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Take me with you. Practical Research Methods. Normality of Data Examining the normality is used to find out whether the sample comes from the normal distribution in order that the sample can represent the population and it is used for all the equal population. Testing in Language Programs. Accessed on Tuesday, February 03rd
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Some of them which strongly recommeded are writing, marketing, stock trading, and online education. However we should be very careful because scamming opportunities are always there. To decide fable as teaching material to the students, the researcher uses syllabus and characteristics of good material to the students.
In addition, Tomlinson and Masuhara Educational Values In conducting the research, the researcher proposes educational values to teach the students in writing a summary especially fable text by using GIST strategy. As the educational values consisted of; polite, friendly, responsible, curiosity, discipline, toil, communicative, joy of reading and diligent.
Hence, when the researcher teaches the students in fable text by applying the procedure of GIST strategy in the classroom, the students feel so curious, communicative, polite, joy of reading and responsible in following the procedure of GIST strategy which is the students demonstrated their activities to learn, asked and responded the questions, translated the fable text, wrote their summarization by using their own words and the researcher controlled the students during the teaching-learning process.
If someone asks you about the book you are reading, you do not tell her or him about everything in the book. But, you explain the most important information of a text in a good summary. A summary is a way to sort out the main idea of a reading to its most important points. According to Holloway One of strategies for teaching students to summarize text effectively has been developed and explored.
Writing a summary by using GIST strategy needs the students to write the summary in words or less. The students must delete unimportant information, select key ideas and generalize in their own words. A summary reflect details of the whole content to short meaning. Therefore, summary has close relationship with GIST strategy because process to write a summary by using GIST strategy ensures the students able to comprehend and write fluency.
Of the latest related research, the researcher examined the effects of two summarization strategies on the reading comprehension and summary writing of fourth and fifth grade students in an urban, by using a quasi-experimental pretest and posttest design. Four intact classes participated in minute of lessons.
The results of the research suggest, as follows: Changes occurred in their knowledge of summary writing, the importance of summary writing and their personal attitudes toward summary writing. In relation to the research, the research has the same goal and method. The research from Braxton involves experimental group and control group and there is use of the text to help the students to comprehend and summarize the text.
Writing a summary is one of the elements of writing skill. In doing the treatment, the researcher teaches the students by using narrative text as material in the classroom. Therefore, in teaching narrative text the students must have the prior knowledge about narrative text. In the research, the researcher divides the students into two groups as the sample of the research, one group is experimental group and another is control group.
Before applying GIST strategy, the researcher does pretest and posttest to the students for the both groups. After that, the researcher applies the procedure of GIST strategy in experimental group by choosing three paragraph sections of a text, dividing the students into some groups, showing the class the first paragraph, instructing the students to read the paragraph silently, the students write a summary in words by using their own words and writing a class summary.
While in control group, the researcher applies the procedure of Conventional strategy which is usually used by the English teacher in the classroom. Design of the Research In conducting the research, the researcher uses Quantitative research method.
So, the research method is very suitable and useful in the teaching-learning process. According to Mills It is also known as ex-post facto or causal comparative research. Related to the both opinions, the researcher uses Quasi Experimental Type by using Pre-test and Post-Test with comparison group design.
The group consists of two, one is as experimental group and another is as control group. However, the researcher applies pre-test for both of the group. It is done before doing the treatment.
While after doing the treatment, the researcher applies post-test to know the result of the treatment. For more understanding, the research design can be shown in the table as in the next page. Sugiyono Variables of the Research There are two variables in the research. Population and Sample 1. Population A population is all members of well-defined class of people, events or objects.
The population of the research is the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 1 Gido that consists of students. The number of this population can be seen at the following table. Class Total 1. XI-IPA1 20 2. XI-IPA2 34 3.
XI-IPA3 34 4. XI-IPS2 33 6. XI-IPS3 35 7. Sample Sample is a portion of a population or part of the population which can describe the whole characteristics of the population.
Arikunto The sample should be representative. If the subject is less than , it is better for the researcher to take all of them so the research becomes population research. Since the population is more than and the school does not allow the researcher to select the students individually, so the researcher takes the sample randomly by using Cluster Sampling Technique. Ary Regarding to the opinion above, the researcher only takes the sample of the whole population at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 1 Gido.
The sample chosen is not an individual but a group of individual who are naturally together. In addition, Ary In short, all the members in the chosen classes must be the sample that represents other classes. The number of the sample can be seen at the following table. Class Number of Students 1. Experimental group 34 2.
Control group 34 Total 68 Source: Kind of Data and the Research Instrument The kind of data which is looked for in the research is quantitative data. To collect the required data the researcher applies the instrument is evaluation paper. It can be seen from the test given to the students.
There are two types of test, pre-test and post-test. Pre-test is given to the students before they get any treatment, while post-test is given to the students after they get a treatment.
The Procedures of Collecting the Data In collecting the data, the researcher follows the procedures as follows: Finding the location. Selecting the population. Preparing the lesson plans and the instrument of the collecting data. Conducting the pre-test for control and experimental groups to seek homogeneity and normality of the sample. Seeking the homogeneity of the sample by using the data of the pre-test.
If the sample is not homogenous, the researcher finds other classes, until both groups are homogenous. If the sample is homogenous, the researcher gives treatment for the experimental class, while the control class has no treatment.
Conducting the post-test to the students. Analyzing the result of the test by using t-test. Analyzing the data, getting finding and drawing conclusions. Techniques of Analyzing the Data 1.
Testing of Instruments a. Validity The validity refers to extend to which the result of an evaluation procedure serves the particular uses for which they are intended. In the research, the researcher uses internal validation by using validation sheet. The researcher asks one of the qualified lecturers and two English teachers to judge the validation based on the instruction stated in validation sheet.
The evaluators judged all the test items with the valid value. The content validity of the test refers to the extent to with it of the representative of the samples to the content area of the knowledge of writing a good summary.
Again, the researcher does not need to do external validation because the instrument is unnecessary to try out in another school. Kothari Therefore, in conducting the research the researcher only validates the instrument through judgments of validators. Reliability Reliability means the results of measurements which has been done by using test continued to the same subject.
And lastly, it is shown the same or stability result. To determine the reliability of the test, researcher applies inter-rater reliability that is a measure of reliability used to assess the degree to which different judges or raters agree in their assessment decision. Inter-rater reliability is useful because the researcher interprets unnecessarily answers the same way.
In addition, Arikunto On the contrary, a valid test must be reliable. Therefore, in the research, the instrument is stated reliable after judgment of validation sheet is stated valid.
Item Facility According to Brown It is a statistical index used to examine the percentage of the students answering a given item correctly.
The level of the item facility can be calculated as follows: Data Analysis a. Meanwhile, the mark can be obtained as follows: Normality of Data Examining the normality is used to find out whether the sample comes from the normal distribution in order that the sample can represent the population and it is used for all the equal population. To examine the normality, the researcher will use Liliefors formula defined by Sudjana Homogeneity of the Sample To find the homogeneity of the sample, the researcher uses the formula of Harley Test.
Irianto The Formula is: Mean To see the mean of the data, it is sought by using formula as Djiwandono Standard Deviation To see the standard deviation of the data, so it is counted by using formula of Djiwandono Examining Hypothesis Examining hypothesis, the researcher uses the formula by Sugiyono Research Findings 1.
Testing of Instrument a. Validity Based on the research design, the researcher prepared the instrument of collecting the data that was the test for writing a summary done by the sample of the research.
In the research, the researcher did not try out the test to find whether the test is valid to conduct in pre test and post test for both groups. But the researcher did internal validity to validate the instrument. Internal validity was the instruments used in the research measured what the researcher was supposed to measure.
The researcher asked one of the qualified lecturers in writing skill and two English teachers to judge the test. The validators judge the test item with the valid value. Reliability After the test was valid, the researcher examined the reliability of the test. Reliability of the test also was applied to individual measures. When the students took a writing summary test twice, their scores on the two occasions should have been very similar.
If so, the test can be described as reliable. In the research, the researcher applied inter-rater reliability that is a measure of reliability used to assess the degree to which different judges or raters agree in their assessment decision. Inter-rater reliability is useful because the researcher interpreted unnecessarily answers the same way.
Item Facility Item facility is used to find out the difficulty and easiness of items. In the research, to decide item facility the researcher needed judgment from validators when validated the instrument. Pre Test and Post Test Analysis In examining pre test and post test homogeneity, the researcher gave the pre test and post test for both groups.
Based on the appendices the researcher counted the mean score and standard deviation. While on Appendix 12 Table 12 , the mean score of post test in the control group was Based on Appendix 13 Table 13 , the mean score of pre test in experimental group was While on Appendix 14 Table 14 , the mean score of post test in the experimental group was Based on Appendix 13 Table 13 , it shows the standard deviation computation of the experimental group in the pre test was It can be concluded that both of the groups in the pre test were stated Homogenous.
It can be concluded that both of the groups in the post test were stated Homogenous. The Hypotheses Testing After getting the mean score, the standard deviation, the variance, the normality and the homogeneity, the researcher formulates the research hypotheses as follows: It means that tcount 2. So, it can be concluded that Ha is accepted and H0 is rejected. Discussions 1. Afterwards, when comparing to the post test result of the control group after applying Conventional strategy, it shows that the result of the experimental group was higher than the control group.
Through this strategy, the students can write a good summary especially in fable text. The Analysis and Interpretation of Research Findings After doing the teaching-learning process in the both groups, the experimental group and the control group, the researcher asked the students to comprehend the text and write a good summary based on the text taught. Then, the researcher gave the post test to the students to investigate whether there is a significant effect or no.
The mean of the post test was higher than the mean of the pre test. Then the researcher applied Conventional Strategy to help the students in writing a summary especially fable text. After that, the researcher gave the post test to the students. In essence, the students comprehended the narrative text well and the structure of summarizing through GIST strategy.
They wrote a good summary based on the fable text by using their own words and considered good summary characteristics. Regarding to the analysis and interpretation of research findings, the sixth of the identifications of the problem in the research had been overcome.
As the conclusion, GIST Strategy can help the students in writing a good summary especially fable text. Her research had a different location of the research, level of the students to be investigated, the year of the research, the material and the kind of the research. The Qualitative Reading Inventory - 4 was the measure used to determine the effects of the summarization instruction on the expository reading comprehension of fourth- and fifth-grade students.
The researcher applied the strategy when teaching writing a summary with narrative text especially fable as the material. During pre test, the students were low to comprehend the text and difficult to summarize the text. Therefore, it can be concluded that the research is emphasizing and contributing a new view all at once the research before by using GIST Strategy only. So, this strategy is appropriate in the teaching-learning process to make the students write a good summary of fable text.
The Research Findings versus Theories After getting the result of the research, the researcher compares it with the theory written by the experts. In contrast to the theory written by Forget Briefly, the theory expects the researcher to teach the students by achieving the advantages of GIST strategy procedure in writing a summary but in fact, the researcher did not achieve yet when taught the students in writing a summary of a text.
The Research Findings Implication In line with the research findings, the researcher states some implication of the research, as follows: The researcher felt comfortable when teaching the students in writing a summary by using GIST strategy. The students curious to know the translation of the text in a dictionary. The structure of summarizing can be identified. GIST strategy solved the identification of the problem in the research. The Minimum Competence Criterion had been achieved by the students.
GIST strategy is proposed as procedure to write a good summary of the text the readers have read. The Analysis of the Research Findings Limitation In conducting the research, there is some limitation that should be considered, as follows: The schedule of teaching was very rushed, many students come in and out classroom to join the other activities. Some of the students disturbed their other friends when comprehended and asked about summarization. The students felt uncomfortable when the English teacher sat beside them while the researcher asked the students to convey their opinion about summarization.
The subject of the research was the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 1 Gido which consisted of students with 7 classes. This population was very large, so the research limited the population by taking only two classes as the sample. One class was the experimental class which consisted of 34 students and one class was the control class which consisted of 34 students also. In the research findings, the variable was specified to the fable text as material of narrative text.
The result of the research was no constant result through the other kind of texts because it was only searched in the classroom with certain time allocation. Conclusions After analyzing the data as presented in the previous chapter, the researcher takes some conclusions as follows: Writing a summary is very important for the students in comprehending text and learning writing especially to achieve learning purpose.
Based on the result of examining the hypothesis, it is found that tcount 2. So, Ha is accepted and H0 is rejected. Suggestions In order to be successful in teaching writing a summary, the researcher gives some suggestions as follows: The English teacher should teach in a week spanning a semester about summarization lesson use GIST strategy. The next researchers can also extend the findings into the other content areas such as science, history, or health by conduct the procedure of GIST Generating Interactions between Schemata and Text especially at the eleventh grade of SMA Negeri 1 Gido.
Fundamentals of Educational Research.
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Ministry of National Educational: Blaxter, Hughes and Tight, How to Research. OZ Graf S. Blessing, T. Verlag London Limited: Bowker, Dr Natilene, Student Life Palmerston North: Massey University. Braxton, M. Diane, University of Maryland: College Park.
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Holt, Rinehart and Winston: Huck, W. Schuyler, Reading Statistics and Research. Irianto, Agus, H, Statistik Konsep Dasar dan Aplikasinya. Jamieson, Sandra, Writing a Summary. Accessed on Thursday, March 12nd King, Stephen, On Writing. Kitao, Kenji, Accessed on Saturday, April 18th Kothari, C. R, Research Methodology.
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Geoffery, Action Research. Pearson Education: Nation, ISP, Routledge Madison Ave: Writing and Spelling Strategies. Rachmajanti, Sri, Sulistyo, H. Gunadi, Ramazani, The Process of Writing a Summary.
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Sudjana, Metode Statistika. Tomlinson and Masuhara, Developing Language Course Materials. Pendidikan, Statistika, Uji Validitas dan Reliabilitas. Penyusun, Tim, Gunungsitoli unpublished Penyusun, Tim, Peterson and friends, Building Reading Proficiency at the Secondary Level. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory: USA Oxford, Oxford University Press: Teaching Writing in the Content Areas.
Weigle, C. Sara, Assessing Writing. Yount, Rick, Populations and Sampling. Zemach, E. Dorothy, Rumisek, A. Lisa, Accessed on Tuesday, February 03rd Accessed on Wednesday, January 04th Accessed on Tuesday, January 13rd Fall Mengung- kapkan a toleransi, keteguhan kan sebuah kan tata ing English kapkan makna paragraph disiplin, kerja hati, optimis. Writing Narrative Texts Sub topic: Writing a Summary of a Fable Text Skill: Writing A. Competence Standard Expressing the meaning of a short functional text and essay in narrative, spoof and hortatory exposition form in daily life context and for searching science.
Basic Competence Expressing the meaning and rhetorical in essay by using various written text in accurate, fluent and acceptable in everyday life context in a text form of narrative, spoof and hortatory exposition. Indicators The students summarize a narrative text.
Expected Characters: Teching-Learrning Activities No. Teaching-Learning Activities Characters 1. The researcher enters the classroom. Polite b. The researcher greets the students and asks about their Friendly condition. The researcher introduces herself to the students.
Friendly d. The researcher checks the attendance of students. Friendly Apperception a. The researcher introduces the material to the students. Responsible b. The researcher gives few questions to the students about the Curiosity material.
Motivation a. The researcher explains the benefit about the material. The researcher motivates students to learn about the material. Discipline Guidance a. The researcher explains the implementation of the material in the teaching-learning process. Toil b. The researcher divides the students into cooperative groups. The researcher gives the pre-test for the students.
Toil 2. The researcher shows the example of the narrative text. Communicative Elaboration a. The researcher chooses three or five paragraph sections from a Discipline text. The researcher writes the first paragraph on the white board. The researcher instructs the students to read the paragraph Joy of Reading silently. The researcher writes a good summary of the first paragraph as a guideline to the students in their summarization by filling Discipline 20 words or less the blank on the white board.
The researcher instructs each student to write a good summary of the next paragraph in words or less by using their own Communicative words. The researcher asks the students difficulties. The researcher asks the students to share their summaries in Diligent group members and write a group summary based on all their ideas. Friendly h. The researcher controls the students while discussing the narrative text in group.
Dilligent i. The researcher asks the students to write a class summary. The researcher instructs the students to repeat step c-i with the second paragraph but summary must include information from the first paragraph and only be 20 words or less.
The researcher instructs the students to repeat step j with the next few paragraphs. The students must end up with 25 word Diligent summary of the entire passage at the end. Confirmation a. The researcher clarifies the main idea from the narrative text.
Diligent c. The researcher gives the post test to the students. The researcher gives suggestion and motivates the students to Dilligent study better.
The researcher tells the assignment to the students. Friendly c. The researcher closes the class. Friendly H. Braxton Pendidikan Jasmani, Olahraga 2 2 dan Kesehatan Teknologi Informasi dan 2 2 Komunikasi Muatan Lokal 2 2 C. Kurikulum tersebut secara berturut-turut disajikan pada Tabel 5, 6, 7, dan 8. Muatan lokal merupakan kegiatan kurikuler untuk mengembangkan kompetensi yang disesuaikan dengan ciri khas dan potensi daerah, termasuk keunggulan daerah, yang materinya tidak dapat dikelompokkan ke dalam mata pelajaran yang ada.
Substansi muatan lokal ditentukan oleh satuan pendidikan. Bahasa Indonesia 4 4 4 4 4. Matematika 3 3 3 3 6. Satuan pendidikan dimungkinkan menambah maksimum empat jam pembelajaran per minggu secara keseluruhan.
Pengembangan diri bukan merupakan mata pelajaran yang harus diasuh oleh guru. Sejarah 3 3 3 3 7. Pendidikan Agama 2 2 2 2 2. Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan 4 4 4 4 3. Ekonomi 3 3 3 3 9. Kegiatan pengembangan diri dilakukan melalui kegiatan pelayanan konseling yang berkenaan dengan masalah diri pribadi dan kehidupan sosial. Geografi 4 4 4 4 8. Sosiologi 2 2 2 2 Pengembangan diri bertujuan memberikan kesempatan kepada peserta didik untuk mengembangkan dan mengekspresikan diri sesuai dengan kebutuhan.
Kegiatan pengembangan diri difasilitasi dan atau dibimbing oleh konselor. Seni Budaya. Mata Pelajaran 2 2 2 2 1. Bahasa Inggris 4 4 4 4 5. Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi 2 2 2 2 Muatan Lokal 2 2 2 2 C. Pendidikan Jasmani. Olahraga dan Kesehatan 2 2 2 2 Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. The Unwinding: