PDF | On Oct 1, , David M. Newbery and others published Acid Rain. Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by Robert Angus. Smith, a pharmacist from Manchester (England), who measured high levels of acidity in rain. Acid Rain. Causes, Effects, and Control. J. Laurence Kulp. Concern in the scientific community about the effects of acid rain from industrial sources began to.
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streams, lakes and ponds - abound in Newfoundland and Labrador. Some of them are more seriously affected than others by acid rain. The ability of a body of . establishes the Acid Rain Program using a market-based approach to reduce SO2 from power plants by more than 50 percent. EPA publishes acid rain. PDF | Acid rain is one of the major environmental threats since 19th century. This paper reviews the progress report of US EPA () and summarizes the.
Namespaces Article Talk. Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic, and those with a pH greater than 7 are alkaline. Acid rain does not directly affect human health. Authority control GND: In the past, factories had short funnels to let out smoke but this caused many problems locally; thus, factories now have taller smoke funnels. Archived from the original on April 17, Renewable Resources Journal.
The principal cause of acid rain is sulfur and nitrogen compounds from human sources, such as electricity generation , factories, and motor vehicles. Electrical power generation using coal is among the greatest contributors to gaseous pollution responsible for acidic rain. The gases can be carried hundreds of kilometers in the atmosphere before they are converted to acids and deposited. In the past, factories had short funnels to let out smoke but this caused many problems locally; thus, factories now have taller smoke funnels.
However, dispersal from these taller stacks causes pollutants to be carried farther, causing widespread ecological damage. Combustion of fuels produces sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides. They are converted into sulfuric acid and nitric acid. In the gas phase sulfur dioxide is oxidized by reaction with the hydroxyl radical via an intermolecular reaction: In the presence of water, sulfur trioxide SO 3 is converted rapidly to sulfuric acid:. Nitrogen dioxide reacts with OH to form nitric acid:.
When clouds are present, the loss rate of SO 2 is faster than can be explained by gas phase chemistry alone. This is due to reactions in the liquid water droplets. Sulfur dioxide dissolves in water and then, like carbon dioxide, hydrolyses in a series of equilibrium reactions:. There are a large number of aqueous reactions that oxidize sulfur from S IV to S VI , leading to the formation of sulfuric acid.
The most important oxidation reactions are with ozone , hydrogen peroxide and oxygen reactions with oxygen are catalyzed by iron and manganese in the cloud droplets.
Wet deposition of acids occurs when any form of precipitation rain, snow, and so on. This can result from the deposition of acids produced in the raindrops see aqueous phase chemistry above or by the precipitation removing the acids either in clouds or below clouds. Wet removal of both gases and aerosols are both of importance for wet deposition.
Acid deposition also occurs via dry deposition in the absence of precipitation. Acid rain has been shown to have adverse impacts on forests, freshwaters and soils, killing insect and aquatic life-forms as well as causing damage to buildings and having impacts on human health.
Both the lower pH and higher aluminium concentrations in surface water that occur as a result of acid rain can cause damage to fish and other aquatic animals.
At pH lower than 5 most fish eggs will not hatch and lower pH can kill adult fish. As lakes and rivers become more acidic biodiversity is reduced. Acid rain has eliminated insect life and some fish species, including the brook trout in some lakes, streams, and creeks in geographically sensitive areas, such as the Adirondack Mountains of the United States.
Soil biology and chemistry can be seriously damaged by acid rain. Some microbes are unable to tolerate changes to low pH and are killed. The hydronium ions of acid rain also mobilize toxins , such as aluminium, and leach away essential nutrients and minerals such as magnesium.
Soil chemistry can be dramatically changed when base cations, such as calcium and magnesium, are leached by acid rain thereby affecting sensitive species, such as sugar maple Acer saccharum. Adverse effects may be indirectly related to acid rain, like the acid's effects on soil see above or high concentration of gaseous precursors to acid rain.
High altitude forests are especially vulnerable as they are often surrounded by clouds and fog which are more acidic than rain. Other plants can also be damaged by acid rain, but the effect on food crops is minimized by the application of lime and fertilizers to replace lost nutrients.
In cultivated areas, limestone may also be added to increase the ability of the soil to keep the pH stable, but this tactic is largely unusable in the case of wilderness lands. When calcium is leached from the needles of red spruce, these trees become less cold tolerant and exhibit winter injury and even death. Acid rain has a much less harmful effect on the oceans. Acid rain can cause the ocean's pH to fall, making it more difficult for different coastal species to create their exoskeletons that they need to survive.
These coastal species link together as part of the ocean's food chain and without them being a source for other marine life to feed off of more marine life will die.
Coral's limestone skeletal is sensitive to pH drop, because the calcium carbonate , core component of the limestone dissolves in acidic low pH solutions. Acid rain does not directly affect human health. The acid in the rainwater is too dilute to have direct adverse effects.
The particulates responsible for acid rain sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides do have an adverse effect. Increased amounts of fine particulate matter in the air contribute to heart and lung problems including asthma and bronchitis.
Acid rain can damage buildings, historic monuments, and statues, especially those made of rocks, such as limestone and marble , that contain large amounts of calcium carbonate. Acids in the rain react with the calcium compounds in the stones to create gypsum, which then flakes off.
The effects of this are commonly seen on old gravestones, where acid rain can cause the inscriptions to become completely illegible. Acid rain also increases the corrosion rate of metals, in particular iron , steel , copper and bronze. Places significantly impacted by acid rain around the globe include most of eastern Europe from Poland northward into Scandinavia,  the eastern third of the United States,  and southeastern Canada.
Other affected areas include the southeastern coast of China and Taiwan. Many coal-firing power stations use flue-gas desulfurization FGD to remove sulfur-containing gases from their stack gases. An example of FGD is the wet scrubber which is commonly used. A wet scrubber is basically a reaction tower equipped with a fan that extracts hot smoke stack gases from a power plant into the tower. Lime or limestone in slurry form is also injected into the tower to mix with the stack gases and combine with the sulfur dioxide present.
The calcium carbonate of the limestone produces pH-neutral calcium sulfate that is physically removed from the scrubber. That is, the scrubber turns sulfur pollution into industrial sulfates. In some areas the sulfates are sold to chemical companies as gypsum when the purity of calcium sulfate is high.
In others, they are placed in landfill. The effects of acid rain can last for generations, as the effects of pH level change can stimulate the continued leaching of undesirable chemicals into otherwise pristine water sources, killing off vulnerable insect and fish species and blocking efforts to restore native life.
Fluidized bed combustion also reduces the amount of sulfur emitted by power production. Vehicle emissions control reduces emissions of nitrogen oxides from motor vehicles. International treaties on the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants have been agreed for example, the Helsinki Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. Most European countries and Canada have signed the treaties.
In this regulatory scheme, every current polluting facility is given or may purchase on an open market an emissions allowance for each unit of a designated pollutant it emits. Operators can then install pollution control equipment, and sell portions of their emissions allowances they no longer need for their own operations, thereby recovering some of the capital cost of their investment in such equipment.
The intention is to give operators economic incentives to install pollution controls. The first emissions trading market was established in the United States by enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of To achieve this goal at the lowest cost to society, the program employs both regulatory and market based approaches for controlling air pollution.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Acid rain disambiguation. See also: Nitrogen cycle , Human impact on the nitrogen cycle , and sulfur cycle. Main article: Ocean acidification. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. July Emissions trading. Acid Rain Program. Journal of Geophysical Research.
Rom and S. Markowitz eds. Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Lippincott-Raven Publ. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Retrieved on February 9, A Serious Regional Environmental Problem". China, United States, and a remote area". Industrialization pollutes its country side with Acid Rain". Archived from the original on June 20, Retrieved November 18, Scientific American.
Herbert; Johnson, Noye M. Science and Policy for Sustainable Development. September 1, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. August 1, Renewable Resources Journal. Science and policy making".
The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, He is overriding a lot of scientific evidence. Nomination of William A. April 17, August 18, Washington, D. June 3, View full report details. Acid Rain Author: Acid Rain , Monitoring Networks Author: Monteith and E. Shilland View full report details.
Beaumont View full report details. Helen Lawrence, Keith Vincent View full report details. Chris Curtis and Gavin Simpson View full report details. Hilde Fagerli, David Simpsond View full report details.
Keith Vincent, Helen Lawrence View full report details. Data Summary PDF 2. Keith Vincent, Prof. D Fowler View full report details. Monteith There are 1 additional files with this report.
Data Summary for PDF 3. John Abbott View full report details. G Hayman View full report details. Acid Deposition Processes 5. Fowler View full report details. Binney View full report details. Data Summary for PDF 2. Transboundary Air Pollution: Prof D Fowler View full report details. Garry Hayman View full report details.
Sandra Hasler View full report details. Acidification of Fresh Waters: Chris Curtis and Gavin Simpson There are 3 additional files with this report. D T Monteith There are 8 additional files with this report.