LESSON 1. FAITH. 1. Definition of faith. 2. Basic principles of faith. 3. The fruits of faith. Basic principles of faith. 1. Faith in Allah. (Tauheed / oneness of Allah). 2. Islamiat - ISL VU Video Lectures, Handouts, Power Point Slides, Solved Assignments, Solved Quizzes, Past Papers and Recommended Books. Link to this post 22 Nov Download VU Islamic Studies - ISL Handouts. Islamic Studies - ISL homeranking.info VUTube. Administrator.
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Islamic Studies (ISL). Handouts (pdf) / Powerpoint Slides (PPTs). Handouts / Power Point Slides. Lessons () (pdf Format) · Power Point Slide (1). Course. Islamic Studies – ISL VU. © Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan. 1. LESSON 1. FAITH. 1. Definition of faith. 2. Basic principles of faith. 3. The fruits of faith. ISL - Islamic Studies Complete Handouts. Identifier ISLIslamicStudiesCompleteHandouts. Identifier-arkark://t4rk0rw5r. Ocr ABBYY.
Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color. By carrying them out the worshipper pays tribute to these qualities of the Divine. I try to be extremely patient with them regardless of the harms, inconsiderateness and troubles they cause to me. Many Muslims, unfortunately do not care to be kind to their relatives are poor and needy, nor by social relations or even any other help that they may be able to render at no cost. Woo hoo!
Then he said: Collect some dry wood. It is related on the authority of the fourth Rightly guided Khalifa. In reply. After they had set out. This leads us then. Imams Bukhari and Muslim related it. On the other hand. He said to them. So if any one of them does anything addressed by such regulation or decisions will not be obligated to obey or comply.
The narrator said. Khalifa Abu Bakr proclaimed his principle in his first address after becoming Khalifa. Allah said. If the Islamic state is responsible for the preservation of its legitimacy. All of the rightly guided Khalifa and the just Imams after him followed the same principle of the Shariah which has come to be known through an aggregate of Shariah texts which taken collectively. The undertaking by the Islamic state of this executive function is. If you had stepped into it. It could.
Should the apparently good deeds and morals be bereft of the spirit of sincerity and soundness of intention and prompted by any other urge. It will be unnecessary to go over it here. And the full display of His Mercy and Benevolence will take place in the Hereafter. Actions are but judged according to the intentions. Is it not to Allah that sincere devotion is due? He only accepts the deeds of bondsmen who perform good and virtuous acts for His sake and confers His blessings on then.
Suppose anyone serves us devotedly and does all sorts of things for our comfort. This motive must not be contaminated with personal motives of gain or the pleasure of others. The motive must be only the Proximity and pleasure of Allah.
To put it differently. The same is the case with Allah with the added difference that while we do not know what in hidden in the hearts.
Allah in presents everywhere. On the contrary. What Ikhlaas and Lillahiyat denote. Of fundamental significance. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies The benefits of Ikhlaas No matter what type of righteousness an act may be and no matter how little it may be. A lesser degree of Ikhlaas is that the act is rendered to please people but it was not motivated by any desire for worldly gain.
Thawaab will increase in proportion to the degree of Ikhlaas. Allah judges and requires only on the basis of our motives and intentions. This too is Ikhlaas. The motive was merely to please others.
The third degree of Ikhlaas is to render an act without having any motive. The motive is neither the Deen not the world. Their reward is in terms of their sincerity and love. The secret is the degree of Ikhlaas. The Ikhlaas in the sahaabah is far superior to the Ikhlaas in others. In the Quran. These are the ready. A person with good morals will not only lead a happy and peaceful life himself. According to the experts. Moral reform and uplift occupies a place of highest importance in the aim and design of sanctification.
The sequel of noble morals. As saying by Imam Gazali the meaning of ethics Morality is: There is a define relationship between belief and manners. All the messenger prophets are only reflection of his light. He will possess the comeliest face and his character will be of the highest standard. May Allah bless him. Belief is the spirit and the driving force for every deed and every piety.
He who has a perfect belief definitely has very good manners. On the same basis. It must be understood that without belief.
So praise be to Allah. Allah the most High had endowed him with all the knowledge of the ancient and later peoples. To comprehend and to describe all these noble qualities and merits. According to a tradition. He was the most honorable. We agreed under coercion. Keep your word. Keeping His Word On the occasion of the battle of Badr the number of the Muslims was very small and they stood in need of every hand they could muster.
Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies and affliction. The unbelievers had captured us on the way and have released us on the condition that we do not fight on your side. We are just coming from Mecca. Would that you had cursed them.
We Muslims will keep our word in all circumstances. As y money fell short I requested him to wait at the spot. Show my people the right path. He only said. And Allah knows the deeds that ye do. Technical meaning of worship for the very respect of anyone take choice of deep kindness with whole heartedly is called obedience. Just as in the sphere of belief the fundamental articles of faith command the highest preference in the Shariat worship is of the super most importance because it is through it that the relationship between God and His creatures finds its most candid and intimate expression.
These later ones. Worship in Islam denotes acts a person performs solely with the object of paying his humble homage to the Glory and Magi helplessness. The teachings of the first group we have discussed already and now we will address ourselves to those of the second. Meaning and Islamic theory As we said in the beginning the religious teachings the Prophet brought into the world from God fall into two categories one appertaining to belief and ideology and the other to morality and action.
A worthless. Will ye not fear Allah? A Tradition has it that. We sent Hood. It is true that there can. It is obvious that our prayers and other devotional performances do no good to God. It extends staring from the one to the other. This is what brings man closer to God an makes him His beloved.
We have been commanded to it by God so that we may thereby strengthen our awareness of Him and make ourselves worthy of His special grace. Our worship in short. Worship Allah! One is the Mighty Creator and ht supreme Owner of the heavens and the earth. Worship is the medium of contact between the worshipper and the worshipped. Zakat and Hajj: These items are included among the basic fundamentals of Islam and are of exceptional importance to the religion.
The value of an article depends on the need it serves. Roza 3. Further some forms of worship are representative in particular of the Sovereignty and the Omnipotent Power of God. This will also explain the numerous conditions that are attached to it e. So is Namaz pre —eminent because it plays the most effective role in the realization of the objectives associated with worship. W have taught us. Among them the most outstanding is the Namaz. The dignified. Zakat 4.
Hajj After this general discussion on faith. The fasts offer an excellent expression to this side of relationship between man and his Creator by calling upon him to shun food and drink in the style of a dejected love. And then there are other forms that are related more specially to the lovable adorable aspect of divinity. The price of a motor car is judged not by its color or shape but by the capacity to fulfill the purpose for which it is meants.
Namaz Definition of Namaz Salah. By carrying them out the worshipper pays tribute to these qualities of the Divine. These are the pillars on which the whole edifice of faith is raised. Zakat is a classical instance. Namaz 2. They serve to symbolize the deep love and devotion of the adorer for the Adored.
Namaz is comprehensive of both of these aspects.. It is a patent fact that. Zakat Definition of Zakat Zakat is the name given in Islam to that portion of money or wealth which.
Yet universal as the indifference of Muslims to their religion has come to be no where it is more evident than in this particular sphere. When after the death of the Prophet some of the Arab tribes refused to pay the Zakat. After the Namaz.
It is Namaz alone which unites in itself so successfully the two seemingly apposite aspects. The manner in which the virtues of spending in the way of god are extolled in the Quran and the various styles of expressions that have been employed for the purpose go to confirm that it is an indispensable constituent of faith.
How will it then be possible to live in the heaven. It is the house of recompense. In the Quran Zakat is often mentioned simultaneously with Namaz which shows that it is almost equal to the latter in importance in the Islamic organic station of worship. Why should Namaz be there then.
The tranquility and joy which people whose Name is a real. Bring me comfort O Bilal! Conveys this truth and. Namaz is the balm for the aching beards. O Bilal! Bring comfort to my heart s soothe the agony that is rising with in is by giving the call to prayer. It is reported that one day Hazrat Abdul Wahid Lahori. Will there be Namaz in the heaven. In other words. A Zakat that is paid in an off-hand manner.
Some of the ways of vesting the Zakat with a greater inner content can be: In its form it portrays the complete submission of man to his Master. The heaven is not the house of action. The basic function of Zakat is the same as the of any other form of worship It is the seeking of God. And this fact. It has been remarked by Hazrat Mujaddid Alf-Sani in one of his letters that.
Zakat is a means for breaking the force an the malignancy of the malady of lust for wealth. When Zakat is a fundamental obligation like the Namaz. The distinctive merit of the Namaz. The Hajj. I will certainly say that when. The sins emanations from the mouth are particularly to be guarded against. The result is that they gain nothing from it.
He should give a practical proof of his attachment to the path of that true friend. I shall dwell no further on the essential beauty and richness of the Hajj because these can be understood properly only when one experiences them personally during the course of the pilgrimage. The third practical plank is the Roza or the fast.
It is not that a pilgrim is not allowed to furnish himself with material necessities before he sets out for the pilgrimage—within a proper limit it is essential to do so—. During the fast a person forges a special link with the Celestial World by crushing down the animal appetites. It is a most excellent means for the development of the celestial element in our nature. Zikr and Tilawat. Hajj Concept of Hajj There exists a special relationship.
Arabic equivalents for fasting are Saum and Siam. Sadly enough. What is required for this. This much. The first thing in this regard is to leave all sinful conduct strictly alone. And the idea underlying its ordainment is that every Muslim who can afford to undertake the pilgrimage should. If the Zakat begins to be paid in the manner and spirit indicated above. Roza Definition of Fasting Roza Fasting means willing abstention from eating.
He is watching this act of mine. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies Third. It follows. The breaking of the fast is known as If tar. It purges the self and is especially beneficial for cultivating Divine virtues like contentment. Knowledge may also be acquired through reading and writing. They acquired all their knowledge in this manner. After this brief introduction.
The real equipment lies in getting oneself ready with all the information needed for the carrying out of the duty and in the acquirement of that inner fitness which enable one to receive the rich spiritual benefits accruing from it. It is one of the signs of the mercy Allah extends to the human race that he has taught us how to acquire knowledge in various fields and has provided us with the means to do so. They received it through companionship and hearing. The first obligation on man. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies things do not make the real equipment for the Hajj.
What happens if Knowledge is Devoid of Faith? One can only realize the impact of knowledge on human life. As for those people who use this sacred legacy of the Prophets for wrong ends.
We seek refuge in Allah from the mischief of our souls and from our evil deeds. The learning and teaching may be accomplished by oral conversation and observation as the companions did in the times of the Prophet and the immediate years after his death. He also said that neglect in this regard and carelessness was a punishable crime. This had become the method of imparting knowledge in times thereafter.
This knowledge is a legacy of the Prophets. Books were read and prescribed. Allah has given us hearing that allows us to listen to scientific information and to learn. The entire edifice of religion depends on this knowledge. All creatures. One who is more knowing. An important fact that the Noble Qur'an draws to our attention. Allah taught people how to find their way to Him.
The Qur'an says that knowledge should be derived from those who have it. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies "Allah has delivered you out of your mothers' wombs without knowledge of anything. Nobody can encompass all knowledge. The rationale behind giving them such full control is that it serves as the means to arrive at the great objective that leads to Allah's pleasure and Paradise.
In response. Allah has also put the Earth and all that it bears and contains at the disposal of human beings. He has sent them Messengers inspired with Books. Allah inspired His Prophet with the verse that says.
It includes both the knowledge that brings benefit in this world and that which brings benefit in the Hereafter. When the polytheists of Makkah declared their unwillingness to acknowledge that Muhammad.
Knowledge is a great ocean that is bound by no shores. He says. He has provided them with the means to benefit from it. This was an invitation to the people of Quraish. How can these groups be rescued out of their polytheistic beliefs and guided to the worship of Allah alone without being taught the truth about this world.
Proponents of this culture. Such knowledge makes people too vain to admit the truth. It does not accommodate any belief in the Hereafter And does not accept any belief in the unseen world. This implies that the Islamic nation has a great responsibility.
Qaroon is an example of such people. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies "Indeed most of them know not the truth and therefore turn away. What they lack in true knowledge makes them ignorant of the truth about the Hereafter. These believe that there is no God and that matter is the essence of life.
Allah tells us stories of past nations that acquired a great share of knowledge. In their ignorance. It is a culture that supports construction and endeavors on earth. Today's culture is described as scientific but secular. The same is true about those who worship matter or the human intellect. Ambitions to rule and control the world have made knowledge destructive.
People are unanimous that simple life brings more happiness than material life with all its complications. Human beings have lost control of the branches of knowledge they had acquired. Will they then allow their secular knowledge and worldly sciences to be tempered by belief in the unknown and in the life after this life?.
It has been observed by many that the more advanced man gets in his secular knowledge. Science and knowledge are responsible for the pollution of seas and rivers and for the transformation of plants and trees. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies "Know what is apparent of life on earth and are unaware of the Hereafter. Physical science enabled scientists to make atomic. A question could be raised at this point: Has this kind of culture. Obscenities and pornography are aired on television.
Yet the bombs have been. Worse than that. Fruits and vegetables have become tasteless. The answer is negative. Knowledge has been used to promote immorality. In all this. The same thing is true of the experts who make rockets to carry such bombs. All these things have a predestined duration in this world and on the Day of Judgment we will all be faced with our decisions in this life. They are forever seeking new ways to stimulate desires.
People have been very innovative. We know that this noble action has attached to it many rewards as the Messenger of Allah informed us that for the seeker of knowledge ". Imam al-Aajurree d. Another benefit of seeking knowledge of Islam is that it will. It is certainly more difficult to achieve as the scholars of the past..
A Muslim cannot remain in a state of doubt and confusion about how to worship Allah. And it is only when one has removed ignorance from oneself that one can help lift the veil of ignorance that also prevents others from the true worship of their Lord. Every deed and saying has behind it an intention. But before actually seeking and acquiring this knowledge we must find out the intentions behind it.
Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies Also acquiring sound knowledge of Islam enables one to counter the attacks upon it from disbelievers and innovators and all others whose wish is to either destroy or corrupt it. Knowledge of Islam is sought to teach our selves and others. It will be said: What have you done by it? To make this is easier for us. Then he will be commanded and would be dragged on his face until he is thrown into the Fire.
Allah properly and being able to defend the religion. So let us be careful and anxious about why we are seeking knowledge of Islam and ask Allah to save us from being included with the likes of the first to be judged by Him on the Day of Judgment. W Many actions can be and are done for the purely worldly gains. We should be fearful of not falling into this category. He will come with it and favors to him will be made known to him and he will recognize it.
There are then. To seek the pleasure and reward of Allah should be our sole aim. Warnings from the Prophet S. As we know.. Whosoever does so. And as some of the scholars of the past used to say: Rather you studied the knowledge so that it would be said of you: So equipped with certain knowledge one can be in a better position to defend the religion.
We must therefore constantly check our intentions to ensure sincerity and purity of action. Shaitaan is also constantly at work trying to ruin our good deeds in whichever way he can. Ptolemy's Almagest the title as we know it is Arabic was translated.
Who created. Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis. Scholars have the highest status in Islam. Centuries before the European Renaissance there were Muslim "Renaissance" men.
Muslims have always had a special interest in astronomy. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies Islam urges people to read and learn on every occasion. The verses of the Qur'an command. Many new stars were discovered. By the sun the Muslims calculate the times for prayer and fasting.
Almost from the very beginnings of the Islamic state Muslims began to study and to master a number of fields of so-called secular learning. W showed how much Islam cares about knowledge. The most precise solar calendar.
The first revelation to Muhammad S. The Qur'an contains many references to astronomy. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it by God and never digresses..
Muslims determine the beginning and the end of the months in their lunar calendar. Before long they were criticizing. By the moon. The moon and the sun are of vital importance in the daily life of every Muslim. They translated and synthesized the known works of the ancient world. It is also by means of astronomy that Muslims can determine the precise direction of the Kiblah.
Muslims are urged to look into everything in the universe. They integrated the earlier works of the Indians. Umar Khayyam. Muslims were also used to taking long journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars.
Al-Zaytunah in Tunis. Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color. The astrolabe. Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. It was. The main sources of Islam. Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim. Even the familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar University.
Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Kiblah the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah in order to pray five times a day. Muslims were therefore eager to seek knowledge. The works of Aristotle. Many scientific and medical treatises. Other terms from Arabic are zenith. The far-flung Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories.
Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic universities. It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. The Qur'an encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's signs and patterns every where. In Also compiled were almanacs. Among the most famous names in the field of geography.
Muslims made great advances in many different fields. Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilizations from Greece and Rome to China and India. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies Astronomical tables were compiled. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative ideas. Concession Kitab al-Tasrif. Al-Khawarizmi's work. The first hospital was built in Baghdad in AC.
Ibn Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East. He also said. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals.
The first great Muslim mathematician. This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very quickly. Khalaf Abul-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name. The Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile hospitals. Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb.
Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry. Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students understand how the body functions. Since the religion did not forbid it. How it functions.
Ibn Sina d. The Muslims invented the symbol for zero The word "cipher" comes from Arabic sifr. Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your diseases". Much attention was given to medicine and public health care. When the antidote is applied. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygiene practiced in them. He also wrote a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. His famous book.
Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was unrivaled as a diagnostician.
Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number theory. After it. The question of the rights of man is more important is the sense that if we disregard them. Family Basic Factors of Society 1. It tells what the claim of Allah is upon the bondsmen and what are the duties of the bondsmen in that regard.
Such of the teachings and exhortations of the Prophet can. How is a man to fulfill his social responsibilities an act towards all individuals an groups or any other creature with whom he may come into contact in the different walks of his life? Some of the moral teachings of the Prophet. It is mentioned in Bukhari.. The second part consists of the teachings appertaining to the rights of man on each other.
Ranks Tabaqat 4. Get Benefits 2. Persons Individuals 2. Whoever may have done an injustice to a brother of defamed him or transgressed against his rights in any other way should set right the affair whit him on this very day. Ranks Tabaqat 3.
Avoidance from loss 3. Some of the moral precepts of the sacred prophet. Family and Tribe 2. Bayhaqi has quoted. The first part is related to the Rights of Allah. Creator and Provider. His attributes and His deeds. How are we to behave towards our servants and subordinates.
This department of Faith is known. Every blessing deserves thanks. Among the most important of which are the following: The rights of Allah: The blessings of Allah to His slaves are innumerable.
What are the rights of relatives. The rights of Allah upon His slaves are many. So all kinds of worship should be devoted to Him alone.
Zikr remembering Allah. His names. Again what formals and manners ought to be observed in social intercourse. So we should believe that Allah alone is the Lord. One which will never be forgiven. As for instance. Belonging to one group are the sayings that deal with the rules and proprieties of social behavior. And that you be dutiful to your parents. The rights of the Messenger S. A man came to the Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and said.
Islam pays special attention to the family and encourages love and respect within it. W The sending of the Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him is a great blessing for all of mankind. Among the rights that the Messenger has over us are that we should love him.
Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies Interpretation of the meaning: I will remember you. Shukr gratitude. The parents are the basis and foundation of the family.
Allah sent him to bring mankind forth from darkness into light. Loving him peace and blessings of Allah be upon him is achieved by obeying his commands and believing what he told us.
Such levels are hinged upon close relationships of the individual. This is a matter that has its own merits based on religious teachings. Believing Muslim individuals who are committed to Islam and its sound.
RAA narrated of Allah's messenger. All are urged to support relatives in every possible way and by every affordable means whether physical. Do not accept that I Myself will befriend whoever befriends you the womb.
This is the place of one who seeks refuge with you boycott and being banned or excommunicated. Mohammed bin Abdullah. The amount of support is proportional to the status or level of relationship of the relative. Upon finishing his creation. Many statements support this fact from both the Glorious Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet of Islam. Sound social ties. Abu Huraira.
Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies who? Each relatives has a certain level of rights according to the Islamic teachings. This on the other hand reflects to what extent Islam agrees with the pure. It is. PBUH said: Establishing such rights by Allah.
It is unfortunate to notice that many people neglect such important social rights and religious obligations. It coincides with the basic requirements of man in his social life. These include love. Some people. The Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be upon him said: Allah's Apostle. At times you may find a person. Many Muslims.
Allah has prescribed rights. I try to be extremely patient with them regardless of the harms. One definitely grows socially. Man is weak without the support of his immediate family members or the moral support of his extended family members. In order to preserve this building and this brotherhood. The rights of one Muslim over another: The believers are brothers and are an integrated nation. Such are the men whom God has cursed for He has made them deaf and blinded their sight.
Such a person in reality is not doing what he is doing for the fulfillment of the commands of Allah. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies the ties and relationships of the womb. What should I do in such a case? PBUH who said: PBUH also is reported to say: These rights also include returning greetings of salaam. Islam agrees with the norms of life. Such a relationships will produce a close-knit society.
A good person is the one who does good to his relatives even if they do not do that to him. A true good person is the one who establish good rapport with his relatives for the noble cause of the pleasure of Allah. They treat one another with mercy and compassion.
And I shall discontinue My relations and ban who ban you?! Such an act is applicable to relatives. If the only thing man gets from such a noble social act is the pleasure of Allah. I have some relatives whom I visit. Allah's messenger. Islam pays attention to the issue of neighbors.
Al-Masaakeen the poor. The Messenger peace and blessings of Allah be upon him explained that this would lead to being deprived of Paradise: Among the rights of one neighbor over another as affirmed by Islam are the initiation of greetings.
Narrated by Muslim. Islam gives rights to the ruler over his subjects and to the subjects over their ruler. Virtual Uinversity Islamic Studies the greeting of salaam. In order to achieve the common interest. As a little reflection will show. The Believers. In our own country. If the two Muslims who meet are already acquainted with each other and there exists a bond of friendship.
As—salaam—o—Aliaika Aiyyuhan—Nabi peace be with thee. Among the Arabs. Al safat. Similarly in the Hereafter at the time of entry into Heaven Believers will be received with these words: Enter them in peace.
Peace be unto Noh among the people Al safat. Imran Ibn Hussein. Al Hijr Al Safat. It makes an excellent and most comprehensive prayer for the occasion. It is stated in Sunnah Abi Dawood.
O Prophet And the Prophet is told that when those who believed in the Divine Revelations come to him. Good morning. For those who are younger to us in age. As- salaam—u-Alaikum.
Among the Christians. Peace be unto you your Lord has prescribed for Himself mercy. My Allah bestow peace and security on your. The Angel of Allah records. To seek reputation through oratory. Always be brief and to the point in your talk. They ought not speak in delicate. Always say what is just and fair regardless of any loss of yourself. Do not make false promises. Do not keep your voice so low as to be inaudible to the addressee. If the impudent with to entangle you in dialogue or altercation offer them 'Salaam' politely and leave them.
Do not complain against others. Avoid swearing frequently. Do not speak ill of others. Never indulge in mimicking others to ridicule them. Never laugh at others. Wear a smile on your face and a sweet tone in your speech. Do not interrupt and interfere in others' conversation without their permission. If the addressee cannot hear or is unable to catch your meaning. MCM - Introduction to Broadcasting.
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