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Strengthen your relationship with your children with this revised edition of the book by renowned psychologist Dr. Haim Ginott that has helped millions. Strengthen your relationship with your children with this revised edition of the book by renowned psychologist Dr. Haim Ginott that has helped millions of parents. The purpose of this book is to "translate research findings into practical terms" for parents who are already fairly sophisticated in childrearing skills. It focuses on.
Parental attributions. Research on more specific cognitions also highlights the importance of parent thinking on child outcomes. Parent—child involvement: Cumulative risk factors for adolescent alcohol misuse and its perceived consequences among 16 to 20 year old adolescents in Switzerland. References Miller P, Plant M.
Another strength is the limited influence of publication bias. In our review we included studies reporting the association of the PCR with alcohol use although this was not the main research question. With this inclusion also non-significant results were taken into account. Despite of the comprehensive search strategy, a limitation is that we might have missed some studies due to the restriction imposed by using only those studies published in English.
However, most reviews use a language restriction and no evidence was found that such a restriction leads to a bias [ 59 ]. Furthermore, due to restriction of the search to electronic databases and to year of publication, we might have missed some studies. But it is unlikely that unpublished studies, non-journal studies, or studies published before would influence our conclusion regarding the level of evidence. Besides that, the likelihood that we have missed some studies is small because we screened the reference lists of the selected studies and of relevant systematic reviews.
Another limitation of our study may be the use of a cut-off point for the identification of high-quality studies which we used to determine the strength of the evidence. We found weak evidence for a causal association between the PCR and alcohol use. The causality of this association and, if causal, its direction is far from clear.
It might also be for example that the PCR is only causally related to certain types of alcohol behaviors.
However, research that studied the association for several types of alcohol behaviors, so the comparison of effects is more reliable, is lacking. Additional research may clarify this.
Furthermore, additional research should focus in particular on the role of overprotection by parents regarding the relation between the PCR and alcohol use as discussed above. Considering the gap in the literature, this research should also concern the extent of parental influence across several stages of alcohol use, and the additional effects of peer behavior.
Any future research should further be designed in such a way that it also enables the assessment of potential reversed causality. Furthermore, for progress in this area more standardization in the measurement of both PCR and alcohol use, the follow-up periods, and analytic procedures is needed, considering the significant heterogeneity present in our review.
Regarding reduction of alcohol consumption, the development of prevention and intervention programs by policymakers aimed at improving the PCR does not seem to be useful, given the unclear causality. However, assessment of the PCR as protective factor may be a means to identify groups of adolescents at risk for use of alcohol, also independent from the still unclear causal mechanims.
Considering the size of the problem of adolescent alcohol use, this topic deserves attention given its impact on adolescent health. LV developed the protocol for the study, conducted the literature search, screened studies for inclusion in the review, assessed the quality of the studies, extracted data, and wrote the final manuscript.
AFW was involved in the development of the protocol of the study, screened studies for inclusion in the review, and assessed the quality of the studies. SAR was involved in the development of the protocol of the study and contributed to the screening and quality assessment of the studies. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the data, writing of the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript. The authors would like to thank Truus van Ittersum for her assistance with the literature search.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMC Public Health. Published online Oct Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Leenke Visser: Received Jun 15; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health.
Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem over the past decade and can lead to a great many health risks and social problems. Methods Study selection An extensive search of the literature was conducted in order to identify longitudinal studies regarding the association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use.
Quality assessment The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a checklist derived from Hayden et al. Table 1 Criteria list for methodological quality assessment.
Criteria Study participation A. The sampling frame and recruitment are adequately described, including period and place of recruitment. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are adequately described. There is adequate participation in the study by eligible individuals and sample size is sufficient. The baseline study sample i. Study attrition E.
Response rate is adequate and there are no important differences between key characteristics and outcomes for participants who completed the study and those who did not wave 1 and 2. Response rate is adequate and there are no important differences between key characteristics and outcomes for participants who completed the study and those who did not wave 3 and follow-up.
A clear definition or description of the predictor measured is provided. Continuous variables are reported or appropriate i. The predictor measurement and method are adequately valid and reliable to limit misclassification bias. Outcome measurement J. A clear definition or description of alcohol use is provided. Measuring and method of the outcome measurement is adequately valid and reliable to limit misclassification bias. Confounding measurement L.
Confounders are accounted for in the study design matching for key variables, stratification, or initial assembly of comparable groups or in the analysis. Analysis M.
There is sufficient presentation of data. The strategy for model building i. The selected model is adequate for the design of the study. There is no selective reporting of results.
Open in a separate window. Best-evidence synthesis The heterogeneity of the included studies precluded a meta-analysis to summarize the results.
Table 2 Cohort studies included in review. Alcohol initiation.
Situation variables. Gender, age, marital status Generalized estimating equations Father: Hierarchical linear modeling Frequency of use: A composite alcohol misuse index: Gender, age, race, parental alcohol misuse.
Positive relationship: Categorized as: Gender, study classification study or control , ethnic group. Logistic regression analysis Cohort 1: Mean of 3 items: Gender, age, parent education, father status, previous alcohol use.
Number of times consumed alcohol in their lifetime. Gender, race, socioeconomic background, peer affiliation, participation in unstructured peer interaction, participation in structured activities, time spent with parents, parental monitoring, parental control, previous alcohol use.
Ordinary least square OLS and l ogistic regression analysis Number of drinks in lifetime: Times heavy drink: Onset of heavy drinking. Drinking friends, money to spend, smoking, parental provision of alcohol, bullying, truancy, time with parents, parental monitoring, previous heavy episodic drinking. Logistic regression analysis Boys: Structural equation modeling 8th to 9th grade: Generalized estimating equations High attachment: Logistic regression analysis Female: Logistic regression analysis Initiation: Gender, grade.
Gender, SES, ethnicity. Hierarchical linear modeling Positive identification: This study: Frequency and level of alcohol use. SES, family structure, previous alcohol use. Alcohol initiation: Gender Structural equation modeling Overall: Zygosity, sex, family structure, relational tension, shared activities, autonomy granting, parental discipline, parental monitoring, previous alcohol use.
Multiple mediation modeling Parental warmth: Income, peer alcohol use, place of birth, language spoken at home. Logistic regression analysis Parent adolescent closeness: A composite alcohol use index: Age, gender, maternal smoking and drinking, BMI, previous alcohol use. Structural equation modeling Boys: Pubertal timing: Categorized as initiators participants who reported drinking in past 30 days at T2 and no drinking at T1 and no-drinkers no drinking at T1 and T2.
Combination of alcohol frequency and intensity. A child was considered an alcohol user if child or parent reported consumption of a unit of alcohol not just sips. Use mean: Table 3 Results of methodological quality assessment of included studies.
High quality is defined as the number of biases is 0. Table 4 Level of evidence for the association between PCR as protective and as risk factor and types of alcohol behavior. Level of evidence According to the criteria of the best-evidence synthesis method, there is weak evidence for an effect from the PCR on change in adolescent alcohol use.
Discussion The aim of the current review was to summarize and determine the strength of the evidence on the effects of the PCR on change in adolescent alcohol use. Strengths and limitations Strengths of this review are the systematic evaluation of the evidence taking into account the methodological quality of individual studies and the consistency of the research findings.
Implications We found weak evidence for a causal association between the PCR and alcohol use. Conclusion Regarding reduction of alcohol consumption, the development of prevention and intervention programs by policymakers aimed at improving the PCR does not seem to be useful, given the unclear causality.
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Truus van Ittersum for her assistance with the literature search. References Miller P, Plant M. Truancy and perceived school performance: Alcohol Alcohol.
Alcohol-consumption behaviors and risk for physical fighting and injuries among adolescent drinkers.
Addict Behav. Cumulative risk factors for adolescent alcohol misuse and its perceived consequences among 16 to 20 year old adolescents in Switzerland.
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J Stud Alcohol Drugs. The influence of parental warmth and control on Latino adolescent alcohol use. Hisp J Behav Sci. The moderating effects of pubertal timing on the longitudinal associations between parent child relationship quality and adolescent substance use. Parenting Psychology. Paperback —. Buy the Ebook: Add to Cart. About Between Parent and Child: Revised and Updated Strengthen your relationship with your children with this revised edition of the book by renowned psychologist Dr.
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