therance of his career as a musician, recording, and performing artist and in such new WHEREAS, Manager by reason of Managers contacts, experience and. guide to understanding long-form artist management contracts, hopefully assisting in The Artist shall pay commission to the Manager at the Commission. Artist Management and Booking. The artist's team. A relatively well-established artist traditionally has four different entities working in the artist team: a manager.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||15.54 MB|
|PDF File Size:||14.11 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Artist management for the music business / Paul Allen. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN (pbk.: alk. paper) 1. Music trade--United States. 2. Music management was seen as one of the few ways that someone with enough The artist looking for the perfect manager is, of course, doomed to. There is no nee sitting down on your PC and start creating an artist management contract from the ground up. Just imagine the amount of time you are going to.
Make su re you are totally in lov e with you r mu sic first. Potential career supporters will use an Internet social networking site as a reference point about the artist, and the site should look as professional as the artist can afford. Berry, Laverne, , Nextclient. Henry Williams. P a g e 79 Ideally.
On some occasions distribu tors will offer to manufacture and distribu te the records in retu rn for a large r percen tage of the sales p rice. They provide management systems. These types of deals only get offered to labels or artists that hav e a track record of solid sales and a relatively large c atalog of releases.
A ll the ou tpu t signals from the mu sicians microphones and instru ments DI ou tputs. Thei r du ties inclu de tracking and docu menting v enu e expenses. Thei r jobs become criti cal du ring events where the promoter is ru nning the show where the promote r rents the venue.
The fron t of hou se engineer applies and controls the volume and effects e. P a g e 59 The major label distribu tion system involves some other indu stry players as part of the network. These inclu de one stops. Record c lu bs bu y recordin gs from labels and th en resell to thei r members at discou nt prices.
Rack jobbers are middleman that bu y records from labels and then stock them in the racks that they operate within retail stores. One stops are midd lemen who bu y records from labels and then make them available to local rec ord s tores that p refer the convenience of one stop shopping. Mechanical right societies collec t mechanical royalti es from licensees and periodically distribu te the earnings to members. They charge their affiliates a commission of gross mechanical roy alties collected.
Li gh ting designers a re u su ally brou gh t in wel l before the show takes place. The lighting designer does not always tou r with the show. Sometimes the lighting design er and lightin g director is the s ame p erson.
The li ghting director also tells the spot op erators where to shine the spotli ght and what cues to look for. They operate a sep arate mixing board that feeds the sou nd from the equ ipment and microphones back to th e stage o r earpiec e th ro u gh monitors th at th e mu sicians can h ear. In comp lex monitor setu ps, each mu sician can h ear a s eparate mix. At commercial radio stati ons, this job is being don e more and more. The second type of Mu sic Director is a person hired by an artist to au dition, rehearse and lead a backing band on tou r or du ring select performances.
The third type of Mu sic Direc tor scores and arran ges mu sic for fi lms , television p rograms , commerci als , or library services, and who u su ally also condu cts th e orch estra reco rding th e mu sic for su ch u sages. Hotels, res orts, theaters, chu rches, arts centers, commu nity centers, etc. They take c are of the administrative.
Songs can hav e many u ses besides being recorded on an albu m. Songs provide the mood for movie scenes. Pu blishing, like copyri ght, is a very comp lex topic that goes beyond the scope of this e-Book.
Music Supervisors Mu sic su pervisors are the peop le responsible fo r secu ring mu sic for. They participate by find ing, su ggesting and negoti atin g for the rights to u se record ed mu sic in films and other p rojec ts. They are in constant commu nication with music libraries, mu sic pu blishers, record labels, songw riters and c ompos ers , etc. They negotiate fees , monitor and collec t royalty payments from establishments and venu es e. Sou nd Exchange compen sates rec ordin g comp anies and arti sts for the u se of thei r mu sic by digi tal mu sic service providers.
Each organization has different criteri a for accep ting or rejec ting applicants. They can be fou nd online at http: P rod u ct managers work closely with other departments. Other names for professional managers inclu de song plu ggers, catalog managers , or c reative managers. In addition to plu ggin g son gs, the position sometimes also inclu des other du ties , su ch as scou ting, signi ng, and developing talent, producing demos, and interacting with licensees.
The Program Di rec tor PD decides what the ov erall programming for the radio station shou ld be. They normally get paid a week ly, monthly , or per-p roj ect fee for their efforts. The pu blicity efforts can help artists to attrac t in du stry and pu blic attention, pu blicize a releas e or tou r, and increase the fan-base.
Pu blicists assist in getti ng articles , in terviews , revi ews, featu res and news items w ritten abou t thei r clients , as w ell as responding to inqu iries from medi a personnel and other individu als. PR fi rms can also be instru mental in secu ring sponso rsh ip deals for tou rs.
Pyrotechnics are among the most d angerou s effec ts u sed on stage, and many states and cities requ ire that Pyrotechnicians be licensed before they can legally u se pyrotechnics on stage. Wh en you h ave a comple x campai gn u nder way, it h elps to have a sin gle point p erson that all i ndividu als can report to.
The radio campaign can ru n anywh ere f rom a f ew w eeks to a f ew month s and can cost anywhere from a few thou sand to tens of thou sands of dollars.
A good produ cer wi ll help keep the artists inspired and motivated , and prev ent them from reaching for the same predictable riffs ov er and over agai n. Many ti mes p rodu cers p lay the role of talent scou ts and are the ears of the record labels in their area. As a manager you will w ant to make relationships with as many good p rodu cers with contac ts and c red entials as possible. The grou nd riggers also prepare cable for bridle and d ead hangs.
Record distribu tors hire rou te peop le to sell and deliver. Stewards are also the people hired to help su pervise or manage a concert or other event. Talent Bu yers are employed by hotels. The sellin g agent is u su ally a p rint publisher with expertise in designin g. They are the ones that c an often be fou nd in clu bs and on the streets listening and looking ou t for u p-and-coming talen t. They can u su ally be fou nd on larger tou rs and shows where major label artists are performin g.
The AFM n egotiates terms of of employment for s ession mu sicians with record companies. Now adays. AFTRA negoti ates terms of employment for actors and annou ncers with broadcas ting networks. P a g e 69 programmin g and n ew technologies. In the beginning. There is no dou bt that there are many rewards to be had if everything is p lanned ou t well. You sh ou ld serv e you rse lf a l a rge dos e of re ali ty b efo re you ventu re ou t i nto the field of artist managemen t.
Even thou gh some solu tions are offered. The smart manager is the one who is willing to consider many of the problems that may occu r in the cou rse of doin g their job.
How do you expect the band to tru st you if you start the relationship off with a lie? The manager-artist relations hip mu st be based on mu tu al tru st. They may hav e had a bad exp eri ence wi th anoth er manager previou sly. If there really is something negative in you r past that they have been made aware of. You may need to convince the person that you are safe to si gn with. Something you did in the past may have been brou ght to their atten tion. If something negativ e has taken place in the past.
Th e person may th ink th at you are u nqu alified. Whatever the cas e may be. They may simply be nervou s abou t signing anything with anyone.
P a g e 71 Fol lowing a re ju st some of th e many ch allen ges th at you cou ld encou nter in the field of artist management. Do not try to sign the grou p withou t the signatu re of the obj ecting member. As you approach a grou p with a management offer. One of the group members is not interested in signing the management deal. Commu nication skills are absolutely vital in the field of artis t management.
Besides talking on the phone. Lack of or bad communication between you and your c lient. As temptin g as it is. This is a very common problem th at occu rs betw een man agers and their cli ents. P a g e 72 All members of the grou p have to agree to and sign the management contract in order to be bou nd to it. If you fail to convince the grou p to sign with you. A ll id eas and concerns shou ld be address ed as s oon as possible. You r clients shou ld know that all corres pondence mu st go throu gh you and be discu ssed befo re being acted u pon.
They may see the li ght at some point in the fu tu re and approach you again abou t managin g them. Band members or artists shou ld feel comfortable talking to you abou t anything that concerns or i nterests them at any time.
Not on ly do you have to be able to commu nicate well wi th you r clien t. Keep u p with the local mu sic industry news and newsmak ers in you r area. P a g e 73 Keep in mind that the cli ent is looking to you for career advice as well as ideas and su ggestions. You can avoid or limit mu ch of this resistance by commu nicating w ell with the grou p or artist BEFORE spending time trying to line u p the deals. The more c redible you are with information.
An absolu te mu st-read is Billboard h ttp: It is not u nu su al to find resistanc e to the deal that is on the table from one or more members of the grou p. These may inclu de record deals. You shou ld know how the grou p or artist feels abou t each type of d eal. If not add res sed qu ickly. If some members feel that they are contribu ting more to the grou p than they shou ld be.
The bes t way to handle this situ ation is to design ate tasks to each member so that all members feel li ke they are con tribu ting to the overall su ccess of the grou p. Besides rehearsing and performing. P a g e 74 Do not w aste valu able time talking to indu stry professionals and having an attorney negotiate a deal ju st to have the grou p or artist refu se to sign it.
Some group membe rs working harder than others in the group. It is not u nu su al to find that in a grou p. This agreement is c ru cial becau se it spells ou t the rights and responsibili ties of each band member.
Names and logos cou ld belon g to a single band member. If a p articular member seems to be the weak link in the chain. P a g e 75 Whatever you do. Su ch a decision wou ld have to be voted on by the whole grou p or dealt wi th in the manner detai led in the band partnership agreement.
This decision can be complicated if that member also happens to be the lead singer. Band members refuse to sign a band partnership agreement. Th e reason wh y you sh ou ld get this done immediately is becau se it is mu ch easier to get the band members to agree to terms of an agreement while they are s till fri ends and before a deal wi th su bstantial amou nts of money is on the table.
Topics covered in the band partners hip agreement may inclu de: In the end. The band members wi ll have to decide what shou ld be considered a profi t or a loss.
The band will have to determine what even ts will constitu te the dissolu tion of the band e. Who will have the ri ght to hire and fire band members. Th ese are ju st some of th e main iss u es th at sh ou ld be inclu ded in th e agreemen t. The pu blishing will belon g to the writer s of the songs the band reco rds.
This will have to be spelled ou t in the agreement. This issu e is the single most complicated issu e and the most con tentiou s one to d eal with. Chances are that the sou nd recording wi ll belong to the whole band. Most importantly. The contract shou ld also indicate th e amou nt of time the member or artist has to attempt to remedy the situation. Y ou may even believe th at m u ch you rself.
You may find that. You sh ou ld att empt to work th ings ou t intern ally and get the situ ation resolved early. If the breach is minor. The band you sign may be extremely talented and exp ect you to walk them ri ght into the Sr. P a g e 77 The band or an artist breaches the management contract. Initi ally. Try to keep ou t of the cou rt system as mu ch as possible. If all the parti es involved follow the spirit and word of the contrac t and commu nicate clearly and in good fai th at ev ery opportu nity.
Talk to the band abou t a realistic game plan before you sign them and let them know that you will all need to do a lot of work before su ccess can be attained.
So me times th is is u nintentional. Bein g know led geable abou t all aspec ts of the mu sic bu siness and having lots of indu stry contacts wi ll help you feel in control of you r situ ation. Many attorneys fail to reali ze that their job.
You shou ld take the time influential to voices build and your d at a b a s e tastemakers of within contacts. It will take you a while to gain the tru st of the people that you need to have relationships with. Every once in a while somebody wi ll offer something di rec tly to you r client wi thou t going throu gh you.
Mos t problems can be avoid ed with a policy of c lear.
If things start to get ou t of hand. People attempting to bypass the manager in order to communicate directly with the artist. A lot of p eople in the mu sic bu siness with no clu e of how things work think that a manager is only necessary for artists signed to major labels. P a g e 79 Ideally. When you r client instru cts the individu al to contact or meet wi th you.
Even worse. Howeve r. Even while maintaining you r management du ties. If y ou have a good repu tation within industry ci rcles. Major labe l recommends that ba nd artist finds new management.
The main thing for you to u nderstand is that sooner or later. The best way to handle this situ ation is to c onfron t it head on and add ress i t early with your client. P a g e 80 To prevent this kind of behavior. This is often bec au se the label wants to mak e su re that the band is rep resen ted by a manager that is able to properly manage the artist at that level.
If you deal with people honestly and do what you promise to do. Somebody spreading rumors about the manager in order to get the artist to leave. Th e h igh er u p you rise in th e mu sic bu siness th e more like ly it is that you will bec ome a casu alty of industry politics. E n e m i e s can appear in the form of a dis gru ntled ex. An u nknown manage r. A new. Be p repa red to deal wi th th ese situ ations.
You can u se the fact that you got the band signed along with some of the money you made from the deal to si gn other artists to you r management company. A new man ager may be temp ted to go after ev ery offer. Complicating matters is the fact that even independen t labels are starting to offer artis ts deals that provide for in-hou se management as part of th e de al.
Th ese managers have repu tations arou nd the world and know what to tu rn down and when to take advan tage of opportu nities. Y ou sh ou ld h ave a clau se in you r contract th at describes wh at sh ou ld h appen if or more li kely. Make su re that you recou p any money that you might have spen t on the band in the early days and ask the band if they can thank you in their album credits. If you play ball and go along with this. As a new manager. Manager lacks contacts.
You will have to do some research in order to find the names of and contact information for industry people ou tside of you r region. Attend all local mu sic seminars. If you intend to be in the bu siness for a while and retain artists on you r roster. Uti lize the internet and follow and be-friend influ ential mu sic industry voices and tastemakers within social netw orkin g ci rcles.
Nobody is interested in simply doing you a favor. Most artists and some managers think that getting signed to a major label or to any label.. K eep in mind the principle that people will w ant to w ork with you if there is money to be mad e i. Eventu ally you will have a large database of contacts from which to selec t for you r shopping or partn eri ng pu rposes.
Keeping the record label focused. You will need to bu ild tru st between you and a contact before they start taking or retu rning you r calls.
Begin by wis hing them a happy birthday amazing how muc h you can discover from social networking sites. There may ev en be ti mes wh en you and you r band h ave to spend you r own money to p ay fo r an independent pu blicist. P a g e 83 Making de ep connections takes a w h ile to accomplish. A t th at point. There cou ld be any nu mber of things that cou ld be h a p p e n i n g. Y ou might find that the indu stry bu zz is fading.
Another common p roblem that you may encou nter is one where you feel that. Decent progress has been made. P a g e 84 You will have to spend time on th e internet bu ilding you r mai ling list and workin g on pu tting together an independent street team for additional help.
You may have to come up with some additional money to execute you r new ideas. You r band might need a differen t long. You r ideas will be shaped by the type of music you do and the typ es of peop le that make up you r fan bas e. Obviou sly. Maybe you need to chan ge the nu mber of people in the band. Mayb e you need to work on bu ying on to a tou r as an opening act wi th an artist on a major label in ord er to inc rease you r exposu re.
Find different incen tives to get people to come to your shows. Perhaps you might need to play less often in you r town. You will need to come u p with fresh ideas to move the p rojec t forward. Depending on the natu re of the ban d. Perhaps your social networking c ampai gn needs to be re-energized. The bottom line is. B ands have been known to spend too mu ch time and money on the recording p rocess and on bu ying equ ipment for thei r personal u se.
They may need a new manager. Work with a good produ cer that can help you get the record finished on time and u nder bu dget. This section pertains mainly to managers with bands signed to major labels with a large recordi ng bu dget. P romotion costs a ridicu lou sly large amou nt of mon ey. Perhaps you need to find some sponsors or brand partners to help fu nd a more exp ansive tou r in order to reach a larger fan base. P a g e 86 Maybe you need to do more intervi ews to display your bands personality to the pu blic.
The band or artist is spending too much of the budget recording the album. If you try a bu nch of new things and nothing seems to be working a cou ple of years later.
If the p roblems inclu de things like the attorney missing deadlines to hand in drafts or contracts. Part of you r management du ties i nvolve working wi th the band to hire or retain peop le to help with the project. Manager has problems with another member of the team publicist. If the problems or issu es are personal an d the team member is valu able to the project. Most of these types of personal problems c an be i gnored u ntil the end of the tou r.
From time to time. You shou ld first take s tock of what the problems are. P a g e 88 Whatever you do. As a man ager. H ere you will be requ ired to pu t emotions aside and deal with the situ ati ons strictly from a business standpoint. There may come a time when. You shou ld stress the importance of formu latin g a game plan that cu lminates in the band or artist bein g able to earn a livi ng throu gh mu sic.
The most common reason why bands or artists want out of the deal is that the manager has breached a clause in the contract. Despite the challen ges. P a g e 89 These are ju st some of the challenges you may encou nter as a manager. No o th er posi tion in th e mu sic indu stry requ ires as m u ch flexibi lity as that of artist management. Generally speakin g and in very simple. Another thing to keep in mind is that en tire books have been written on the topic of copyri ght. It is highly advisable to retain the services of an experienc ed entertain ment attorney to revi ew all paperwork relating to particu larly the copyri ght if contracts and p ublishing interests of your clien ts.
Having a general u nderstanding of copyright basics will allow you to explain certain things to you r clients and h elp th em avoid th e types of scenarios we o ften see played ou t in th e cou rt system.. In fact. Particu larly in the major label system and often even wi th indie labels. Su bject matter of copyri ght: In gen eral a Copyri ght original protec tion works of subsists.
Works of au thorship inclu de the following categories: Mu ch of this has to do with a combination of s trong egos and a lack of knowledge abou t copyright law. Among mu sicians and songw riters.
To avoid prob lems it is a lwa ys best to discu ss. It is easy enou gh to determine that whoever w rites the lyrics shou ld be a co- wri ter. Most of the p roblems arise du ring the w riting or recording sessions when the ly ricist tri es to determin e whether or not mu sicians shou ld get writin g credi ts. In terms of the mu sic composition. Keep in mind that ev en when the lyrics are w ri tten including a vocal melody 10 different mu sicians will come u p with 10 differen t chord progressions i.
When mention is made of the categories of au thorship. In no place does the law ever mention the fact that only the ly rics make the song. Technically speaking. On the Form CO if you choose to use it. The bass line. This certific ate of regis tration cou ld be u sed in a c ou rt of law to help you recover money d amages in the ev ent that somebody in frin ges on you r copyright.
P a g e 93 A lot of lyricis ts like to take sole songw riting credit of a song by classifying the arran gement. Once again. You can u se the eCO system or fill ou t the Form CO to register you r works onlin e by visiting the Library of Congress website at http: For all options. Paper forms e. They c an be reached online at http: If the song has previou sly been released to the pu blic you may reprodu ce it by taking ad vantage of the compu lsory mechanical license p rovision of the copy right law.
This can be exercised by s ervin g a notice o f intention on the copy right owner. The Harry Fox Agency can be reached at http: This will gran t you permission for the mechanical rep rodu ction. If you intend to u se a sample from a song or albu m you will have to obtain a master use license directly from the owner of the sound recording.
For major label recordin gs. P a g e 95 The owner o f the sou nd reco rdin g is u su ally iden tified somewhere on the recordin g itself. In addi tion. As mentioned earlier. It is recommended to u se a mu sic clearance specialist to assist with obtaining the ri ghts to u se samp les wi thin you r composition s.
The redu ction of profits largely due to recorded sales declines. Sony Mu sic Entertainment. Universal Mu sic Grou p. As mu sic consu mption moves away from the CD model and towards downloadin g. This wanting a share of income derived from multiple sou rces is cau sing artists w ith contracts up for re-negotiation to leave the labels and cou rt non- traditional investors. Th e mu sic industry is cu rrently goi ng th rou gh a tremendou s amou nt of change and tu rmoi l.
Throu ghou t history. The labels also have a lot of experience and expertise in the bu siness of creating mu sical su perstars that are cap able of havin g great influ ence on the general pu blic. If some governi ng body decreed that startin g tomorrow. In the world of entertainment — and in mu sic in particu lar — the major record labels are and have been responsible for delivering those global su perstars to u s. As it cu rrently stands th ou gh.
Ind eed. That d ecree wou ld not s tand. Think of all the su perstars singers. And the reason why there will continu e to be a need for major labels even i f they consolidate. As yet. P a g e 97 With shrinking profits and a redu ced nu mber of artist signin gs.
Althou gh the process i s now very s tatistics. Consider that su perstars like Celine Di on. P a g e 98 su perstars. Solicited sou rces inclu de upstream deals from independent labels. Even th ou gh th e cu rrent conu ndrum is one of h ow to get people to pay for the mu sic they are listening to. Every active artis t leaves a trail of some kind. In ord er to minimize the risk. A ll the major record labels.
Most often. P a g e and potential movie roles. How major record labels evaluate and sign talent Becau se of the redu ction in profi ts from CD sales. Talent is rarely ever discovered from a demo tape s ent in to the comp any. A mere fraction of the artists that pu rsu e major label d eals ev er achieve the objective.
P a g e In ord er to faci litate this arran gement. You cou ld chase the deal for many years yet nev er get within a hu ndred miles of si gning a deal. They look for arti sts that can be dev eloped into a brand that can be monetized.
Wi th the introdu ction of 3 60 deals. Taking all this u nder consideration. Giorgio Armani. The label can also c ou nt on a percen tage of these p eople to pu rc hase tickets. Since the arti st has already been exposed to those people. You Tube or from a popu lar television or i ntern et competi tion.
Crystal Geyser.. For those artis ts. Most labels and in particula r. This exposu re provides the artis t with an instant fan base of sev eral hu ndred thou sand or even a few million peop le that the label can immediately exploi t.
Therefore lookin g forward. This is becau se you nger fans even though downloading they seem activities to be are responsible typically for most most of the passionate illegal about entertainment in gen eral. Research shows that you nger fans are the most influ ential d rivers of new mu sic. If a bidding w ar ensu es with other labels. In addition to not being good wi th artist dev elopment.
The fou r major labels are cu rren tly not good at or interes ted in artist dev elopment. Nic he projects do not work well in the major label sys tem. They are also most likely to pu rc hase artist-brand ed produ cts that the label c an generate additional income from.
B lue Note with Ja zz. P a g e You ng fans are i mpu lsive and respond very qu ickly and p assionately when they feel emotionally connected to someone in the entertainment field. Def Ja m wi th Neo-Soul. Since major responsibili ties investors. Bec au se they are most su sceptible to peer-pressu re. You ng people in gen eral spend most of their money on entertain ment including music. Some although not all of the op tions include: Positioning you rself to si gn a d eal w ith a major record label.
Pu rsu ing a deal with an independent reco rd label with majo r label distribu tion. Recording and releasin g you r own p rodu cts DIY. Positioning yourself to sign a deal with a major record label. For the vast majori ty of artists , bu ilding a fan base, produ cing recordings independ ently , and tou ring will be the only options av ailable to them i f they wish to pu rsu e a career in mu sic.
However, there are a cou ple of things to k eep in mind if you represent a you ng artist wi th brandin g poten tial and wish to pu rsu e a major label contrac t.
Fi rstly, the artist mu st fit the major label profi le as discussed earlier in this section. Solicited sou rces inclu de attorneys who have negotiated d eals with or been responsible for signin g artists. You can find information abou t major label artist rosters in directori es. You can also discuss the possibilities of opening for the band on tou r. Approaching produ cers who have major labels credits. You can find contact information for Record Produ cers from directories lik e the one available.
Signed son gwri ters are a little more difficu lt to locate, so you will have to do a little digging arou nd in order to get contac t information for them. Many artis ts on major labels began thei r careers as signed son gw riters fi rst, and then work ed thei r way in as artis ts once a few songs they w rote became hits. Pursuing a deal with an independent record label with major label distribution If you lack the resou rces and wo manpower to release you r own records , then you might want to look into the option of signing wi th a major label-distribu ted independ ent label.
If y ou opt to take this rou te, it is in you r best in teres t to seek ou t i ndependent record labels that have the necessary resou rces avai lable to ad equ ately promote you r records to the general pu blic, as w ell as the maj or label distribu tion deals in plac e to enable people to find you r produ cts both at retail and in all the major digital s tores.
If the label can on ly offer you digital dis tribu tion e.
CD Baby, Orchard , Tunecore, etc , then you are better off rec ordin g and releasing you r produ cts you rself throu gh those same digital distribu tion channels. However, i t is worth considerin g the fact that labels with major label distribu tion in plac e have the financial resou rces necessary to fu nd your.
If you are interested in approaching independen t labels that hav e major label distribu tion deals in place, you can begin you r search by pu rchasing a copy of the Record Company Di rec tory from the Polls tar s t o r e h t t p: Seekin g an altern ativ e to advertising, c ompanies. So, what exactly attracts your band to a brand? The most importan t thing to a brand is a stron g pers onality fi t betw een the artist and the brand.
Something else of importance that brands fac tor into the equ ation is how easy or difficu lt it is to get all the ri ghts and permissions from the variou s stakehold ers music pub lishers , re cord labels , artis ts, e tc nec essary to m a k e a l a u n c h s u c c e s s fu l a n d p r o f i t a b l e. H o w a v a i l a b l e a n d a c c e s s i b l e a n artist is for performances, inte rvie ws, recordings , appearances, etc and how mu ch it costs for the artists to render their services also matters.
Identi fying the demographic to a brand requ ires bands and their managers to proac tively su rvey th eir fan base i n order to get some demo graph ic data e. If you r band is attractin g a demographic of considerable size that a brand is also trying to reach. This is becau se they like bands that have a loyal and sizable followin g yet are u nencu mbered by many of the legal and accou nti ng entan glemen ts inherent in the major label system.
You can utilize services like mozes http: P a g e Brands also look for ways that they can measu re the resu lts of the partn ership and calcu late the retu rn on investment in a reliable way. Many bands are unable or unwilli ng to do this since it can scare away poten tial fans and requ ires existing fans to tak e time ou t to fi ll ou t su rveys. As with most other p artnering scenarios.
A nother perk is that mid. Unlike what typically comes with signing to a label. B rands also have a lot of marketing exp ertise and know how to get the atten tion of fans as well as the media.
The band-and-brand relationship also has some considerable p erks for bands. Except for occasions where the brand commissions the band to w rite a cu stom song as a work-for-hire. Over time. P a g e Some brands have gotten into the game of artis t dev elopment.
Band Metrics http: Bu ild genu ine friendsh ip and loyalty wit h you r fans so th at th ey follow y ou r movements and sp read the w ord ou t to thei r friends. Videotape y ou r shows and captu re the emoti onal connection you have with you r fans. If this is an op ti on you wish to pu rsu e. Twi tter. Pu reVolu me. Condu ct demographic su rveys and keep a tally o f the nu mber of fans on you r mailin g list. With funding from an investor. Even thou gh most of thes e deals are cu rrently s tru ctu red betw een major brands and major or ex-major label arti sts.
Utilize solutions like RockDex http: For this option to work su ccessfu lly. If you are goin g to bring an investor on board. This model will requ ire the starting of a company most like ly an LLC that provid es the stak eholders artist. P a g e procedu res y ou employ.
In other words. You will need to be able to mark et. The most c ru cial aspec t affec ting the su ccess of this endeavor will be the artis t talent that you sign.
In that event. With fu nding or inves tors onboard. Neu rotic Media http: Fahrenheit Medi a Grou p http: As they become increasingly available in the fu tu re.
In addition to oth er resou rc es. With valu able advice provided by a qu alified acc ou ntant and experienced entertainment attorney. Bu siness plans for mu sic projects are difficu lt to wri te bec au se the inner workings of a mu sic company are qu ite u nlike those of most other bu sinesses.
EMI Label Servic es http: If you choose to tak e this rou te. The rest of this manual is geared towards providing you with the information necessary to successfully record an d promote your own products. P a g e who have been laid off due to downsizing and consolidation. In other instances mu sicians will get together and mak e u p a grou p name.
A better su ggestion is to u se another name altogether. Sometimes solo artis ts hire mu sicians with whom they want to perform e. This is important since social networking is a v ery cost-effec tive w ay to p romote you r mu sic.
If that is the case. If somebody els e is u sing that name. In the fo llowing sections we will be addressing the reader as the artist. P a g e It may also be a good idea to go to you r local city hall or relevan t venu e and regis te r th e band as a b u siness. Su rely there wou ld be the likelihood of confu sion if you pu t ou t ads anno u ncing you r gig as a Mich ae l Jack son performance.
Su ppose. A t this stage. You will also b e ab le to check if anybody els e is u sing you r proposed name as a bu siness. You can search online fo r th e relev ant bu siness license offic e or Offic e of the Treasu rer where you can get information on fi llin g ou t you r bu siness license and all associated costs. Keep in mind that this will not necessarily p rotect you from someone who has been u sing a name for a period of time withou t regis tering it.
Even if you are u sing you r real n ame. What it will prove in the event that somebody challenges you r u se of the name is that you at leas t attempted to condu ct res earch abou t the name. Keep in mind that any income you make is su bject to taxation. U tili ze softw are solu tions like Bandize http: You can also open u p a PayPal bu siness account attached to the bank accou nt and collect pay ments on line for su bscrip tions.
If you keep all you r rec eipts for pu rchases. Rather than wait until the end of the year to come up with the fu nds to pay you r taxes. Work first wi th an accou ntant to establish the correc t legal stru ctu re for you r band bu siness e. You wou ld also be able to w rite checks from the bu siness accou nt for equ ipment pu rchases and rentals. Pick u p a copy of the Indie Venue Bible http: You can cou nt on each band member to brin g at least 5 — 10 p eople to the fi rst gi g.
Doing this will provide the incentive to take au ditions. Book at least gi gs if you can. Another op tion is to visi t you r favorite clu bs or v enu e and see i f you can find a grou p th at comple ments you r sou nd to talk to abou t an open ing slot.
Call u p a local charity or non. Tu esday. You r options for gi gs at this point will be qu ite limited since you may not have promotion al materials ju st yet. Band rehearsals will be condu cted in a much more seriou s manner i f you do it this way.
You can always get more mu sicians for bi gger gigs later on or when the pay justifies it. Hiring Musicians With a few gigs on the calend ar. Yo u sh ou ld care fu lly conside r th e nu mber of mu sicians you need to accomplish you r goa l. Get the gi g fi rst. Ways to find musicians The single bes t way to find mu sicians is by asking arou nd and gettin g referrals from friends. You want things to go as smoothly as possi ble in the b eginning.
The more peopl e you h ave in you r grou p. If s omebody is a great mu sician. Oft en times. You cou ld search fo r bands and mu sicians in you r local area via online classifieds like Band Mi x http: In the music section of the classifieds you will find musicians who are available and seeking gi gs. Never tru st a recording of a mu sician withou t actu ally hearing them play live in fron t of you or at a gi g.
P a g e You will be able to find ou t i f somebody is a flake or hard to deal with befo re you select th em to b e in you r grou p or be a backin g mu sician. On some social n etworkin g sites. C raigslist http: If you find somebody you think you might be interested in. Ev en if you think. Many of these services wi ll be free to post and view classi fieds..
Auditions As people contac t you abou t au ditioning fo r the band.
P a g e You cou ld also place an ad in you r local free weekly or on Crai gslist. You cou ld also try calling recording s tu dios or placing fly ers in mu sic stores. Descri be what you are looking for in terms of mu sical instru ments.
If you hear a mu sician that impresses you. Inclu de you r hotline nu mber or web site U RL where mu sicians can find ou t more information abou t au ditions. Set u p au ditions where you have di fferent mu sicians show u p at different times to perform. Th is will na rrow down th e nu mber of peo pl e who will respond. Exp lain what type of mu sic you will be play ing and what type of instru mentali sts or voc alis ts you need. You shou ld also make su re you ask a lot of qu estions du ring the au dition.
P a g e Take detailed notes at the auditions and when possible. Use these qu estions and any others you can think of to help you pick the ri ght members for you r band. Questions to ask include: Following are so me things you can d iscu ss: The first band meeting A good way to save you rself some time after the au dition is to have everybody c all a voicemai l hotline or visi t you r web site a week after the audition for updates on who got selected.
You cou ld always u se them in an emergency if one of you r mu sicians gets sick. It is also cru cial that you ask each of the band members what their short and long term goals are.
You r lon g-term goal may be to either get a record deal or su ccessfu lly releas e you r own record and tou r arou nd the cou ntry or internationally.
You can then call only the ones who made i t in ord er to giv e them in formation abou t the meeting. Th is is where everybody gets to meet all the other members of the band and where you tell everybody what you r goals are.
P a g e Once you h ave th e band membe rs picked. If thei r names are not on the list. Wh ich ever op tion you ch oose. This agreemen t wi ll c larify issu es like band ownership. If schedu ling conflicts develop. If someone is having major problems with the general schedu le. Discu ssing sch edu ling also lets you know if i t wi ll be possible to tou r w ith all of these mu sicians. This is necessary in order for y ou to set the bes t rehearsal schedu le and estimate how many nights a week you will be able to rehearse and how many days a month you will be able to perform.
Try and set the schedu le so that ev erybody knows when the fi rst rehearsal is at the end of the meetin g. Th is sh ou ld be discu ssed at the fi rst meetin g. P a g e If you have a seriou s conflic t in goals. A band partnership agreement c an be anything from a v ery simp le one-page docu ment. You r band partn ership agreement may inclu de things lik e: How you ch oose to set you rs u p will depend on how seri ou s you are abou t you r bu siness and how many issu es there are to address among the band members.
It is mu ch better to w rite this while ev erybody is s till respec tfu l and on good terms than to try and figu re things ou t in the middle of a major band fi ght or lawsuit. If you plan to do this for the long term. The Mu sic Bu siness Regis try http: It is highly recommended. You can tak e the abov e issu es and write u p a contrac t in you r own words. Lega l. Do you have a mixing board.
If you need assistance locating an afford able attorney. A long with this song lis t shou ld be recordings of all the songs so that each band member can listen to and even learn and chart their parts before the firs t rehearsal.
P a g e Th ese types of issu es sh ou ld be h andled now so th at you can establish the best sou nd for you r band and develop a necessary bu dget for repai rs or equ ipment u pgrades. If you are doing cover songs. If possible. If you are doing ori ginal songs. Us e this time to actu ally w rite the son gs. If you are writin g from scratch you wou ld need to set asid e the n ecessary time to w ri te. If you are a solo artis t and are h iri ng mu sicians to support you live.
A song list is literally a list of all the songs that you will be playing as a band. Sometimes bands break u p before ever getting a chance to releas e any produ ct. Rehearsals shou ld cover the son g order. Setting up Rehearsals Rehearsals are best u sed to w ork ou t performance ideas and pu t the show together. Copyrightin g you r material is a good thing to do anyway. P a g e As soon as you have finished the writin g proc ess. Before you set u p you r rehearsals.
Parker died in January at the age of Lessons learned: Parker was an adept negotiator. Songs that an artist writes or helped to write are entitled to regular payments for the performance of those songs on radio, television, concerts, and other places. Elvis and Parker both were paid nothing because of this omission. Anselmo, With over 10, commercial radio stations in the United States, the value of performance payments is considerable for the estate of an icon-like Elvis.
No one knows how much 30 Lessons in Artist Management: Rene Angelil: This is especially true when parents manage the careers of their childartists as in the cases of Aaron Carter and LeAnn Rimes who had to sue their parents over issues relating to career management. However, when that family member is a spouse, the results are often positive.
That is not necessarily extraordinary except that he is 26 years older than his wife, the international singing star. Rene Angelil began his career as an artist manager, following his work as a member of a Canadian group called the Baronets.
His group built a reputation performing in Quebec in the s. Charlebois, His career transition to artist management ultimately linked him in the early s with twelve-year-old Celine Dion. She had sent an unsolicited recording to Angelil with a request that he consider managing her career. As Canadian-born Celine pressed Angelil to make her an international star, he knew an image makeover would be necessary for the French-speaking singer.
Among the changes he made: The result was a launch into the lucrative American music market that garnered her Grammy awards, helped her sell millions of albums, and made her one of the biggest acts to ever perform in Las Vegas.
Lesson learned: An artist manager must have a keen sense of the target market for a recording artist. Angelil knew that her success in the United States would require that she must have a better command of the English language so she could effectively communicate her art through the American media. Her image makeover and new language skills were among the keys to her commercial success in the United States. Michael Jeffreys: Michael Jeffreys and Chas Chandler signed a co-management contract with Hendrix in Hopkins, Two years after Jeffreys and Chandler agreed to manage Hendrix, Chandler wanted out of the arrangement.
In , Michael Jeffreys died in a plane crash in France with his artist management assets passing to his father.
Goodman, Lesson learned: In the case of the Jeffries-Hendrix relationship, from the very beginning the manager was drawing more from the income stream of the artist than is customary.
Jeffries owned song-publishing, recordings, royalties earned by the recordings, and a recording studio that would be used exclusively by Hendrix. Peter Grant: Probably there has been no deeper belief and commitment to an artist than Peter Grant was to Led Zeppelin. By his mids, he was driving American bands to London area performances where he became somewhat familiar with the general workings of performing acts. He became adept at tending to the affairs of artists performing on the road because of his experience, and in part because of his large presence.
He stood 6' 6" tall and weighed well over pounds. His imposing presence and the knowledge that he occasionally carried a gun made him a natural to create order out of the chaos that sometimes accompanies touring. Davis, Grant began a management company with friend Mickie Most and acquired the Yardbirds as one of their acts. The Yardbirds was one of those groups from the s that could boast having had at varying times band members Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page.
Welch, When the Yardbirds broke up, Grant formed a new group using Page and some new band members, calling them the New Yardbirds. This group morphed into what became the legendary Led Zeppelin.
In , the death of a member of the group led to the end of Led Zeppelin. In , Grant himself died at the age of 60 from a heart attack. Clark-Meads, Lesson learned: The most effective manager is one whose belief in the artist is deep enough to be the basis for every decision made on their behalf, whether it is believing in their potential or believing in who they are.
Peter Grant was constantly on tour with Led Zeppelin handling most of the tasks associated with tour management 34 Lessons in Artist Management: Colonel Parker to Sharon Osbourne and artist management. But when the time came to create the words and music, and to assemble the performance, he left these creative responsibilities in the hands of the group.
Likewise, the band left the management decisions—including some very unconventional ones—up to Grant. This shared and deep belief in each other became what many acknowledge as one of the strongest bonds between artists and a manager in the music business. Herbert Breslin: The most effective managers have the knack to know which opportunities are best for their clients, and then know how to turn them into promotional events to build interest in the artist and add to a developing fan base.
Long before he met Luciano Pavarotti, the New York born Herbert Breslin had been introduced to opera as a young boy by his father. He learned to save his money in order to buy tickets to see events at the opera house. Among his continuing interests was the opera, and he accepted a nonpaying job handling press and publicity for the new Santa Fe Opera in New Mexico. He developed his profession with the company and went on to establish his own career as a public relations manager and publicist for classical music.
In he met Pavarotti, which began a thirty-six year professional relationship between the artist and his manager. Initially, Breslin was employed by the opera singer to handle publicity and public relations for him, but later Breslin began to handle most of the traditional management duties of a performing artist.
While Breslin has his critics, few denied his ability to understand his clients and to know what it would take to promote and manage their careers. He is now retired from management. An artist manager should draw from the strengths of an artist and use them to add as many dimensions as possible to their persona and their commercial appeal. An important talent of a manager is to understand career promotion and have access to the tools to make it happen. He charmed everybody.
Joe Simpson: Manage by the Boy Scout motto Joe Simpson has been a psychologist, a youth minister, a record producer, a television producer, and is the father of Ashlee and Jessica Simpson.
MTV, It is perhaps his experience as a psychologist that did the most to prepare him to manage and promote two young women in the music business. Simpson had tried to help Jessica launch a career in Christian music in the mids, but her music never connected with a public that buys recorded music. Her music continued for two more albums, but her popularity as a recording artist was beginning to fade.
Simpson the manager decided he would try to sell the idea of a reality show featuring newlyweds Jessica and Nick Lachey. The show reignited interest in Jessica, and Simpson was able to leverage it to get his daughter a major role in the movie version of The Dukes of Hazard, followed by work in television commercials and more movies. Meanwhile, Joe Simpson planned and launched the career of his younger daughter, Ashlee. She, too, has had very successful albums, and now includes a reality television show as part of her resume as an entertainer, for which Ashlee acknowledges that her manager-father was very helpful.
Daughter Ashlee was caught on live television, Saturday Night Live, beginning to perform with tracks of her voice, and she walked off the stage. In late , daughter Jessica performed 36 Lessons in Artist Management: Colonel Parker to Sharon Osbourne a song at a taped television salute to the career of Dolly Parton, but her performance was so bad that it had to be cut from the version that was broadcast.
Moras, Both of these two very public gaffes made their talent the subject of jokes on television, and headlines in the tabloids. A manager cannot over-prepare an artist for a public appearance. Mistakes like those made by the Simpson sisters can erode their images as professionals and can make their fans uneasy about telling others that they are admirers, and that can be fatal for a career.
Be sure the artist is comfortable with performance opportunities, and then be sure they are prepared. Jon Landau: His connection with Springsteen began when he attended one of his shows in in New York City. Springsteen had always considered himself an artist and shied away from the commercial aspects of performing music.
Part of this was attributed to the mistakes made early in his career at selling merchandise at performance venues. However, Landau was able to show his client over the years that a career is based on the continued success of the business it generates, and Springsteen began to accept that. Landau has a style of communication that is able to make his client comfortable with the idea that his music can speak for working people, yet still have a complementary commercial aspect.
Cohen, Lessons learned: They say that they want to be true to their art and true to their fans. Commercial music, they say, is cookie cutter and they are unwilling to become something they are not. An effective artist manager can guide the artist in the business side of their craft yet show them the way to reach a larger fan base.
Rather, it takes the guidance of a manager who knows how to expose those creative features of an artist that appeal to a larger audience. Bob Doyle: Using your network Bob Doyle is a product of the Nashville side of the music business.
He worked for Warner Bros. So Doyle decided to do it himself. He recruited a new partner, publicist Pam Lewis, to help him manage his new client. Doyle put Brooks with producer Jerry Kennedy to create a music demo. Doyle used his contacts to pitch Brooks to every label in Nashville but failed to get any interest in his client. The lineup for the show was changed at the last minute, and he found himself performing before several record label chiefs with the result that he was signed by Capitol Records.
Mitchell, The career of Garth Brooks continued to be managed by Doyle through the best of times an artist can experience. Along the way Doyle and Lewis parted ways, but Doyle continues to manage the career of one of the most commercially successful artists in history.
Bob Doyle was able to move Garth Brooks through the maze of the music business, in part, because he knew the key gatekeepers—or, he knew those who knew them. Andrew Loog Oldham: His background was limited but impressive.
He had been an assistant to Brian Epstein, the manager of the Beatles. His business savvy was quick to show. He signed his management deal with the Stones on May 1, One of the roles of an artist manager is to exploit all of the talent they have.
If the artist has the creative side that permits them to write commercially viable songs, the manager has done his or her job by stimulating a creative revenue source for the artist. A matter of timing Johnny Wright is an artist manager who has also been part of the management teams of some of the most commercially successful pop music acts in history.
He began his association with the music industry as a radio DJ, and was recruited to travel with the New Kids for over four years. During those years Wright learned a considerable amount about artist management and the challenges that go with managing artists.
Being on the road with a performing act exposes tour managers and aspiring artist managers to most of the issues one will face in the profession. All of these entities can create a necessary corrective course of action, and being on the road and participating in solutions is among the best ways to learn how to manage issues.
Johnny Wright was able to develop his expertise in artist management for the music business early in his career, in part, because he was able to place himself into the role of problem solver where many of the problems occurred. Because most issues are related to people and how they handle their responsibilities, they all have a human element, meaning each situation is as different as the people who are part of the circumstance.
Learning how to motivate people to assure the success of a performing artist is a critical component of the profession of artist management. Lou Pearlman: Pearlman was raised in Flushing, New York.
Among the things he did in his youth was to be a musician in a local band. He eventually found his way into the aviation industry where he became a very successful entrepreneur owning a helicopter and aircraft charter service. His charters provided services to several key music industry people, and this—coupled with the fact that his cousin is Art Garfunkle—opened a network 40 Lessons in Artist Management: Colonel Parker to Sharon Osbourne of contacts that helped him become a major player in the music business.
One of the continuing truths of nearly any industry is that the wealthiest are always prone to being sued. In other cases, the wealthy have left themselves exposed to being sued. The latter was the case between Pearlman and the Backstreet Boys. He put the savings of the group members into investment savings accounts owned by his own company.
Schneider, These issues were settled out of court. Among the key elements of the artist manager relationship is trust, and it is often compared to marriage. Looking at both, some marriages begin with a prenuptial agreement, and likewise, an artist-manager agreement begins with a contract; marriages include the earning of income shared by the partners and, an artist shares income with a manager; managers are often given power of attorney which lets them act on behalf of the artist under certain circumstances, and likewise, marriage partners frequently and unilaterally obligate the partnership.
So, by contemporary standards it could appear that Pearlman took advantage of the Backstreet Boys. When the relationship loses its foundation of trust, it is all but impossible to recover from it.
During these early years, Sharon worked for her father in his management company gaining the experience necessary to later launch her own career as manager of Ozzy. So, she bought the management contract from him, began to manage Ozzy, and along the way became Mrs. Rosen, She continues to manage all aspects of his career. Among the best lessons artist managers can take from Sharon Osbourne are those she shared from her experience in Fortune magazine. Her major points are: I would urge the interested reader to seek a copy of the issue for the complete article.
References http: Charlebois, G. Clark-Meads, J. Davis, S. Goodman, C. Hopkins, J. Lebrecht, N. McDermott, J. Mitchell, Rick, , Garth Brooks: Morris, Edward, , Garth Brooks: Platinum Cowboy, St. Nash, Alanna, , The Colonel: Proefrock, S. Welch, C. York, R. That is the short version. As in all business matters, agreements are formalized within a contract in order to be sure each knows what their respective responsibilities are to the relationship.
And that is where the contract between the artist and the artist manager is important. While there are some artist-manager relationships that are not memorialized with a written contract, something as brief as a written management summary can provide at least a measure of understanding of the promises the artist and the manager are exchanging.
Negotiating the contract Before we consider contract elements, it is important to understand that in this setting the artist and the manager will employ separate attorneys. This is a business transaction involving negotiated provisions for two separate parties. By the nature of the transaction, it is required that the manager has an attorney to represent his or her interests regarding the terms of the agreement, and the artist must do the same.
The length of the contract Artist management contracts approach the term, or length, of a contract in two common ways. The artist will often agree to a three-year management term, and offer the manager the option to extend the contract an additional two to four years. The manager who chooses not to extend the contract should give the artist adequate notice that a contract extension is not being sought.
For example, the artist might seek someone who will agree to manage their career for two album cycles with the option to extend for one or two more cycles. The top albums listed from the Billboard chart in February show the average weeks on the chart to be nearly Album cycles differ among genres. For example, country albums tend to have a much longer cycle than hip-hop. Keep in mind that many commercial albums release a single from a new album six to twelve weeks before the full album is released and an artist will require considerable assistance from a manager to plan the activities necessary to support the album through public appearances, performances, and other promotional activities.
The method that is used to determine the length of the contract will in part depend on the attorney giving the advice. On the other hand, the manager who takes on a new client with an undeveloped career may wish a longer contract in order to recoup anticipated losses and foregone income that inevitably comes with the decision to manage a budding artist.
This section of the contract will also require that the manager do anything else that could reasonably be expected of an artist manager. Keeping this requirement relatively open-ended takes into account the rapid changes made by technology and other innovations in the music business. In order to be a booking agent who negotiates employment contracts involving California businesses clubs, venues, etc.
The state labor commissioner issues a license to those who book shows, and failure to be licensed is deemed to be a crime. A similar law applies in the state of New York. Additionally, some of the major music-related unions franchise and regulate major booking agencies and they require this separation of duties.
So the inclusion of a statement in the contract between the artist and manager that says it is not a responsibility of the manager to procure employment for the artist is intended to give the manager something to point to if he or she is accused of violating laws or regulations relating to booking performances.
Bookings at larger venues in most cities are available only through a well-connected agent. Exclusivity An artist usually agrees in the contract to have only one manager, and it is exclusively the manager whose signature is on the contract. On the other hand, most managers require that their services be on a nonexclusive basis, meaning that they can develop their own roster of clients beyond the artist who is the subject of the contract under consideration.
Any artist manager or management company should have a range of clients whose careers are in different stages of development. Many active recording careers end within a very few years and become primarily performance-based. So the savvy manager will have new artists and mid-level artists who are developing successful careers to replace those whose careers have matured.
And for this reason, a manager should be on a nonexclusive basis with new artists that they sign. An exception to this is the major act that requires full-time management by a single manager or management company. For the artist, the power of attorney may permit the manager to: New artists may be reluctant to give a manager such broad authority, and many artists prefer to separate the business management function from the general management responsibilities.
New artists do not have a high earning power at the beginning of their careers, so managers are paid a higher commission rate in order to make their investment of time worthwhile. Managers often forego commissions to which they are entitled, but keep ledger entries anticipating a time in the future when artist earnings will be available to pay them. A variation of the straight commission on gross earnings is one where the manager may be paid a commission based on net earnings of an artist meaning the gross earnings of the artist after expenses.
Another variation of commission payments is where some groups may seek to cap the earnings of a manager because 49 Chapter 5 they may be paid more than any single member of a group without limits being placed on what the manager can earn from performances by the artist.
For most new artists, all earnings are commissionable from the beginning. The most cited exclusion from earnings is publishing income resulting from songwriting, but the manager who becomes responsible for negotiating a publishing contract for the artist will generally be entitled to commissioned earnings from that agreement. Advances to the artist that are included as part of the cost of creating the recording are immediately commissionable by the manager, but tour support money is not permitted by the record company to be commissioned by the manager.
In the latter instance, the company feels that the advance is provided to offset the costs of touring rather than to provide an income stream to the artist.
Managers may agree to be part-time career directors for artists, and some manage by charging a monthly retainer to the artist. These arrangements can be less costly to the artist, but the additional price the artist pays is a part-time commitment to their career rather than a full-time involvement in their career success.
It can be a surprise to an artist to learn how much is taken from their earnings unless they have been prepared by a candid discussion. We will discuss more about this in later chapters, but here is an example: It may seem excessive to the new artist, so this becomes a genuine reality check for the artist. It is better to have the discussion at this point, rather than at a time when both are trying to build a relationship based on candor and mutual trust.
It can best be described as a severance package for the manager. By whatever name is used, this creates a time after the contract ends during which the manager will earn commission for work that is already planned and is under contract.
The artist and the manager may also include special provisions on how royalties from songwriting, recording, and special licensing will be handled when the contract ends.
These terms are negotiable between the artist and the manager at the time the contract is negotiated, and both the artist and the manager should take special care to foresee as many special circumstances that may affect post-contract earnings for the manager. For example, if the manager has been developing a major sponsorship deal that is not completed until a year or two after the management contract ends, the manager will be able to claim a commission for their prior work in developing the deal.
The estate sued Parker, and four years later his commissions ended. The two sides eventually settled out of court in The artist and manager should be candid and very clear in the contract about how much money will be paid to the manager, under what circumstances, and when it will be paid. Expenses for something like this could become considerable, so the artist may place a limitation on the amount of expenses beyond which require the approval of the artist before the expenditure is made.
An example of what happens when limits are not placed on expenses involves Sir Elton John and his former manager, John Reid. Following his world tour, Sir Elton sued his management company and others in for what he deemed excessive charges for expenses during the tour. A section of the contract will include a provision saying that the artist will not permit the manager to assign the responsibilities of the agreement to anyone who works in the management company, nor to anyone who might acquire the assets of the company.
What is not permitted by most management contracts is the right of the manager to assign, or sell, the management 52 The Artist Management Contract contract to another manager. As we learned earlier, the relationship of artist and manager is unique and personal, and an artist will not permit that relationship to be sold.
No relationship is always perfect and there will be occasional disagreements. A section of the contract should give guidance on how the artist and manager will handle these times. Requiring arbitration is a way to remedy disputes that can limit legal costs and often keep disagreements from entering the public arena associated with court systems.
If the manager and artist want to modify the contract, they should put it in writing. The contract should include a section that requires any changes to the agreement must be made in writing. As in the beginning, written changes will include the advice of the individual attorneys and will minimize any misunderstanding of the consequences of the change. If the artist is made up of a group of performers, special language is necessary to protect the rights of the manager in the event a member quits or is replaced by the group.
The manager will have the option to end the management relationship and cancel the contract within thirty days of any changes in personnel.
The contract will also require the member who leaves the group to be managed by the manager in the event they decide to enter into a solo career. This section is intended to protect the manager from being required to manage an ineffective artist yet protect the investment made in developing the career of the member who left to pursue a career of their own. Contracting with a minor One of the realities of the American legal system is that people who are under eighteen years old cannot be held responsible nor liable for contracts that they sign.
Until recently, that meant that a minor artist, someone under eighteen, could sign a management or recording contract and decide to end it. Terminating the contract would have no consequences to the minor, and the manager or record label would have to absorb any losses that resulted. California and Tennessee created laws designed to make companies less reluctant to enter into business arrangements with artists who are minors, and at the same time protect some of the earnings of the artist until they turn eighteen.
The law permits a minor artist to contract with an individual or company and be bound to the agreement. The law, however, requires the contract to be approved by a judge who will then regularly 53 Chapter 5 monitor the effects of the agreement on the career of the minor.
In this way, a third party is involved to assure the minor is protected yet it also gives a measure of protection to the manager or company. New York has a law similar to those noted above, but it places a limit on the length of most contracts with minors to no more than three years from the date the contract was approved by a court. Berry, A contract A copy of a form that is used for contemporary artist manager contracts is included as Appendix B to this book, and updates will be available at the book website, www.
What is seen in the appendix is the shell of many of the negotiating points that should be included depending on the nature of the agreement the manager and the artist seek to memorialize with the contract. Bottom line: BBC, , http: Berry, Laverne, , Nextclient. A weakness found in the music business is the lack of any formal planning for artists, especially new artists.
Veterans of the music business, both artists and their managers, have a short-term and long-term vision for managing careers and they frequently are not formalized in any written form.
For the new artist who is ready for the commercial side of their music and who is signed with management, a formal written plan is especially important. Chapter 12 of this book guides artist managers through the creation of such a plan. This chapter begins with goal setting. In part, it is because they were terribly ambitious, and because they were made without a plan or timetable to make them achievable.
As the next year approaches, the resolution remains unmet and as the sound of Auld Lang Syne rings in the New Year, the same goals are set for yet another year. Promises you make to yourself towards achievement of goals without a plan and a timetable suggest that they are more like dreams rather than intended results.
Managing careers of artists converts their dreams of success in the music business into a reasonable reality. It is important that the goals of a plan and the way to reach those goals are the result of collaboration between the two. However, that sets the stage for underperformance or underachievement based on the talents of the artist.
Choosing a set of goals for the artist is the starting point for creating a plan. Goals for the artist might be securing a recording contract, learning to play piano during stage performances, learning to write songs that have commercial appeal, developing a commanding stage presence, acting in movies, and any number of objectives that will accomplish the career desires of the artist. It is the result you are trying to achieve. It is the goal, or the target of your energies.
A Primer for the Artist Manager In order to achieve a goal, it requires a set of strategies. Strategies are the plans you make to reach the goal. One of the best ways to develop a good set of strategies is to create a timeline beginning with the goal and work backwards, determining what it is that must be done to reach the goal. Strategies are lists of general steps that the artist and manager must take in order to get the desired result found in the goal. An example of a strategy is to create and practice a stage show with the goal of being booked to open for a headliner.
These are the things the artist and the manager do each day to implement the strategies in order to achieve the goals. It will note telephone calls to be made, emails to be sent, meetings to be held, and follow up for everything. Chapter 12 presents software that can be used by the manager to create charted timelines that will visually display the goals and related strategies. Planning a personal budget for the artist The manager who does not create a reasonable personal budget for the artist, especially for the new artist, will be spending valuable time trying to patch up relationships with bankers, credit card companies, and others to whom the artist owes money.
A budget, like any other plan the manager creates, must be in collaboration with the artist. The artist must see the need for it and must agree to the limits of the plan. A lot 57 Chapter 6 of personal budget templates are available that make excellent tools for assembling a personal budget. The budget can be arranged by the week or the month, depending on which works best for the artist. Initially, then, a weekly budget will keep a shorter-term view of where money is being spent, and it gives the artist a way to develop the control necessary to be responsible with prescribed spending limits.
The manager and artist should plan for the following areas as major areas of the budget: A Primer for the Artist Manager It is important for the artist to understand that a budget is based on their net income, meaning that money available for their personal budget is after taxes have been taken out.
The nature of the work of many artists is such that they are paid the full amount of their earnings when they are earned, and taxes will not have been deducted from the amount the artist receives. No taxes were withheld from these amounts paid to the artist. The artist will be required to have funds available to pay any income taxes that are due from amounts reported on all of the forms they receive.
Additionally, the artist must be prepared to pay any state income taxes for amounts they earned from performances in each state they worked during the previous calendar year. It is important, then, that the artist understands that a budget category will be created to hold back anticipated taxes that will be due. For several reasons, a plan for any event should be written. First, a manager who has several artists will have a number of events in the planning stage, and a written plan will keep them organized and separate from each other.
During those frequent hectic times, keeping the plans separate and in writing will minimize the confusion for the manager and those who are assisting with them. Having a plan in writing is especially important when the manager must share information with others. A range of distractions from illness to other unexpected emergencies becomes easier to manage if a clear and complete written plan can be assigned to someone else to handle.
Purpose of the event with the expected outcome. All contact information for the manager, including email, landline telephone number, home phone number, cell phone number, instant messenger address, fax number, and any other wireless access address. All special requirements for the event food, beverage, equipment, personnel, room setup. Detailed contact information for all service and equipment providers for the event, including after-hours and emergency telephone numbers.
Contact information for all backup service and equipment providers. Full transportation and travel information, even if it is for a local event.
A budget detailing expected expenses and who will pay for each element of it. Successful events require considerable attention to detail.
In the event plan on the following pages, the responsibility of something as seemingly routine as issuing invitations is highlighted to demonstrate the amount of planning and coordination necessary to simply invite people to a showcase.
The cities of major music centers have venues that routinely showcase artists for the purposes of securing management, a recording deal, or a publishing contract. The showcases can be one of the regular performances by an artist at a venue at which special guests are invited to determine if they have a business interest in the performer. Sometimes they are as simple as an audition in a conference room. Other times they might be held at a performance rehearsal facility, and sometimes they are invitation-only showcases presented at small clubs.
The event plan example in this section of the book is for a showcase for an artist who is seeking interest by a larger independent label or by a major label for a recording contract.
Since the objective is to enter into a business arrangement, one of the key music business centers—Los Angeles, Nashville, New York, or London—is the likely location for a showcase. And regardless of where the event is held, the planning for it has the same considerations. A showcase at a club that is part of a regular engagement for the artist has little additional cost; a showcase planned as an exclusive event for the artist can involve considerable expense.
Each can be effective, 60 Planning: A Primer for the Artist Manager though the exclusive event focuses on the artist, and is designed to be purely an industry event rather than mixed with club patrons. A showcase to seek a label deal will require at least six to eight weeks of preparation from the date the decision is made to have the event until it happens. If you offer refreshments to the guests, a broader range of beverages can be offered at the end of the day.
Thirty minutes is set aside for people to arrive, have light refreshments, and network with peers. The last half-hour will include a twenty-minute performance by the artist with ten minutes reserved to navigate the room with guidance by the manager to connect with key people who attended.
A showcase planned at 5: The venue the manager chooses should be one that is large enough for the event, but small enough so that it is easy to give the perception that there is a big attendance.
An ideal venue will be conveniently located near those who are invited, has adequate parking, will offer the use of the venue at no charge for a guaranteed food and beverage purchase for the event, and can seat — people in front of a permanent stage. The surest way to a successful showcase for the artist is to use a combination of the old and tried ways with the inclusion of technology. Three weeks before the event, mail the invitations using the traditional postal service so they will arrive two and one-half weeks before the event.
The following week, send a follow-up email that includes an image of the invitation. Every part of a successful plan has countless steps, and the effective manager anticipates each element of each step. For example, as easy as this seems, issuing invitations has a considerable number of steps that will require attention to detail. Will it be an invitation inside an envelope or will it be a postal card? If it is a postal card, what size will it be?
Will it be in four-color? What will the invitation say? Will images be required for it and from where will you get them? Who will proof the text? How many bids will you take for the printing service? Who is your back-up printer in the event the invitations are not ready on time? Who will receive the invitations? How many invitations must be issued to assure the size and quality of a crowd at the event?
Who will eliminate duplicate names? Does the manager have software and expertise to print labels from the database? Who will assemble the invitations and prepare them to post? How much postage must be purchased and who will purchase it? Who will create the email follow-ups? Is there a complete email list of invitees? A Primer for the Artist Manager While this list demonstrates the kinds of tasks and detail necessary for just the invitations, it does not include the telephone calls, voice mail, and emails necessary to complete each one of these steps.
Food and beverage Often referred to as hospitality in the meeting planning industry, the kind of food and beverage served at an event like this will depend on the budget available.
Venues often supply the event space at little or no cost, provided the manager purchases snacks and beverages from them rather than having them catered. An open bar for a one hour event will leave the artist manager exposed to the consumption of the crowd. On a larger scale, the author held a major music industry showcase and dinner for 1, people that included an open bar for an hour. At the settlement with the venue the amount was negotiated down, but thereafter beverage tickets were provided for similar events as a way to control costs.
The use of beverage tickets is encouraged for any event where the food and beverage budget must be closely watched. If food is planned for a small showcase, it must be within the limits of the budget. For a small showcase, however, food is not necessary if the budget does not permit. The performance The manager will assemble a list of the requirements for the performance, many of which will depend upon the venue.
Some performance venues offer only a stage with the expectation that the performer will bring in the necessary sound and lighting equipment. If the stage is not adequate for the performance, the manager will rent appropriate staging and have it erected for the performance. Some have minimal staging that is more like a riser than an actual stage. Others will have staging that puts the performer above the audience permitting them to be seen and heard very well.
Besides the elevation of the stage, the manager must be sure there is adequate space for the stage plot that is planned for the event. If more space is needed, the manager must order it. However, if the artist does not have players who regularly perform with the artist, a budget allowance is necessary to pay the players for rehearsal and performance time.
Costs that may be incurred with the performance could also include cartage, instrument rental, and technicians to manage the lights and sound. Promotion Those who attend the event should be provided promotional materials, often in the form of a press kit, to carry away with them after the event.
It should be given to each invitee as they leave the event. Encourage them to take two if they need them, keeping in mind that many who attend showcases are surrogates for decision makers, and they will be sharing the experience with other staff at their company the next day. Many artists who showcase do not post a banner on stage with their name and website address. In a brief showcase, the name of the artist is typically mentioned at the beginning and at the end of the performance.
Since they are relatively new to the industry, it helps to keep a banner with the name of the artist on stage in front of the audience before, during, and after the performance.
Heavy duty banners are relatively inexpensive and may be used for subsequent performances. Hire a good publicist. Entertainment publicists can promote the event to the industry and they can manage the event for the artist manager. Publicists will be able to help create a list of key invitees, provide addresses, handle RSVPs, make follow-up calls to those invited, and manage the event on the premises the day of the event.
A sample budget The most economical way to showcase talent is to make it a performance at a venue at which the artist is already booked. Guests who are invited can be asked to present an invitation at the door, or a list of invitees can be provided to the person at the door of the venue. Accommodations for invitees can include reserved tables with directives to the wait staff to give complimentary beverages to them with the bill coming to the manager. A Primer for the Artist Manager An exclusive industry showcase is the most expensive way to showcase, and is for the aspiring artist who has access to enough funding for an event of this type.
Typical costs an artist could expect to pay for an event that plays host to industry people are: Events like these can generate industry interest but they often do not result in a contract. They may have savings that are put aside for their career development; they may have friends or family members who are able to assist in paying the costs; the artist may have a sponsor that regularly associates with their performances who are willing to underwrite an event like this; and the artist may be able to take out a loan to cover the showcase costs.
As noted earlier in this book, the artist manager should ask the artist to remember and note anyone who falls into this category, and the manager should then follow up and ask for support.
Planning for any event, whether it is an artist showcase or a meet-and-greet preceding a performance requires close attention to the budget. If the plan results in a budget that the artist cannot afford, then the manager must decide whether to modify the event to so it becomes affordable or consider not holding the event at all.
Remember 65 Chapter 6 that budgeting is a matter of setting priorities with available funding, and above all, a plan must be affordable. Planning tools There are a number of organizing and planning tools used by artist managers.
They include paper planners that fall under the brand names of Day-Timer and Franklin Covey. This style of planner has accessories and sophisticated tools that help the artist manager stay current and plan for the artist as well as for all other company clients. This style of planner sells annual updates with printed pages, binders, and useful reference pages. Another planning tool is Microsoft Outlook.
Outlook can be an effective information and communication management tool and it will work as an adequate planner for the artist manager. The software is web-based, meaning that the planning and organizing of data are maintained on the Internet on a secure server giving the manager, company staff, and the artist access to it on a current, real-time basis from anywhere in the world.
It offers features similar to those found with paper planners but it adds planning and management tools that are custom designed for the artist manager. Figure 6. Managers for artists such as Faith Hill, Kiss, and Dierks Bentley have adopted Verberate to organize career management for their clients. A Primer for the Artist Manager Figure 6. It is a basic mission statement.
It is clear that among the most important functions of the artist manager is to be the promoter and advocate for the artist and their talents. This is another way of saying that they are responsible for developing the artist as a brand, marketing the artist, and exploiting their talents—which is why this and many of the following chapters include sections on marketing and promoting the artist as a commercial entity.
Understanding target markets The job of artist management is to direct the career of an artist, and a very common activity of the manager is promoting and selling the star power of the artist to people willing to buy music and tickets to performances—this means there is a lot 69 Chapter 7 of marketing going on. This target market makes up a segment of the larger general market of music consumers. Ways to view market segments There are numerous ways to look at segments of a target market, which we will consider here.
As we know, the function of a label is marketing with the goal of selling recordings—not necessarily to sell tickets and merchandise. The manager should then adopt those opportunities into the formal career plan of the artist to be sure they have become integrated into the goals set by the manager and artist.
Psychographics segmentation is viewing a market segment based on lifestyle characteristics of the buyers of music and tickets.
Behavioristic segmentation looks at why a consumer engages with a product, how they use the product, and what creates their loyalty to the product. An example would be to look at the recording success of John Mayer.
His two subsequent albums have been successful projects, but each has produced much lower sales than the previous album. The possible causes for the decline in sales are numerous but it raises these questions about the target market. And second, what has been done to embrace the special target market consumer characteristics of those who are now 18—22 years old?
An informed understanding of the target market segment can be one of the most productive tools an artist manager can use in managing the career of an artist. The artist as a brand and the associated image distinguish the artist from others and makes them recognizable through their distinct approach to music and performances. With the 71 Chapter 7 large array of cable music channels and the Internet, the artist has become multidimensional and has taken on the qualities of the purest form of a brand.
A key component of branding is image. A brand image is the way people feel about a product, and in this case, the artist. It is their emotional attachment to the artist based on their music and performances and how they respond to them. The symbol of the brand comes in the form of a trademark or service mark or both. A trademark is a symbol that represents the brand and distinguishes it from other products. Artists who choose a symbol as their trademark should also trademark the text of their name in order to protect it in its commercial use.
This generally means that people have the right to control the commercial exploitation of their names, their image or likeness, or some other distinguishing aspect of their person—even having a very distinguishable singing voice. In , Bette Midler declined an offer to appear in an automobile commercial so the advertising agency hired a sound-alike singer instead.
In the UK, the principles behind the right of publicity have not been supported, though the courts are more willing to consider the concept today. Booking agent The booking agent is the individual who connects an artist with most paid performances, and among the largest booking agencies in the world are the William Morris Agency, and Creative Artists Agency.
While agents book live performances, they are also involved in negotiating artists to appear in commercials, arranging tour sponsorships, and for appearances in television specials.
Agents do not get paid from the sale of recordings or from songwriting. In all cases, however, an agent is the person responsible for negotiating the fee an artist will charge a promoter for a concert performance or for an entire tour. Artists are exclusive to agents for their performance bookings, meaning that there is only one agent that represents the artist for live performances.
Some agents will reduce their fees for major acts and larger tours because even small percentages on this kind of booking can generate considerable commissions for them.