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Special strength training manual for coaches pdf

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Special Strength Training: Manual for Coaches [Yuri Verkhoshansky, Natalia Verkhoshansky] on homeranking.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. From the . Special Strength Training – Manual for Coaches. Yuri Verkhoshansky and Natalia Verkhoshansky. Who is Yuri Verkhoshansky? NV-and-YV. So I started reading this book, Special Strength Training, A Practical Manual For Coaches by Yuri V. Verkhoshansky. I have not read a better.


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This aim of this book is to be a tool that can help you not only to create the rational programs of the special strength training but also to organise efficiently the. the Special Strength Training presented in this manual is mainly addressed to coaches sports athletes; it is also useful for coaches of strength & condition in all. Special Strength Training - A Practical Manual for Coaches - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online.

In the exhausting work, the run is transformed to one of very low efficiency and a waste of energy. SST and qualifications of the Coach 2 1. On the basis of these proven programs and being guided by the contents of the book the coach can work out his own programs for any sport. In other words, the discussion is related more to the primary emphasis of these or other loads in the particular stage of training where they are needed. On average, the resistive force generated in the stretching of contracted muscles in slow movements is more than 1.

This is not entirely correct. But according to the main feature of the shock method and by the principal training factor involved in this method it is not simply the stretching of the muscles but fast switching from slurp shock stretching to vigorous contraction. For training the arm muscles you can use the exercises shown in Figures 16 and Push up Depth Jumps.

An example of a shock regime exercise for training the arm extensor muscles Figure An elementary device for training the arm extensors by the shock method 13 1.

Improve the ability of the central nervous system to generate a more powerful flow of impulses to the peripheral muscles. To ensure specific morphological reorganization restructuring in the muscles, which is necessary to increase their functional potential. To promote an increase in the power and capacity of the energy transformation of the working muscles.

To resolve these tasks, the intensive and extensive methods are used. The intensive methods are characterized by maximum power and a small amount of work. Extensive methods are characterized by moderate sub-maximal power and optimal amounts of work. The training influence of the SST means on the athlete's bod ' is adjusted according to the following load parameters: The set is continuous without pause or rest during the execution of one exercise.

The total quantity number of repetitions in the continuous execution of one exercise. There can be several series in a training session. Editor's Note: In this case "x" number of repetitions for one or more sets is considered one series. After completion of a series and a rest period, repetition of "x" number of reps and sets is then repeated for the second series.

This is the time necessary for recovery of the body's ability to effectively perform the following set. This is the time necessary for recovery of the body's ability to effectively perform the following series. When organizing the SST it is necessary to keep in mind the following: The rest pause between sets and series is especially important for attaining the effect produced by the SST.

Because of this, the rest pauses recommended in the following chapters should be stricdy observed. When performing the strength exercises it is necessary to relax the muscles wherever possible, as for example, between exercise repetitions. It is necessary to execute exercises for relaxation and stretching of the muscles in between sets and series. Repeat Method The repeat method makes it possible for the athlete to perform the exercise on a high level with one or another characteristic of movement, as for example, speed or power.

Ilic common quality of each repetition is repeatable execution with good form. The repetitions cease at the moment there an appreciable decrease in these characteristics which is tied in with the development of fatigue. The rest pause between sets should be of sufficient duration for restoration of the body to the optimal condition which makes it possible to have a quality performance of the exercise.

This method is used for development of maximum explosive, starting strength and reactive ability. Serial Method The serial method provides for execution of several series of exercises, each of which includes the same number of sets. Between the series it is necessary to maintain rest pauses that are sufficient for restoration of the body until it is capable of having a qualitative performance in the following series.

The serial method in formula form is as follows: I his constitutes one series. There are three series with a rest of 8 minutes in between. In training, there are two forms of the serial method: Repeat-Serial Method I Ins nKthod is characterized by sub-maximal work intensity and volume loads, t h e exercise is executed for the same number of sets, and with optimal rest pauses.

This constitutes one series. Kuch series is repeated the same number of times. Between series the rest pauses are longer, t h e number of reps in the series, the number of series and the duration of rest pauses between them is determined by tin. Ihis method is used predominantly for activation of morphological rebuilding in the body. It is also used to increase the amount of power generating substances available and the development of adaptive reactions to stabilize the body on a new functional level.

Using this method provides for an increase in power and capacity of the energy acquisition mechanisms tor muscle activity.

It is used predominantly for the development of Uv-al muscular endurance or strength endurance. The "Work to Failure" Refusal Method Ihis method is used mainly for the development of strength endurance. The amount of resistance, which makes it possible to execute a specific number of repetitions, as tor example only It is the key factor in this method. It is performed the same way. If the "work to failure" method is executed with more sets, as for example 6 to 8.

Ihis includes circuit alternative, coupling and complex methods. Circuit Training Circuit training is a variant of the interval method. Ihe difference between them is that circuit training has a more versatile influence on the muscular system by using exercises hav ing various training effects and less intensity of muscle work Fig. Ihis method helps mainly to increase the capacity of the energy acquisition sources, perfection of the functional capabilities of various muscle groups and actuation of morphological reorganization restructuring in the body.

Fxamplcs of organizing the strength exercises using the circuit method. Kach exercise is repeated 10 times. The rest between repeats is l-2min. Alternative Contrast Method This method is used mainly for development of high-speed fast strength. Ihe idea behind it is to create.

By doing this, the degree of adaptation of the sensory system to the same monotonous work is diminished. Ihe power of the central impulses to the muscular system is supported on a higher level that provides for an increase in the speed of movements.

At the same time, a subjective sensation of lightness of speed of the movements is created in the athlete As a result he is then ready to reproduce this sensation when performing the exercise in normal conditions. This method also improves the ability to control and have objective evaluation of the movements. Coupling Conjugate Method This method is used to express the unity and interrelationships between the tasks of special physical and technical training of the athlete.

It is realized by selecting such means and methods of execution that ensure simultaneous development of the needed motor abilities and perfection of sports technique elements. See section 1. Complex Method The complex method provides for simultaneous in one training session combining and using SST means that have one primary emphasis but with various characteristics and intensities of their training influence..

Squat jumps with a bar on the shoulders or with a kettlebell in the hands. Various jump exercises with takeoff on one or both legs. Drop jumps jump downs. Ihe complex method has two variants. Hie idea behind one of them consists in using the positive after-effects of the body's reactions and those of the central nervous system. After performing tonic work, these effects are seen on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the training effect of the subsequent specific work see Fig.

In this case the force of the training influence on the body of the second subsequent specific exercise is increased considerably. In addition, the force of the training influence is seen in the integrated and more expressed adaptive reaction of the body Fig. This includes tltc functional attributes of the first exercise but mainly of the second training effect ITiis method is used predominantly for development of explosive muscle strength.

Figure The dynamics of the increased ability to display explosive effort after squatting with a heavy bar. The arrow indicates the most favorable moment for execution of the seeond exercise Figure Increase in power in the vertical jump in place after 6 weeks of training with various weights: The second variant of the complex method is used for development of local muscular endurance.

In the first workout of the day the athlete uses specific work of low muscle tension and insignificant oxygen consumption for extended periods. This is needed to deplete the reserves of glycogen of the slow twitch muscle fibers.

Then in the second workout of the day. As a result because of the exhaustion of the glycogen depots, the contractile properties of the slow twitch muscle fibers arc considerably reduced. The work now involves predominantly fast twitch muscle fibers that promotes improvement of their oxidative properties and an increase in the aerobic capacity of the body. The rest pause between the workouts is 1. I hey are all directed to perfection of the athlete's ability to display powerful concentrated efforts based on the development of maximum, explosive and highspeed strength and reactive ability of the muscles.

The repeat method Iliis includes exercises with large maximal, sub-maximal, and super maximal loads. The training effect of this method is directed mainly to the improvement of lite central nervous system to: This method is characterized by a limited number of repetitions in one set and in the numbers of sets.

For example: In the session execute sets with a rest pause of 4 to 6 minutes in between. Two regimes of muscle work can be used here. In one of them the movements are executed without relaxation of the muscles between repetitions, as for example in squats with the weighted barbell held on the shoulders for the entire set In the other regime, after each squat the bar is placed on the racks for a few seconds in order to instantly relax "shake up" the muscles.

Both regimes are effective for development of maximum strength, but the second one is better for improving the ability to display explosive strength and to relax the muscles. Five sets arc executed. I he last set is not done if the athlete has a feeling that he will not be successful.

I he five sets are repeated times scries] with a rest of minutes in between the series. Four to five repetitions arc done for 3 sets with the rest between sets. The combination of eccentric and concentric regimes of muscle work in the barbell squat with the use of separate suspensions arc now being made Fig.

Ihe athlete then rises up Irom a low squat after the suspensions hook apparatus touch the floor and are separated from the ends of the barbell. Special suspension device for using additional loads in the squat When starting the bar is on the shoulders taken Irom special pillars adjusted to the needed height.

The bar is then once again put on the pillars and the athlete shakes the leg muscles. I lie partners at this time once again suspend the additional weights on the bar. Two to three repetitions with compulsory relaxation and shaking of the muscles are executed lor one set. In one series there are three sets with minutes rest in between sets.

There arc a total of two to three series with a rest of minutes in between series. In the examples mentioned above and in the future the optimum dosage of exercises for use in practice is indicated. The dosage depends on the number of muscle groups involved in the work.

Training manual for coaches pdf special strength

In conditions of total body work, as for example when doing the barbell squat the 20 dosage of exercises in regard lo the number of sets should be less and the rest between them longer than when there is local work as for example, when doing the bench press.

The repeat-serial method This method is different mom the previous one according to the following factors. In this method the main training factor is not the amount of weight load but the duration of work muscle tension with sub-maximal weight, llie training effect of this method is directed predominantly to activating the processes connected with functional adaptation and working hypertrophy morphological specialization of the muscles.

This method is characterized by an increased volume of work at the expense of increased repetitions and sets. The movements are executed slowly and some of the sets are united in series, which are repeated for some time. Two variants of the repeat—serial method, distinguished according to their primary emphasis on the training effect, are recommended.

They include a moderate and considerable increase in muscle mass. In this, it is necessary to be guided by the following rules: It should be an independent training session or a part of the main training; 3 It is necessary to maintain the rest pauses between sets and scries very strictly. This is needed for sufficient restoration of the specific work capacity of the athlete; and 4 The rest between training workouts for development of maximum strength with large loads should be days.

There are sets in one series with a rest of minutes in between each set There are series with a rest of minutes in between. The rest pause between sets is minutes. In one training session there are series with a rest of minutes between series. I here arc two series done with a rest of minutes in between. The very lowest position is maintained for seconds and then, with the greatest speed possible, the concentric move is executed. Ihe exercise is repeated times in sets with rest pauses of minutes in between sets.

At the beginning, there is a gradual. In one set there are reps. In one training session there are sets with a rest pause of minutes in between. In all. Variant 2 This variant of the repeat-serial method produces a considerable increase in muscle mass. This method is based on the intensification of the body's metabolic processes. Ihis variant involves an intense regime of muscle work based primarily on the glycolytic mechanism of energ production.

When this mechanism is strongly involved, protein break down is especially strong. Iheir synthesis begins at rest and is expressed more strongly, the greater the quantity of protein broken down.

Ihe greater the quantity the stronger the sv nthesis. It is necessary to keep in mind that the activation of protein synthesis is developed very slowly and pnx: Ihe resistance is not the greatest but is sufficient for the stimulation of significant muscle tension; 2.

Ihe work is executed for a long period of time and to total fatigue; 3. The rest pauses between sets are shortened to I -2 minutes; 4. Muscle relaxation is not required between the repetitions in one set; 5. The work executed is local in character and involves one group of muscles for sets. In one training session muscle groups are involved.

The load on the muscle groups is alternated from session to session so that they receive at least 72 hours of rest Ihis variant of the repeat—serial method is good for promoting the development of maximal strength in slow movement conditions. However, it lias little effectiveness in development of explosive strength and speed of movement This is why it is best used with low volume at the beginning of a yearly cycle.

Increase only one variable of the training load—weight or the number of repetitions; 2. Increase the number of reps and sets before increasing the weight; 3. Reduce the number of repetitions in accordance with increases in resistance or number of sets; 4. Reduce the rest pause between sets by small amounts. Examples of this method include: Do reps for sets with a rest of 2 minutes between sets.

If the fatigue is significant, the time of rest between sets is increased to 5 minutes. If the last repetition in the set cannot be executed because of fatigue, a partner assists in overcoming the resistance. When the weight is lowered the partner does not assist. Two sets are executed with the rest pause depending upon lite individual. The same number of repetitions is executed in each set but with less resistance in each set For example. This variant is useful for targeting the small muscle groups which fatigue quickly or when the rest pauses between sets arc reduced.

Squat jump with the baron the shoulders A and with kettlebell in hands standing on 2 parallel exercise benches B 23 6. Squat jumps on two parallel henehes or on the floor with kettlebclls, kgs. In one set there are jumps with sub-maximal effort. In one series with two sets, the rest between sets is 2 minutes. In series the rest between series is minutes.

In the sets that are done, each set involves tensions w ilh the rest between each not less than 1 minute. Between sets the rest pause is minutes and between 2 series the rest is minutes. Guidelines for isometric training: Isometric training is especially effective when the competitive exercise requires the display of a high level of strength. However, if it is necessary for the athlete to execute high-speed movements with relatively small external resistance, the isometric training is less effective and can even create a negative influence on speed of muscle contraction sec Fig.

Isometric exercises effectively dev clop maximal strength of muscles. I lovvever. As of result, the strength the biomechanics rigidity of the muscles is increased. When this occurs, elasticity is reduced.

Because of this, for sports tlut involve fine coordination and speed in cyclic muscle work, the application of high volume and extended duration isometric loads is not desirable. The essence of isometric training is in the development of maximal strength when there is a slow increase in the amount of muscle tension for rclativelv extended holding periods of seconds.

It requires expenditure of significant force tliat stimulates adaptive reorganization in the nervous-muscular system which determines its strength capabilities. It is effective to combine isometric tensions with the dynamic regime of muscle work. For example, when the load is moved slowly through a large amplitude of movement [ROM] with intermediate stopping.

It is necessary to execute the isometric exercises in specific positions postures that arc appropriate to the moment of display of maximum effort in the competitive exercise. It is necessary to perform relaxation exercises before each isometric tension as well as dynamic exercise. Exercises which involve stretching of the muscles should be 24 done between sets.

At the end of isometric training it is necessary to do relaxation and dynamic exercises of moderate intensity. The greater the external resistance which must be overcome in competition, the greater the weight. There are 56 reps in a set performed at maximum effort with compulsory relaxation of the muscles between movements.

The rate of executing the repetitions is not high. In one series of sets, the rest pauses are minutes between sets. In a training session of scries the breaks between series arc minutes. The weight is lowered with instant switching to the concentric regime and quickly moved in the opposite direction. In one set there are repetitions with relaxation of the muscles when the weight is put back on support pillars. There are reps in one set with a pause of minutes in between sets.

In a training session of sencs the breaks between series are minutes. In these variants, the work should not be of a steady rate nature. It is necessary to be mobilized for each repetition and to concentrate effort at the beginning of the movement. Barbell squat jumps Fig. In one set there are squat jumps.

In one series of sets the rest pause is minutes between sets. In a training session there are series with rest breaks of minutes. In squat jumps with a kettlebell in the hands In one set there are jumps at maximum effort In one series of sets, the rest is minutes between sets.

In one training session of series the rest is minutes between scries. The repeat method should also be used for the development of explosive muscle strength Section 2. In this it is important to remember that it is necessary to relax the muscles whenever possible.

Squat jump with the liar on the shoulders A and with kettlehell in hands standing on 2 parallel exercise benches B 2. In one set there are explosive efforts with an arbitraiy rest pause. In a training session with sets the rest between sets is minutes. Relaxation of the muscles is necessary before each effort. Stretching exercises are executed between sets. The most widely used method is the vertical jump upward after a drop down from a height of.

This method is very effective for development of so-called "jump force" Fig. The optimum dosage of such an exercise is 4 sets of 10 jumps for wellqualilied athletes and sets of jumps for less prepared athletes. Ihe rest between sets is filled with easy- running and relaxation exercises for minutes.

The depth jumps should be executed 1 -2 times per week and for qualified athletes.

Special Strength Training Practical Manual For Coaches

It is also necessary to vary the take-off after the drop down Fig. The take-off after the drop down in a depth jump. Variants of the take-off after the drop jump depth jump.

The following should be taken into consideration when executing the push-off take-off after the drop down in the depth jump: For development of explosive strength and reactive ability of the leg extensor muscles, it is important to use a height of 0.

Any further increase in height of the depth jump changes the dynamic characteristics of the pushoff considerably. Takc-ofTtimc increases quickly and mainly at the expense of an increase in the time of switching the muscles from eccentric work to concentric work. As a result, the primary effect of depth jump training elTect is greatly changed.

Any increases in depth jump height should be limited to about 1. This jump variant renders enough of an effective influence on the development of explosive and maximal strength.

But its training effect on perfection of the reactive ability of the muscles is decreased. Depth jumps with additional loads or with high heights m. It is a mockery, above all to the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and joints.

I do not recommend such tricks even to the triple jumpers.

Special Strength Training - A Practical Manual for Coaches

In execution of the drop down, it is necessary to pay attention to an elastic banding and unity of movements at the push off. In training, the depth jump should be executed 27 wilh shoes dial liavc thick rubber soles.

Gymnastic mats should not be used when executing the take olT. They change the nature of the muscle work. It is necessary to pay attention to correct execution of the arm swing movements at take-off. The swinging movements are the clement ot take-off technique. They determine the speed of leg extension, the direction of the take-off and provide coordination for the whole complex of movements in the take-off. For activation of the take-off after the drop down, it is expedient to use a target, as for example, a small ball or flag suspended at a definite height which should be touched by the hand.

In the landing it is necessary to have a very elastic landing on the forward part of the foot The legs should be bent slightly in the knee joints. It is not necessary to think specifically about the depth of the jump down before leaping upward.

The athlete should be guided with the aim to make a resilient landing and to quickly take off in order to fly as high as possible. If this aim is fulfilled, all details of take-off technique will be correctly executed.

Using the shock method for training different muscle groups is shown on Fig. Then there is sharp movement downwards—upwards—with fast twitching of the muscles Irom eccentric to concentric work, executed to produce vigorous acceleration of the load. In order to avoid injury' it is necessary to provide limiting devices to block movement of the weight from going further than necessary.

Examples of exercises in the shock regime of developing effort When the exercises are executed the following should be taken into consideration: The starting position is selected after taking into consideration the position of the body at which the maximum working effort in the competitive exercise is developed.

Ihe initial pathway should be minimal but sufficient to create the shock tension in the muscles. The size of the shock effect is determined by the weight and the height from which it falls.

The optimal combination of these and other factors is empirically selected. The exercises in the shock regime should be executed only after an intense warm up of the muscles. Ihe dosage for shock exercises should not exceed movements repetitions in one set The volume and number of series are determined with an eye on the weight used and the level of special physical preparation of the athlete.

Ihe principle behind these is quite obvious. An elementary training devices to achieve the shock regime of muscle work. It is very important to emphasize that one should not relate to the shock method in a frivolous manner.

In recent limes, in many publications mainly in the USA , the authors offer various variants of shock methods. Relative to this it is important to pay attention to the following: Tlte shock method has an extraordinarily strongly expressed training elfecl on the nervous-muscular system. Because of this, it is inadmissible to exceed its optimum dosage and duration of use. Because of the shock method's strong training effect on the nervous-muscular system, ligaments and joints it is necessary to: This is not as simple as it may seem at first glance.

It is incorrect to overestimate the possibilities of the shock method. It is only one of many ways of intensifying the work of the nervous-muscular system, which by itself, cannot replace all the others. Ihe shock method should be applied in a complex with 29 other means and methods. It should have a definite place in the system of SST and be used on a specific stage of the training process. The shock method is only for high-level athletes.

The shock method should never be applied in great volume in the training of low-level athletes. For these athletes there are many diverse and sufficiently effective means of SST. One should never execute exercises in the shock regime of muscle work when in a fatigue state, with muscle soreness or in the final treatment of injuries.

The single repetition jump exercises are executed Irom place or with an upward jump on both legs Fig. Examples of jumping exercises with single take-offs. Ihe repeat-serial method of exercise is used in the following dosage: There arc sets with a rest of minutes between sets in one scries.

There are series with a rest break of minutes between each series in a training session. Multi-repetition jump exercises include take offs from place on one or both legs. Tlie repeat-serial method is used in one set of three to four repetitions. In one series there are two to three sets with a rest pause of minutes between sets. In a training session of series, the rest breaks arc minutes between series.

When using jump exercises it is necessary to remember the following: I "he take-off should consist of a powerful concentrated effort with active work of the driving leg and vigorous movement of the swing leg. I "he swinging movements of the arms should also be vigorous and synchronized with the swing leg movements. Especially strong should he the arm swing movements in jumps with a double leg take-off.

When doing exercises with one leg or from leg to leg. Ihe jump exercises have a specific technique of execution which is well developed in track and field. It is necessary to study this technique. If not the efficiency of training using jump exercises will be low. To make the take-off as active as possible, it Ls necessary to execute the exercises for result, i. Ihe following examples can be used as the basis for working out other combinations of exercises that lake into consideration the specific characteristics of the movements executed in the particular sport.

Ihe rest between sets is minutes and before changing the resistance it is minutes. In one training session there arc series with a rest pause of minutes between series. Start by gradually increasing isometric tension to the maximum and hold for 6 seconds in the position in which maximum effort is displayed in competitive conditions.

This exercise is repeated times with a break of 2 minutes for compulsory relaxation of the muscles between the next repetitions. Do 2 sets with a rest of minutes in between. The whole complex is executed 2 times with a break of minutes between. For development of the so-called "jump force. Only one of these combinations is used in a training session.

In subsequent training sessions different combinations of exercises should be used. Because of this it requires very close attention to how it is used in training. More specifically: To summarize, it is necessary to pay attention to some of the basic features of the methods used in development of explosive strength and reactive ability of the muscles. The movement should include fast switching of the muscles from eccentric to concentric work.

The greater the external resistance that must be overcome in a competitive exercise, the greater the resistance one must use in the SST program. Always recall the necessity to relax the muscles and to do this at each convenient opportunity. It is important to observe the recommended rest pauses between sets and scries. If the exercise is repeated when the muscles are not fully restored it changes the training effect toward development of strength endurance.

Between series, it is necessary to execute free wide amplitude swinging movements by the muscle groups which were loaded. Also include imitations of the competitive exercise or its elements. If the SST program is executed for development of "jump force. In addition, swinging movements by the legs and exercises for relaxation shaking up of the muscles are done.

Training devices are also widely used. In oilier words, the stronger the external resistance the greater tlie weight. The exercise is executed times at maximum speed but at a low rate. In one scries of sets the rest period is minutes between sets. In a training session of scries the rest between series is minutes.

The exercise is performed with short concentrated explosive efforts to only move the weight but not accelerate it through the maximum range possible. The regime and dosage of work is the same as in the previous variant.

In all variants of this method, relaxation of the muscles between each set is obligatory. Between series, active rest is needed. Thus involves using exercises for relaxation, "shaking up" of the muscles and swinging movements with a wide range of motion. Ihe idea behind this method lies in alternation of movement executed with maximal speed using the resistance of variable weights, as for example: The facilitated weight is ased for experiencing the sensation of high movement speed and for the psychological transfer of this sensation to the movement with optimal weight.

The heavier weight is used for activating the muscle effort needed and to transfer it to the appropriate motor act with optimum weight.

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For example, the following combinations of weights are executed: Variant 1 a Heavy weight reps b Optimum weight. Between movements with different weights the rest pause is minimal. Relaxation of the muscles is obligatory. Variants 1,3 and 4 are executed times and Variants 2 and 5 arc executed times, with a rest of minutes between sets for all variants. Fmphasis should be on fast take-offs.

A ten-fold jump from leg to leg or two jumps on the right and two jumps on the left leg. In one training session of series, the rest pause is minutes between series. The jumps from leg to leg are done for a distance of 50 m and the time is recorded, iTie athlete starts by pushing off from both legs as in the standing long jump, and then lands on one and then alternates the legs consecutively.

In one series there are sets with a rest of minutes between sets. This is a very good means for developing the power of starting acceleration. Two series are executed and each of them includes two sets of reps. The main features of the SST program for the development of high-speed strength arc as follows: Perfection of this ability is tied in with an increase in the strength potential of the athlete as well as the ability of the body to execute maximally long periods of muscle work that use the aerobic pathways for energy acquisition.

In view of these requirements. SST should ensure the main task of training—an increase in speed of locomotion over the distance. Ihis is done by the establishment of an effective ratio between the power of the working effort that determines stride length and the rate of movement stride frequency. In other words, the main task in training in cyclic types of sport is to increase the distance speed by increasing stride length at an optimum stride frequency.

For SST in cyclic sports, resistance exercises, isometric and jump exercises, and execution of competitive exercises in more difficult conditions arc used. The main task of these exercises is to develop maximum explosive and high-speed strength, reactive ability of the muscles, local muscular endurance, and maximum anaerobic power of the athlete. The work is executed in two directions. One is oriented to the development of maximum strength. The other, to the development of the ability to repeatedly display lesser amounts of effort.

To develop the ability to repeatedly display smaller amounts of effort the following variants of the repeat-serial method are effective. There are 3 sets with a rest pause of minutes between sets. In a training session there are series with a rest of minutes between scries. Two series with different weights are executed. The rest between sets is minutes.

In one series, three different weights are used: Two series, with a rest period of minutes between series, arc executed. The training melhixls related to the first and second aims of training should not be ased in the same training session. It is necessary to alternate these methods in different sessions or in a week.

At the beginning, the main focus should be on the first aim. Then, in accordance with increased maximum strength. Some examples of using different resistance exercises for development of maximum strength in VuiiOuS sports follow: In the training of rowers, to duplicate the pull of the bar in a racing scull, a front lying position, face down on a horizontal surface is assumed Fig.

Special exercise for rowers 38 The following variants are used: Ihe rest pause is minutes. Ihe rest is minutes between series in one training session of series; c then are three sets in one series: An exercise for development of leg strength 3. Isometric Exercises For maximal force development a small volume of isometric exercises can be used. They should be executed in poses [positions] that are appropriate to the beginning of the working movement and to the moment of maximum force in the execution of the competitive exercise.

Tension should be developed slowly up to the maximum and held for no more than 6 seconds. This is followed with fast relaxation of the muscles. There are tensioas contractions executed in one set and the rest between is arbitrary. In a training session there are sets with a rest of minutes between sets during which dynamic, relaxing and stretching exercises are used. It is most useful to use the local isometric tensions for the muscle groups that perform the main load in the competitive exercises, as well as for muscles that need strengthening.

Maximum strength development is needed in each cyclic type of sport but its particular significance for the sport can vary, as for example, where the effort is great as in rowing, cycling and skating. When maximal strength determines the magnitude of the working effort, then more attention should he given to the development of maximum strength.

The predominant method is the repeat-serial. As with the development of maximum strength, there are two main directions of work distinguished here. In one. In Ihe other, there is a gradual increase in the speed and rate of movement while still maintaining the explosive beginning effort. The greater the external resistance that must be overcome in the competitive situation, the greater the weight, within the limits of this range.

One set of reps is executed at maximum speed with compulsory relaxation of the muscles between movements. In one series there arc sets with a rest of minutes between sets. Jump out of a squat with the bar on the shoulders with maximum effort.

In one set there are jumps. In a training session of series the rest breaks are minutes between series. Squat jumps while standing on two parallel benches, holding a kettlebell in the hands.

Weight of the kettlebell is cither In one set there are squat jumps at maximum effort In one series there are sets and the rest is 68 minutes between sets. In a training session of series, the rest break is 10 minutes between series.

In a training session tlx. The time for each of the 5 squat sets is recorded. Ihe diflerence between the first and fourth sets characterize the speed-strength endurance of the athlete. The key in training is to reduce this difference. Tor example I. A six-fold j ump from leg to leg with active swing movements by the tree leg.

It is executed times [set with an arbitrary rest period between. In alt there arc series with a rest period of minutes in between. A Tour to six-fold jump from place with alternation of the legs two takeoffson the right leg. The "long" jump exercises are executed on soft, resilient ground. Forward jumping from leg to leg with sub-maximal takeoffs. Begin with m. In the rest interval of seconds, do easy running. At the beginning use sets and then gradually increase to 10 sets.

In a two-scries training session the rest is minutes between series. During the rest, begin with minutes of easy running, then 50 m. In jumping from leg to leg or two takeoffs on the right leg and two take-offs on the left advance forward moderate distances with emphasis on the pushoff. Ihe rest interval is minutes between repeats. Begin with repetitions, then increase to reps. Jumping from leg to leg or two takeolfs on the right leg and two takeoffs on Uie left leg with a moderate push-off.

I h e distance is m. Execute 2 times with a rest of minutes between them. Jumping from leg to leg from place for 50 m as fast as possible. Use an arbitrary rest period of minutes between repeats. I h e jumping for 50 m. In training sprinters, it is best to use a combination of the "short" and "long" jump exercises in different training sessions. The first short jump exercises promote an increase in starting acceleration speed and the second long , speed of the run over the distance.

For greater perfection, as for example in sports such as track running and competitive rowing, exercises using the shock regime of force development should be used. The repeat or repeat-serial methods are used in such exercises. Jumps over boxes with push-olf on both legs Fig. The movements are executed at a moderate rate. In one series of sets the rest is arbitrary.

It is also possible to execute the jumps over low hurdles in the same dosage. Jumps onto boxes of different heights with a two-legged takeoff, 'three scries are performed: Exercise variants with a shock regime of muscle work.

In one set the jumps arc executed without any stopping. Ihe rest pause between sets is minutes and between series minutes. All of this work is possible in one training session 3 series and can he repeated 2 times. For high level, well-prepared athletes it can be 3 times with a rest pause of minutes between. For rowers, jumps on to a box with the height at cm is used for men and cm for women.

I ney arc effective using the following variants: In one series there are sets of reps, executed at a moderate rate. Ihe rest between sets at the beginning is minutes and then is gradually reduced to 2 minutes. Ihe rate of jumping on to the box should be gradually increased and then maintained in each set In all there arc series with the rest period at minutes between series.

At the beginning, jumps are executed at a moderate rate 4 minutes for men and 3 minutes for women. Gradually increase the duration of the exercise to 6 and 5 minutes respectively. I hen increase the movement rate. In alt there are series with a rest of minutes between.

The work load is repeated 8 limes in 2 minutes for each bout. The rest interval is 30 seconds between. During every subsequent 30 seconds ihe rate is increased and in the last 30 seconds rate is up to maximum.

Three sets arc included in one scries; one of them for 2 minutes and the next 2 for 1 minute. Ihe rest interval between sets seconds. The duration of work is 2 minutes. The rate of movement at the beginning is moderate and then in the last 30 seconds built up to maximum. In the second set the resistance is increased by 1. The duration is 1 minute. The movement rate is average in the range of movements per minute.

In the third set an additional 1. The duration of work is I minute. In this work it is necessary to preserve or even increase ihe rate of movement in comparison to the first set. When using diese series it is necessary to adhere to the following rules: The more muscle groups that are working, the greater the resistance and duration of work within the limits of the ranges indicated for them ; b If the athlete, in executing the set successfully manages the load and mainlaias the given rate, further increases in load should be given only if the optimal rate is still maintained about 45 movements per minute.

Exercises for development of local muscular endurance of the leg muscles. For development of local endurance of the legs, squat jumps or lunge [split squat] jumps are effective. The resistance should be in the form of a bar on the shoulders and in the squat the 44 feel should be shoulder width apart or in the lunge position Fig.

Examples are as follows: In one set, short-term maximum intensity work of about seconds at the rate of one movement per second movements per set. In one series there are sets with rest intervals of 10 seconds between them. In a training session of series, the rest period is minutes between series.

To begin work in this variant it is first necessary to do sets in one series with the rest interval between them at 60 seconds, lhcn in accordance with improvement in the athlete's ability, it is necessary to increase the number of sets to and to reduce the rest intervals between sets, first to 30 seconds and then to 10 seconds.

In one set the athlete works for 30 seconds at sub-maximal intensity at the rate of one movement in 1. I "he number of sets range from to 10 with a rest interval of 30 seconds between. In a training session there are series with a rest of minutes between. Work in this variant should begin with sets with the intervals of rest between them at 30 seconds.

Then, in accord with an increase in the preparedness of the athlete, the number of sets increases to 10 and the interval of rest between sets is reduced to 30 seconds. Ihe first variant favors the predominant development of power. The second one. At a point in time, both variants effectively favor an increase in the power and capacity of the body's aerobic energy production. In addition, there is an increase in the speed of development of the aerobic function at the beginning of work, and the role of the aerobic mechanism in the after-work recovery process for some time.

During the training it is necessary to gradually increase the intensity of work in both variants in two different wavs: In variant I the weight selected in each particular case is empirical so that the rate of work, one movement in In variant 2 the athlete executes repetitions. For development of local endurance of the hip flexor muscles, an elementary pulley device, the schematic of which is shown in Fig.

Exercise for development of local muscular endurance of the hip flexor muscles.

Special Strength Training: A Coaches Manual

The thigh movement is executed in a forward movement with the effort emphasized at the initial site of the working range see Section 1. Hie rate of movement is repetitions in 10 seconds. There are 10 movements by one leg. In one series there are sets on each leg. In a training session there are series with a rest of minutes between them. Between sets the weight should be supported, to get instant relaxation of the muscles. The exercise is executed in all variants by the interval-serial method as described above.

The rate of movement should be gradually increased. Also effective are the following variants of resistance work executed in the "Xo refusal" method. See Section 1. Four sets are performed with increasing rest intervals between sets 10,15,20 minutes. Two series of sets are executed. The rest between series is minutes. Working with a weight that can be raised only 10 limes i. The work consists of sets and the order of work is as follows: Between two sets asing the same weight the rest pause is 1.

When there is a change in weight, the rest pause is 2 minutes. The last two sets are executed with assistance from a partner who helps slightly in overcoming the weight. Last for development of local endurance two variants of the complex method can be used.

Sec Section 1. Variant I I series. One of the following variants of work is executed. The work is performed for sets consisting of slow movements in each and with a rest period of minutes in between sets. The rest pause between the series is minutes. There arc 10 repetitions within the limits of 30 seconds, followed by rest for 1. Another 10 repetitions are done within a 20 second limit. This series is repeated times with a rest pause of minutes between series. The first of them is directed predominantly to an increase in the power of the anaerobic alactate mechanism of energy production.

A ten-fold jump from place with alternation of legs 2 on the right leg. An eight-fold jump from place from leg to leg: Six-fold jumps hops on one leg right and left. In a scries, one of these jumps is repeated times with an interval of seconds between them.

In series, the rest period is minutes in between. Ihe second variant is directed predominantly to increasing the capacity of the anaembic alactate mechanism of energy pnxiuction.

For this, any form of jump exercises is executed at a nuHlcrate intensity for seconds. In one series there arc sets with a rest of one minute in between. By definition, the concentrated stimuli of conjugate-sequence blocks are only effective if they are the primary stimuli.

While SST is intended for advanced athletes, the same advice is good for new lifters looking to pile on bands and rest-pause sets before they can hit a parallel squat with proper form.

Instead, the SST exercises should be sequenced in a way that builds up needed strength capacities while allowing the skills obtained to blend and augment each other. Verkhoshansky offers the following scheme for track jumpers: The transition from bounds to depth jumps would take place over a series of weeks.

A similar pattern can be seen in a sequence for training throwers: Followers of Westside programming will recognize the same basic elements of maximal, dynamic, and repetition methods. Your Cart You have no items in your shopping cart. New Items Strength Equipment. Brandon Patterson Apr 14, 6 minutes, 42 seconds. Loading Comments Sign up for the Latest News and Offers. Order Online or Call or All right reserved. We are not EliteFitness.