just of the text, but of also the spirits must account for the experiential and contextual element of the discerner.
These dynamics operate when applying an interpretive framework to supply meaning to the situation or entity to be discovered. At the same time, the evangelical commitment to biblical authority and a Christocentric approach remain important criteria to judge 1 any form of human or spirit expressions 2 any spirit that does not conform to the This then begs the question whose "Christ" serves as the criterion in which the church and its traditions provide the standard by which such revelations are judged Parker Pentecostals emphasize a different understanding of the Christian life and role of theology.
In this way, it has been open to many types of spirit expressions. This conserving of the value of experience does not deny that Pentecostal theology is not a theology of the Word. We do not begin with Schleiermacher's man of religious feelings … Does this holy experience result in an experience-centered theology?
The better way to label it is this: Christ-centered, experience-certified theology. Parker Rather, there is a thickness and depth to experience, which is more than our attempts to describe and clarify my emphasis Poling and Miller For evangelical discussions on this, see Anderson , Arnold , Dickason and Powlison Thus, it is likely an oversimplification to say that God moves in fully the same ways.
On this issue, Pentecostals and charismatics need more reflection lest they too fall under the very same theological box that they accuse evangelicals inhabit i.
In this light, "disciplines such as psychology and sociology can raise questions about human experiences of brokenness and are also free to provide answers for the transformation of this brokenness alongside answers from the Christian tradition" Ibid. As a part of this experience, hermeneutics must be seen as part of a "multi-layered human interpretive activity" Parker If so, then 'texts' include not only written materials but 'rituals' and the 'communities' that live and practice their interpretations Ibid.
Pentecostal practice and belief, including the understanding of Scripture, is seen as part of larger questions regarding both the nature of epistemology and hermeneutics. If common human experience may be a source for theological reflection, then we may include "feelings, moods, commitments, and attitudes as well as information received through the senses, all of which are subject to reflection and interpretation within a community context" ibid. This may be modified by "common cultural experience and a more immediate experience which may have personal or corporate dimensions " ibid.
Because each experience is unique and the theological reflections that arise from it bear its influence, every person and culture must be carefully studied without reifying our interpretive categories onto theirs. Besides the above considerations concerning the role of experience in the theologizing process, Pentecostals also rely on tradition to discern signs of the Spirit. Three markers include 1 appeals to Scripture, especially those dealing with charismatic manifestations 2 the Spirit working in people of good character and 3 the Spirit not physically harming, confusing, nor embarrassing anyone Parker Yong All of the above also mean that individual experiences by themselves are of little utility unless they are also understood within the context of tradition or the society of the historical and present believing community Dumas As the tradition perpetuates these discernment practices of the experience, it also confers aptitude to the discerners through its very repeatability Hemmings Lastly, the repeatability of being in continual reflection of Scripture and in the presence of the Spirit in such community hermeneutics also habituates us to sounder methodological processes of discernment.
According to Yong In addition, the "actual processes of discerning the spirits draws from and integrates perceptual feelings, affective impulses and cognitive judgments into spiritual insights" while at the same time recognizing that no human judgment is infallible ibid. This process is contrary to the popular stereotype that Pentecostals seem to lack order and instead present an "anything goes" praxis of ministry or worship. The transrational element derives from 1 Cor.
Such discernment implicates the practices by which "leadings may have their source in the Spirit, in one's own desires, or in diabolical influence" ibid. A potential danger is that charismatic manifestations can be "one means for validating a leader's authority [as] the ability to regulate [such] manifestations is actually a more powerful leadership role" Parker Thus, unless a person is willing to allow their interpretation or discernment to be tested by others, there is great temptation to stand as a priest or prophet unto oneself as previously seen in medieval Catholic discernment practices.
To check this possibility, one should minister alongside a discerning community of Christians to develop mature discernment. Amos Yong's discernment of spirit s While Parker discusses how Pentecostals discern the Spirit amongst themselves, Yong believes that Pentecostals should also develop a hermeneutic of the discernment of the Spirit For example, there are times when one senses "promptings" of the Spirit that cannot logically be explained.
Pentecostals and charismatics likewise argue that similar "sensing" may occur when discerning other spirits as well.
Williams comments that in "discussing how the Spirit guides people into truth See also Tillich However, according Guillet, Pentecostal discernment of spirits can never be considered as a "part of a systematic construction [because] if discernment may lay claim to any conceptual unity, it is that of a habitual self-effacement in order to hear the interior voice of the Spirit [which is] an attitude implying a true experience" Because Yong has developed the most sophisticated model to date, I shall discuss him at length here.
However, since not everything that exists in other traditions is of the Holy Spirit, sure discernment is vital ibid. For him, when a person "comes through the experience as a more integrated self bearing the fruits of the Spirit [to this] extent one can say that the Spirit has been present and at work" in their life and … these expressions edify God's people and transform relationships between Christians and non-Christians This agrees with Guillet To discern the spirit in other religions, Yong classifies some as "religions of the spirit" that are "frequently dominated by mystical or prophetic types of experiences and expressions, thus capable of being judgmental of both other and of self" For such a venture a robust pneumatology to discern must also include a proper theology and hermeneutic of demonology ibid.
This demonology must account for social structures that operate not just in the heavenly realms but among social or political institutions operated by humans They are legal vectors that which shape the patterns and habits of human activity within cultural institutions, socio-economic networks and political structures … they can only be discerned from their effects on and instantiations in the concrete actualities of the world.
For details, see Yong This implicates discussing territorial spirits which space does not permit. On this, see McConnell and Wagner Whether such spirits are territorial or not is not my concern but if they do exist, my concern is how do we discern them. In order to discern such spirits then Yong believes that spirit discernment is best experienced when the Spirit is seen in a three-fold community hermeneutic ibid. For the individual, signs of transformation of soul are especially valuable.
Have the religious symbols exhibited the power to affect the transformation of the soul in the devotee? What are the fruits of the individual's change for the better? Is there any evidence of divine activity in the devotee's personal life, ecclesial community or wider networks of relationships?
In short, moral-ethical norms gauge the extent of the Spirit's activity in the lives of individuals situated in religious communities and need to be applied to the entire range of human existence.
He is the discerner par excellence. At other times there may also be the "absence of divinity" in contrast to degrees of a "fuller" presence of the divine ibid. Discerning the spirits at this level "relates to the functional role of the demonic relative to soteriology" Ibid. When the "fuller" is in view through the presence and work of the Spirit, "the supreme norms, ideals and values instantiated in Jesus are what all things will be judged against" Ibid.
When the Spirit moves, it is grounded on Biblical revelation ibid. Overall, Yong broadens our understanding that spirit discernment should not be confined to spirit entities in individuals but involves spiritual discernment that encompasses all of life While the Christological dimension is always present as discernment criterion i.
Peter, by the revelation of God's Spirit realizes the truth of Christ which Jesus discerns and affirms. In Peter's case, the human spirit lost its self-control. One of the fruits of the Spirit is self-control Gal 5: However, when the human spirit heeds the Holy Spirit, the human conscience's role in allowing God to be heard is amplified as the human spirit flows in symbiosis with the Holy Spirit 1 Cor For example, it is unclear how his hermeneutic functions when both good and evil spirits may originate from God and when they lead people to destruction or deceptive confusion e.
But for the Christian, the criteria for discernment of the Spirit cannot be other than Christological. This is the only criterion for discernment on which Christians can agree Kim The gift of discernment of spirit Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are varieties of services, but the same Lord; and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who activates all of them in everyone.
In Beyond the Impasse, only one use is found on p. For other critiques of Yong, see Ott, Strauss, and Tennent Current scholarship generally holds two positions. The first is that it involves judging or evaluating spirit-inspired speech that is prophetic Collins This would allow one to know whether some are preaching "another Gospel" Gal 1: Aquinas held to a variation of this view, remarking that discretio spiritum is a gift that permits the man who teaches the things of God to "confirm" what he says.
This "confirmation" may be effected by various gifts, by showing that it is proper to God alone to have knowledge of future contingencies my emphasis ; it is in view of this that reference is made to the gift of prophecy and then the gift of knowing the secrets of hearts".
Anthony Thiselton believes that it includes "a critical capacity to discern the genuine transcendent activity of the Spirit from merely human attempts to replicate it and a pastoral discernment of the varied ways in which the spirit of God is working in such a way as to distinguish various consequences and patterns" For both views, we must not risk "individualizing and even trivializing Paul's more corporate and strategic concerns about discerning the ways of the spirit" ibid.
Thus, the use of this gift involves more than arbitrating "small-scale controversies between individuals in local communities or minor variants between traditions of interpretation" ibid.
If a wider view is taken, then the gift of discernment of spirits can also include Christians serving in any sense of the Spirit's work with respect to other spirits in the larger context of the church's mission in the world Yong Whether individually or corporately, Scripture does indicate that people who do possess this gift can discern demonic spirits in religious others Matt.
If Christians may accept the existence of such a gift, to whom this may be given we do not know, but when such individuals are present and discovered, the church should not neglect its use in any engagement of religions. However it is exercised, they should be led by the Spirit to guide others into all truth Jn. The spirits that exist in this world that require discernment of their presence are the human spirit, evil spirit, Holy Spirit, angelic spirits, and possibly the zeitgeist of society Guillet For instance, do such spirits or experiences a.
While the Holy Spirit does not physically harm nor embarrass anyone, we should be cautious lest we misread what certain bodily manifestations of spiritual experiences may mean.
They must be ascertained within the context of the community, history of the individual, and the society and biblical data, as to whether such behavior is demonic or truly Holy Spirit inspired.
The Holy Spirit will work to increase psychological and emotional maturity as part of God's work. It should also produce the fruit of the Spirit Gal 5: God's Spirit never destroys the imago Dei within but seeks to bring people to fullness in their soul, mind and being. Typically people from the social margins may exhibit behavior that seeks to draw attention to themselves. Careful examination should be made to ascertain whether they are merely psychological insecurities expressed that we misinterpret as led by the Spirit or by manifestations of the demonic.
This is the external- communal component of discernment. It asks whether such spirits or experiences a. It may involve real spirit entities or merely the socio-cultural and religious milieu in which we live and breathe. This assumes that the community as a whole is not at odds against the biblical worldview and by itself also exhibits many traits of a socially healthy and caring community. This should also be contrasted against biblical communities of church history and its historical, orthodox teachings as well.
This is the transcendental-objective component of discernment. Theological, pastoral, and missiological implications To better understand the nature of spirit influences among non-Christians and avoid simplistic categorizations of good versus evil spirits, one should ask how do religious communities understand experiences of the transcendent Caciola A comparative theology that involves the "hermeneutical process of identifying, classifying and interpreting the similarities and differences between religious symbols" is needed so that we understand a "thing's authentic representation of its being and accomplishment of its purpose relative to others" and how its insiders see it as well Yong However, engaging other religions empirically means that Christians need a dialectic between our constants and their reality.
This dialectic must occur not just at the phenomenological but also at the ontological and theological levels. Who are they? What do they say? What is manifested? Discernment however cannot remain purely at the ontological realm. It is also sociological and situated within a tradition and society that provides coherent plausibility structures as to what is divine, demonic, or otherwise.
For followers of Christ the biblical worldview is understood and experienced within the historical, interdenominational, and global church, which must lay down the plausibility structure and vision par excellence of a Christian community. This guides and becomes the community by which all other worldviews and hermeneutics are judged and transformed towards truth Jn. Missiologically, the discernment of spirits implicates evangelism e. Finally, spirit discernment is a mystery we will never fully grasp.
Any experience of fully knowing or discerning transcendent entities comes only when God allows humans to better see what he sees Hemming For this reason, prayer and humility is the proper Christian posture as divine wisdom is always necessary.
In addition, we need to develop a critical psychological, anthropological, and sociological analysis of people, lest we rush towards simplistic answers for what may be complex psychosocial Moore or large scale societal phenomena Ong When training pastors or missionaries for this task we should encourage the collection of case studies from the field. This multi-perspective approach can only occur in real-life ministry settings in touch with a wise and discerning community of believers who are working in cooperation with one another.
Such a community should be sufficiently diverse in its theological orientation and practice so that no one tradition can claim interpretive ultimacy, with a temptation to claim power over others, as to what is demonic or divine among people who are unlike them.
Finally, because the Spirit "blows where it will" John 3: Short biography of author: He researches and writes on Asian Pentecostalism, work, money and mission, globalisation and world religions. He has edited three books and published over 30 articles on the Trinity, Pentecostalism, mission and world religions, contextual theology, globalisation and urban missiology.
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Placerville, CA: Gold Leaf. New International Commentary on the New Testament. God's Empowering Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Letters of Paul. Foster, Richard, Celebration of Discipline: The Path to Spiritual Growth. San Francisco, CA: Garland, David. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament.
Geybels, Hans. Augustine's Hermeneutics of Religious Experience. Grudem, Wayne. The Gift of Prophecy in 1 Corinthians. Lanham, MD: University of America Press. Guillet, Jacques, et al. Kristen Harris - Kristen Harris. Livin' on a prayer by Bon Jovi. Not just one person it is my whole family. Kristen Harris. Public Speaking. Kristen French. Students will be introduce - Public Speaking. Students will be introduced to the principles and Students will participate in various graded and un-graded communication Why are Albert Einstein and Jacques Cousteau remembered as great men?
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Description and Motivation Science Autonomy Interface: Selecting papers for publication or How does a journal decide which type of papers to select for their journal? Tujuan dari membaca dan menafsirkan Kitab Suci dalam pemahaman kaum Pentakosta adalah untuk menemukan sesuatu yang dapat dialami yang relevan kepada kehidupan mereka. Karena itu, pemahaman orang-orang Pentakosta terhadap Alkitab secara konstan menekankan terjadinya mujizat-mujizat di dalam 55 Scott A.
Scandinavian University Books, , Cambridge University Press, , Kisah dalam kitab Kisah Para Rasul adalah kisah-kisah saya, yang ditulis untuk menjadi model-model untuk membentuk kehidupan dan pengalaman saya. Pengalaman para rasul dalam Kisah Para Rasul masih relevan dan berlaku bagi pengalaman orang-orang percaya pada masa kini. Tentu pemahaman inilah yang memberikan keyakinan kepada kaum Pentakosta militant dalam menjalankan misi Allah di mana kaum Pentakosta sangat militan dalam pelayanan pelepasan, mendoakan kesembuhan fisik, serta pelayanan-pelayanan kebangunan rohani yang membawa kelompok Pentakosta berkembang secara signifikan secara kuantitas.
Bob Menzies menyoroti keunikan dari pembacaan kaum Pentakosta terhadap Alkitab, secara khusus cara mereka membaca kitab Lukas-Kisah Para Rasul dalam sebuah cara yang berbeda dari pembacaan kaum Injili. Pada cara yang sama, kaum Pentakosta juga disebut Injili dalam artian bahwa kaum Pentakosta dan Injili menegaskan otoritas Alkitab dan menekankan maksud para penulis Alkitab dan berusaha mencari untuk memahami teks-teks Alkitab dalam terang historical-critical dan literary context.
Selain itu, kaum Pentakosta menunjukkan kesetiaannya 60 Ibid. Menzies, Pentecost: Gospel Publishing House, , 9. Di sinilah letak kesetiaan kaum Pentakosta terhadap otoritas kebenaran Alkitab sebagai panduan kehidupan Kristiani. Menekankan pengalaman dalam Alkitab Kaum Pentakosta menekankan pada karya Roh Kudus dalam kehidupan orang-orang percaya. Karena itu, tujuan dari hermeneutik Pentakosta merupakan implementasi- implementasi dari pesan Alkitab di dalam kehidupan sehari-hari mereka.
David F. Ford menjelaskan bahwa gerakan Pentakosta dan Karismatik sama-sama menekankan siginifikansi dari pengalaman dengan Roh Kudus yang dengan jelas diekspresikan melalui intensive bodily participation in worship. Karena itu, percakapan antara teks Alkitab dan konteks dari komunitas adalah sebuah dimensi khusus dari sebuah pendekatan di dalam pengalaman dengan Roh Kudus melalui penafsiran dari teks yang sedang dibaca.
Bukti eksperimental ini merupakan sebuah solusi yang menjanjikan sesuatu yang pantas, bukti yang diverifikasi dalam keberadaan Allah dan kebenaran Kekeristenan. Oleh sebab itu, sebagai bukti, maka semua referensi mujizat xenolalia, di mana kelompok Pentakosta telah alami dapat meyakinkan pengalaman ecstatics dirinya sendiri dan orang-orang yang telah menyaksikan fenomena tersebut.
Vanhoozer Cambridge, UK: See also William W. Studies in Honor of Howard M. Hendrickson Publishers, no date , 1. There is uniqueness to Pentecostal theology. There is a precision and definiteness about the experience of the Spirit — clarity of expectation that can be proclaimed and demonstrated. Cargal menjelaskan bahwa kaum Pentakosta lebih menekankan pada peran pengalaman dari penafsir dalam lingkaran hermeneutis hermeneutical circle. Dengan kata lain, penafsir membaca teks-teks Alkitab dan mengaitkan dengan pengalaman penafsir.
Karena itu, Cargal tegaskan bahwa model penafsiran tersebut konsisten berkaitan dengan penekanan pengalaman yang dibangkitkan oleh postmodernism. Presuposisi pembaca tidak dapat dilepaskan dalam membaca Kitab Suci dan pengalaman kebergantungan dengan Roh Kudus menjadi sarana untuk menjembatani makna teks Kitab Suci sebagai tulisan masa lampau dengan pemahaman masa kini. Jadi, iluminasi Pneumatic dari perspektif Pentakosta dalam membaca dan menafsirkan Kitab Suci merupakan peran utama dari pengalaman.
Unsur pengalaman menjadi bagian dalam memahami Alkitab. Hermeneutik Pentakosta menekankan pengalaman yang bersifat personal kepada pengalaman komunal melalui kuasa transformative dari Roh Kudus dalam kehidupan masing-masing pribadi, dalam komunitas iman dan di dalam dunia.
Jadi kaum Pentakosta telah menemukan keyakinan mereka dalam ototritas Alkitab, bukan pada argumen doktrinal atau teologis, melainkan pada pengalaman pribadi, yang mana merupakan perjumpaan dengan Allah di dan melalui teks-teks Alkitab.
See also Scott A. God reveals Himself in the pages of the Bible, in signs and wonders, in worship and prayer in very real and powerful ways. Pentecostals understanding of the Scripture is base their faith in God through the personal relationship with God.
This relationship could be articulated as a personal experience with God and they share to others. Therefore, Pentecostalism is the experience of the community of faith. Bagi Chan, kaum Pentakosta menekankan lebih kepada dynamic view dari karya Roh Kudus yang mana Roh Kudus telah memimpin orang-orang percaya untuk mengerti Alkitab. Alkitab sebagai kebenaran menjadi rhema melalui karya Roh Kudus dan menerapkan Alkitab untuk kehidupan pribadi.
Karena itu, dalam pemahaman Pentakosta, kebenaran adalah supernatural karena karya Roh Kudus dalam kehidupan orang percaya. Karena itu, bagi Anderson, pengalaman ini dilihat sebagai ekspresi Kekristenan yang menekankan dan menghargai pengalaman pribadi dengan dimensi hubungan dengan Allah. Hal tersebut tidak dapat dielakkan bahwa kaum Pentakosta sangat ekspresif dalam memberikan respon kepada teks Alkitab sebagai sebuah teks yang dibaca sebagai sebuah rhema dan menerapkannya di dalam kehidupan mereka, sebagai bagian dari pengalaman mereka dengan Alkitab.
Penekanan terhadap pengalaman dengan teks-teks Kitab Suci merupakan bagian yang penting dalam kehidupan spiritualitas Kristiani. Karena itu, hermeneutic Pentakosta memberikan ruang terhadap pengalaman pribadi dengan kebenaran teks-teks Kitab Suci. Namun, penekanan terhadap pengalaman perlu mendapat perhatian agar tidak terjebak dalam budaya postmodern yang menekankan unsur pengalaman pada pembacaan terhadap sebuah teks.
Suatu teks yang dibaca akan menjadi kebenaran jika dikonfirmasi dengan pengalaman. Dengan kata lain, penekanan terhadap unsur pengalaman akan membangkitkan kebenaran yang bersifat relative sebagaimana post modernism tegaskan bahwa tidak ada kebenaran yang absolut karena kebenaran harus bersumber dan sesuai dengan pengalaman.
Sheffield Academic Press, , Kevin J. Alkitab merupakan kesaksian Roh Kudus kepada gereja mengenai Yesus Kristus, satu Pribadi yang membuat Bapa dikenal dan satu Pribadi yang menyelesaikan karya kehendak salfivic Bapa. Dengan kata lain, Alkitab merupakan kesaksian Kristus sendiri kepada diri-Nya sendiri melalui komisi perwakilan para nabi dan rasul yang telah menuliskan Alkitab dalam kuasa Roh Kudus.
Alkitab adalah komunikasi ilahi Allah untuk menyingkapkan diri-Nya sendiri dan Roh Kudus merupakan agen untuk memahaminya. Oleh sebab itu maka bahasa merupakan pengetahuan manusia yang esensial. Selanjutnya Gianni Vattimo menunjukkan bahwa kebenaran dalam perspektif postmodern adalah didasarkan pada penafsiran pengalaman manusia. Bagi Gadamer, konsep kebenaran dan teks dalam bahasa manusia harus dipahami dalam pengalaman akan kebenaran itu sendiri.
Elijah Dann Belmont, CA: Jadi, keadilan diserahkan kepada narasi agung dengan cara yang sama sebagai kebenaran.
Continuum, , Blackwell Publishing, , Dengan kata lain, kebenaran terletak di dalam apa yang manusia katakan berdasarkan pada situasi dan konteks dari pembicara kepada apa yang sedang dikatakan. Konteks dari hermeneutik pengalaman adalah komunitas-komunitas manusia. Robert S. Corrington menjelaskan bahwa komunitas-komunitas berhubungan kepada struktur- struktur horizontal dari penafsiran dalam hal itu hermeneutik dikaitkan dengan lokasi setiap penafsiran dalam lokasi dan tradisi yang tepat.
Setiap pengalaman secara konstan mengubah pemikiran dan pola pengalaman yang sebelumnya telah dikembangkan. Karena itu, pengetahuan dan kebenaran yang bersifat subyektif tidak dapat dihindarkan.
Crossroad Publishing Company, , But in being known in its being-in-itself, it is made available in the sense that one can deal with it, i. Corrington, The Community of Interpreters: Mercer University Press, , See also Gadamer, Truth and Method, We shall to investigate the relationship between language and the world in order to attain the horizon adequate to the linguistic nature of the hermeneutical experience.
William B. Eerdmans Publishing House, , Bagi Cargal, jika hermeneutik apapun tidak berkaitan dengan paradigma postmodern, maka makna dari sebuah teks adalah tidak masuk akal dan irrelevant. Cargal telah menantang hermeneutik Pentakosta untuk menolak makna sejarah dari teks Alkitab dan lebih memusatkan perhatian pada reader oriented sebagaimana yang postmodern lakukan.
Selain itu, terdapat kemiripan dalam spiritualitas Pentakosta dan Postmodern. The contemporary issues that the Pentecostals should be aware are feminist movement, liberation theologians, and others whose political and theological agendas we may not always support. Mezies and Robert P. Menzies, Spirit and Power: Tetapi dalam pengalaman iman Pentakosta, Crabtree mengatakan bahwa pengalaman Pentakosta bukanlah sifat dasar dari keselamatan, penerimaan terhadap kebenaranlah yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan rohani dan esensial kepada sifat khusus Pentakosta.
The task of deliverance evangelists, therefore, is to proclaim this truth and encourage their listeners to believe it. Dosalah yang menjadi pemisah antara Allah dengan manusia sehingga manusia mengalami hal-hal yang buruk.
Tetapi Allah menginginkan hal-hal yang terbaik harus dialami oleh manusia. Jadi demonstrasi atas pemulihan dari penderitaan merupakan manisfestasi pembebasan Allah terhadap ikatan-ikatan tersebut.
Positive thinking postmodernisme hampir mirip dengan praktek iman yang berkembang dalam spiritualitas pentakostalisme. Karakteristik dari spiritualitas postmodernisme adalah positivisme. Positivisme merupakan suatu praktek keyakinan yang berlebihan. Istilah lain yang cocok dengan positivisme adalah fideism.
Greer mengatakan bahwa secara teknis, fideism berarti faith in faith iman di dalam iman. Keyakinan ini merupakan tindakan berpikir positif yang mengarah kepada sesuatu yang 88 Jerry Vines, Spirit Works: Charismatic Practices and the Bible Nashville, Tennessee: National Decade of Harvest, , Hal tersebut kerapkali dihubungkan dengan iman yang dicirikan oleh kenaifan, kesederhanaan berpikir, dan pemikiran yang penuh harapan.
Pelayanan ini mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan dalam gereja. Seseorang akan mengalami kesembuhan, baik kesembuhan fisik maupun non-fisik seperti kerasukan hanya melalui iman. Gerakan pengajaran iman mulai berkembang di kalangan kelompok Pentakosta.
Kesembuhan ilahi yang dialami karena iman merupakan suatu berkat yang diperoleh dari Allah. Menurut Mark J. Cartledge konsep iman yang dikembangkan adalah faith formula atau positive confession, 95 atau dengan kata lain, Name it claim it. Keduanya hampir sulit dibedakan. Meskipun kedua spiritualitas ini terdapat kemiripan, namun harus disadari bahwa keduanya berbeda secara esensial. Perbedaan dari keduanya adalah bahwa spiritualitas pentakostalisme mempunyai correct focus focus yang benar.
Fokus yang benar inilah yang membuat pentakostalisme mempunyai kebenaran yang objektif dan absolut, sedangkan dalam spiritualitas postmodernisme tidak mempunyai correct focus sehingga pada akhirnya mereka mempunyai kebenaran yang jamak, atau dengan kata lain mempunyai kebenaran yang relatif.
Correct focus dari pentakostalisme adalah Alkitab sebagai Firman Allah yang merupakan sumber kebenaran yang absolut. Pemahaman ini merupakan warisan pentakosta yang diterima dari pemikiran Injili yang memandang kepada otoritas Alkitab sebagai Firman Allah yang telah diwahyukan.
Dasar dari sumber kebenaran menjadi perbedaan dari kedua spiritualitas ini. Sumber kebenaran postmodernisme adalah manusia, sedangkan pentakostalisme sumber dari kebenaran adalah Allah sendiri yang mewahyukan diri-Nya di dalam Alkitab. Dengan sangat 93 Robert C. Greer, Mapping Postmodernism: InterVarsity Press, , 94 Ibid.
Cartledge, Practical Theology: Charismatic and Empirical Perspectives Carlisle, Cumbria: Paternoster Press, , Namun yang perlu diperhatikan dalam spiritualitas pentakostalisme adalah praktek dari formula iman yang sedang berkembang.
Praktek pengajaran iman yang berlebihan mungkin akan membawa orang Kristen khususnya kelompok Pentakosta pada incorrect focus focus yang tidak tepat. Incorrect focus yang dimaksudkan di sini adalah orang akan cenderung berfokus pada mujizat serta karya-karya spektakuler, bukan berfokus kepada Allah.
Atau dengan kata lain, terjadi devaluasi terhadap iman. Iman seharusnya berfokus kepada Allah dalam karya keselamatannya dalam sejarah, justru akan diartikan dengan berfokus kepada memperoleh setiap keinginan-keinginan atau ambisi-ambisi pribadi.
Allah memang berkerja dalam karya- karya spektakuler dalam tanda dan mujizat yang menjadi semangat pelayanan dalam spiritualitas pentakostalisme, tetapi harus dilihat dalam kerangkan karya penyelamatan Allah dalam sejarah.
Simpulan dan Penutup Salah satu contoh kasus yang sering menjadi fenomena ekstrim dalam pelayanan Pentakosta adalah peperangan rohani. Pesan dari tindakan peperangan rohani yang dilakukan oleh kelompok Pentakosta menekankan satu sisi dari karya Yesus Kristus dalam kehidupan orang percaya. Oleh sebab itu, para pengkhotbah Pentakosta juga harus memberikan perhatian pada hermeneutik teologi Pentakosta.
Hal ini bukan berarti bahwa tindakan peperangan rohani yang dilakukan adalah salah, melainkan tindakan tersebut harus merefleksikan pemahaman teologis yang sehat terhadap teks-teks Alkitab. Kristus telah memenuhi setiap orang percaya dengan Roh Kudus untuk memberdayakan mereka bagi pekerjaan misi Allah.
Misi Allah adalah agar setiap orang percaya membagikan Injil kepada setiap orang. Peperangan rohani mengambil satu bagian dari misi Allah di mana hal ini merupakan kabar baik yang dapat memulihkan bagi orang yang sakit, yang hidup dalam kemelaratan, serta mereka yang dikuasai oleh roh jahat.
Namun pesan yang yang paling penting adalah untuk memimpin orang kepada hubungan pribadi dengan Kristus yang memberikan keselamatan dan kehidupan yang kekal. Karena itu, pengalaman pribadi dengan Alkitab dalam hermeneutik Pentakosta adalah penting sebab pengalaman ini merupakan dimensi hubungan pribadi dengan Allah.
Hal ini tidak terelakkan bahwa kaum Pentakosta menunjukkan respon yang sangat ekspresif terhadap teks Alkitab sebagai sebuah teks yang sedang dibaca adalah sebuah rhema dan menerapkannya dalam kehidupan mereka sebagai bagian dari pengalaman mereka terhadap Alkitab. Paper ini mengundang para pengkhotbah Pentakosta untuk berpikir secara teologis dan praktis. Secara teologis berkaitan dengan penafsiran teks-teks Alkitab, dan secara praktis adalah bagaimana teks Alkitab menjawab kebutuhan umat Allah berdasarkan situasi mereka dan memimpin mereka kepada hubungan secara pribadi dengan Allah.
An Introduction to Pentecostalism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, Anderson, Gordon L. Archer, Kenneth J. New York, NY: Aust, Carsten.
A Selective Analysis, Thesis. Baguio City, PH: Asia Pacific Theological Seminary, August Bloch-Hoel, Nils. The Pentecostal Movement: Its Origin, Development, and Distinctive Character. Scandinavian University Books, Cargal, Timothy B. Chan, Simon. Pentecostal Theology and the Christian Spiritual Tradition. Sheffield, EN: Sheffield Academic Press, Corrington, Robert S.
The Community of Interpreters: Mercer University Press, Crabtree, Charles T. The Pentacostal Priority. National Decade of Harvest, Davis, John Jafferson. Foundation of Evangelical Theology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker House, Ellington, Scott A. Ervin, Howard M.
Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Fee, Gordon D. Gospel and Spirit: Issue in New Testament Hermeneutics. Ford, David F. Gadamer, Hans-Georg. New York: Continuum, Truth and Method. Systematic Theology, vol. Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Johnson, Todd M. South Hamilton, MA, Elijah Dann. Belmont, CA: Marshall, I.
Howard Luke: Historian and Theologian. Zondervan Publishing House, Menzies, Robert P. Springfield, MS: Gospel Publishing House, Menzies, William W. Hendrickson, Spirit and Power: Foundations of Pentecostal Experience.
Nichol, John Thomas. The Pentecostal. New Jersey: Logos International, Ramm, Bernard. Protestant Biblical Interpretation, third edition. Grand Rapid, MI: Baker Book House, Riggs, John W. Postmodern Christianity. Trinity Press International, Satcliffe, Peter A. Is there an Author in This Text? Discovering the Otherness of the Text. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stcok Publishers, Schneiders, Sandra M.
Stronstad, Roger. Spirit, Scripture, and Theology: A Pentecostal Perspective.
Asia Pacific Theological Seminary Press, Vanhoozer, Kevin J. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Vines, Jerry. Spirit Works: Charismatic Practices and the Bible.
Nashville, Tennessee: Virkler, Henry A. Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation. Walhout, Clarence. Eerdmans Publishing House, But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does it exist forever, i. This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages, and still has its revival in modern physical cosmology both in the controversy between the big bang and steady state models some decades ago and in the contemporary attempts to explain the big bang within a quantum cosmological vacuum fluctuation framework.
In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.
Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time. Further observations are recommended. Big Bang, Steady state, rotating universe, fluid, singularity-free, cosmology model, early Universe, Genesis, Spirit, Creation. This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages. Victor Christianto, Independent Researcher. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas: This is a tool of mind which we think to be a better way compared to critical hermeneutics.
One article suggests: It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts. Rather, use the data in the passage — the words that are used and how they fit together — to point you toward the correct interpretation. A closer look at Genesis 1: How to interpret properly Genesis chapter 1: But we can ask: Is that primeval atom model the true and faithful reading of Genesis 1: Let us start our discussion with examining key biblical words of Hebrew Bible, especially Genesis 1: It can be shown that the widely accepted creation ex nihilo is a post-biblical invention, rather than as faithful reading of the verses.
To quote Ian Barbour: Also note that in Hebrew, subjects and verbs are usually ordered verb-first unlike English in which the subject is written first.
If the verb and subject of this verse are reordered according to natural English grammar we read: Likewise, if haytah in v 1: Here we can ask, does this text really support the Cartesian dualism view?
We do not think so, because the Hebrew concept of man and life is integral. The bottom line: Earth and the oceans already exist similar to adamah , but still empty and formless.
Then the Spirit of God hovered over it, in the original text "ruach" can be interpreted as a strong wind storm. See also Amos Yong , also Hildebrandt . From a scientific point of view, it is well known in aerodynamics that turbulence can cause sound turbulence-generated sound. And primordial sound waves are indeed observed by astronomers. Which one can cause other. That is, God can speak and then storms, or the Spirit of God causes a storm.
Then came the voice. The conclusion of the three verses above seems to be that man is made up of adamah which is animated by the breath or Spirit of God. He is not matter, more accurately referred to as spirit in matter. In other words, a close reading of Hebrew Bible seems to suggest that creation ex-nihilo is a post-biblical invention.
Besides, the notion of creation ex-materia has been advocated by Mormon preachers. As we shall see in the next chapter, it is possible to come up with a physical model of early Universe with rotation, where the raw materials have been existed for long period of time, but suddenly it burst out into creation.
Furthermore, it can be shown that the model naturally leads to accelerated expansion, without having to invoke ad hoc assumption like dark energy or cosmological constant. A computational model of rotation in early Universe Our discussion starts from the fundamental question: We are aware that the notion of turbulence-generated sound is not new term at all especially in aerodynamics, but the term is rarely used in cosmology until now. It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem.
More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vortical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. In other paper, we obtained an Ermakov-type equation following Nurgaliev . Then we solve it numerically using Mathematica An interesting result from that simple computational simulation is shown in the following diagram: This needs to be investigated in more detailed for sure.
One conclusion that we may derive especially from Diagram 1, is that our computational simulation suggests that it is possible to consider that the Universe has existed for long time in prolonged stagnation period, then suddenly it burst out from empty and formless Gen. Therefore, it is perhaps noteworthy to discuss briefly a simple model of galaxies based on a postulate of turbulence vortices which govern the galaxy dynamics.
The Vatistas model is also governed by Navier-Stokes equations, see for instance . Neutrosophic Logic perspective and implications In the previous sections we have discussed how closer look at Gen.
We also discussed how such a mixed view can be modelled by introducing rotation in the early universe. Now there is an immediate question: Is this new look at the origin of Universe justifiable logically, or is it merely a compromised solution?
So, in this chapter we will review Neutrosophic Logic, a new theory developed in recent decades by one of these authors FS. Vern Poythress argues that sometimes we need a modification of basic philosophy of mathematics, in order to re-define the redeemed mathematics; see .
In this context, allow us to argue in favor of Neutrosophic logic as one basic postutale, in lieu of the Aristotle logic which creates many problems in real world. In Neutrosophy, we can connect an idea with its opposite idea and with its neutral idea and get common parts, i. The common part of the uncommon things! From neutrosophy, all started: It is true in restricted case, i. For example: But neutral people around both of you especially the police interfere to reconcile both of you.
Neutrosophy considers the dynamics of opposites and their neutrals. So, neutrosophy means that: A neutrosophic set is characterized by a truth-membership function T , an indeterminacy-membership function I , and a falsity-membership function F , where T, I, F are subsets of the unit interval [0, 1].
As particular cases we have: Neutrosophic Set is a powerful structure in expressing indeterminate, vague, incomplete and inconsistent information. See also -. To summarize, Neutrosophic Logic study the dynamics of neutralities. This is exactly the picture we got after our closer look at Gen. Avoid inflationary scheme. It is known that inflationary models were proposed by Alan Guth et al.
Explain accelerated expansion. In the meantime, in our rotating Universe model, we do not invoke ad hoc dimension into the metric. Explain inhomogeneity, breeding galaxies etc. Astronomers have known for long time, that the Universe is not homogeneous and isotropic as in the usual model. It contains of inhomogeneity, irregularity, clumpiness, voids, filaments etc, which indicate complex structures.
Furthermore, observations clearly suggest that matter ejected continuously in galaxy centers, which view is difficult to reconcile with Big Bang scenario of galaxy creation. According to Abdul Malek: Dispersion from compact super- dense sources at the galactic core for him, therefore, represented the fundamental dynamics of the universe. This is exactly the opposite of the view that the galaxies condensed from the diffuse clouds of gas produced from some events in the past as Big Bang and Steady State theories proposed.
As suggested by Arp, it is possible that linear ejections of pairs of objects along the minor axis of the parent galaxy give rise to the companion galaxies, quasars, etc.
Evidence for such a transformation had already been found in when the French astronomer G. Conclusions In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe.
By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture. And one conclusion that we may derive especially from Diagram 1, is that it is possible to consider that the Universe has existed for long time in prolonged stagnation period, then suddenly it burst out from empty and formless Gen. Such a possibility has never been considered before in cosmology literatures.
It is our hope that our exploration will lead to more realistic nonlinear cosmology theories which are better in terms of observations, and also more faithful to Biblical account of creation. The first author VC would like to express his gratitude to Dr. Joas Adiprasetya, Dr. Yonky Karman, and Dr. Wonsuk Ma for discussions on early creation of the Universe.
We also thank to a number of professors in physics, including Prof. Bambang Hidayat, Prof. Liek Wilardjo and Prof. Thee Houw Liong. May God be with you. Document history: Time before Time: Classifications of universes in contemporary cosmology, and how to avoid the antinomy of the beginning and eternity of the world.
Cosmology and the Origin of the Universe: Historical and Conceptual Perspectives. The Spirit of Creation. Eerdmans Publ. The polemic nature of the Genesis Cosmology.