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TIME SAVER STANDARDS FOR INTERIOR DESIGN AND SPACE PLANNING. Karl Ryan Candinato. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Preface Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning is a professional handbook dealing with the planning, design, and detailing of interior . Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data seventh edition The Reference C Interiors Interiors includes elements for defining interior partitions, walls.
Popliteal height is the distance, taken vertically, from the floor to the underside of the portion of the thigh just behind the knee while the subject is seated with body erect. H 2'-S" 3'. Offices of this size do not easily accommodate an independent conference function. G 35 6 - In addition, architectural woodwork is used to enclose existing convector covers and to frame window openings. If such traffic is necessary. To control moisture in the room.
The location of the shelf just above the rod is essentially a function of rod height. The clearance between the bottom of the shelf and the top of the rod should allow for easy removal of the hanger. Figure 3 illustrates two various types of walk-in storage facilities. Undoubtably, it can be argued that the in, or The authors contend, however, that in order to achieve any degree of comfort in the selection and removal of the desired garment, a minimum of 36 in should be maintained.
The degree to which this dimension can be reduced is a question of the level of comfort the user is prepared to tolerate in exchange for the floor space saved.
The two drawings of the plan view of the human figure illustrate clearances required for donning a coat or putting on a pair of stockings. Three types of closets are common. Walk-in closet This type provides rods on one or both sides of an access path at least 20" wide. A wider access space within the closet may be used as a dressing area.
Reach-in closet The minimum front-to-back depth of space for hanging clothes is 24". The accessible rod length is equal to the width of the door opening plus 6" on each side.
Shelf Space and Lighting The shelf is normally located 2" above the rod, and another shelf may be located 12" higher. Shelves higher than the rod may also be installed at the end of the closet. A fluorescent fixture over the door is recommended for lighting a closet.
Deluxe cool white tubes match daylight for selecting clothes. Rod Lengths and Heights Edge-in closet By providing an edge-in space of at least 18", the accessible rod length can be much longer than the door width.
This requires less wall space than a full front opening. Recommended heights of rods are 68" for long robes, 63" for adult clothing, and 32" for children's clothing. The Minimum Property Standards of HUD require that each bedroom have a closet, with rod and shelf, with minimum dimensions of For double-occupancy bedrooms: This diagram shows dimensions for rods, shelves, and drawers to hold underwear, sweaters, shoes, hats, purses, and ties.
Research shows that each person needs at least 48 inches of rod space for hanging clothing. Optional baskets and door racks. Optional full-height door storage rack. Sliding baskets hold fruit, vegetables and other kitchen supplies. Optional door racks maximize storage area by utilizing all available space. Top View Standard pantry design provides ample shelving and storage for canned goods and other food items.
Center pole gives extra support. Optional door racks provide easy access to your most needed items. Plenty of shelving space for cloths, detergents and brushes. Wide storage area holds vacuum cleaner, brooms, mops and small appliances.
Storage baskets pack brushes, cloths and sundry items. Bottled detergents and cleaning products can be stored neatly and safely in optional door racks. The perfect his and hers closet. Extra wide shelf space for clothing, linen and blankets in your master bedroom. Plus lots of room for her long dresses and coats - his shirts, suits and slacks. Shoe racks on both sides. Front View Full-width, double hanging with lower shelving height. Sliding basket system and shoe racks.
Extra lowhanging shelf makes it easy for kids to reach. Stores toys and sports equipment in easy-access sliding baskets. Shoe rack keeps sneakers and other footwear neatly organized. Front View Walk-In. Single and double hang with upper storage and central shelving unit with additional clearance and shoe racks. Double hanging convenience for shorter garments. Full shelves with central storage unit allow easy storage of sweaters, boots, sports equipment, tall and over-sized items.
Tailor-made for couples with a 2nd bedroom. Front View StandardDouble. Plenty of storage space for footballs, beach equipment, basketballs, skates and other cumbersome items. Doubles as storage area for dresses and coats. Conveniently placed hanging rod for all your teenager's clothing.
M'14 16 and 20" widths available Top View Four extra-wide shelves for linen and blankets. Storage baskets slide out and hold dish cloths, pillowcases and smaller items. The perfect linen closet. Fullwidth, upper storage holds hats, gloves and sweaters. Off-center storage for umbrellas and winter items. Shelves, shoe racks and generous hanging space lets guests know they're welcome. Front View Single hang with halflength shoe racks and upper storage. Upper storage area for visitor's bags and small cases.
Singleand double hang with upper storage, central shelving and shoe racks. Sliding baskets for easy access to linen, underwear, etc. Fulllength clothes storage for dresses, shirts and suits. Ideal for master bedroom. Top View Front View Single hang with upper storage and central shelving and basket unit, additional clearance and shoe racks.
Four sliding baskets provide multiple storage capacity for shirts, underwear, socks and sweaters. Full-length clothes hanging space, fullwidth shoe racks and lots of shelf space make this system a must for your 2nd bedroom. Hang dresses and coats on one side, suits and shorter garments on the other. Central shelving actually replaces a piece of furniture in the master bedroom! Single hanging for clothes, coats, shirts and jackets.
Expands easily to accommodate future needs. Within these buildings, workers spend nearly half their waking hours and a third of their entire lives. Over the life span of a typical office building, the same spaces may be occupied by a succession of different tenants, each with their own programmatic requirements. Consequently, interior spaces may be recycled and redesigned many times, simply to accommodate the changing needs of new corporate users.
In many instances redesign may be necessitated solely by the effect of technological change on the methodology of transacting business. Moreover, the escalating costs of land acquisition and construction and the increasing scarcity of urban building sites make it essential that the redesign reflects an efficient, cost-effective utilization of space, as well as one that is responsive to the human factors involved.
It is necessary, therefore, for the designer to be familiar not only with the general planning criteria associated with office design, but with the architectural detailing of some of the typical interior elements contained within these spaces. Accordingly, this section includes general planning criteria and examples of actual working drawings of typical interior conditions, prepared by various design professionals.
The details alluded to include such items as trading desks, elevated computer floors, library furniture, built-in storage cabinets, work counters, wall paneling, vanities, reception desks, and conference room elements.
Also included are illustrations and dimensional data pertaining to typical office furniture, equipment, and electronic media storage.
Basic Workstations The so-called general office takes on a variety of forms and configurations. In its simplest variation it may be nothing more complex than several standard desks with returns located within a room or space. In its more sophisticated and ergonomically designed form, the general office may be based on an open planning or office landscaping concept, involving a system of workstations. The workstations include desk surfaces, files, acoustic partitions, and a host of other optional components to suit the nature of the particular work tasks involved.
The systems are extremely flexible, allowing the workstations to be configured in a variety of shapes. Provision for power and lighting is quite common. The design of the general office, like the design of the private office, requires a knowledge of the basic dimensional requirements and clearances of the workstation and, where applicable, of the visitor seating to be accommodated. Accordingly, this part includes basic planning criteria for general office design, in addition to examples of architectural woodwork details in connection with some of the more common customized components of general office spaces.
The basic workstation, as illustrated in plan in Fig. The worktask zone must be large enough to accommodate the paperwork, equipment, and other accessories that support the user's function. In no case should this distance be less than the 30 in, or The visitor seating zone, ranging in depth from 30 to 42 in, or The specific type and size of the seating i. Figure 2 shows the typical workstation expanded into the basic U-shaped configuration. Not only does it provide more storage, the lateral file unit is generally the same height as that of the worksurface and is often utilized as a supplementary worksurface.
The distance between this unit and that of the primary worksurface must be sufficient to allow for movement and rotation of the chair. Square footage workstation standards for the nonautomated task are developed primarily according to task profile, equipment, conferencing, and privacy requirements.
Task Profile: Processing paper on work surface with quick turnaround. Telephone tasks may require concentration. Typewriter the primary tool for processing paper. Tasks may require concentration. Storage for permanent files and reference materials minimal. Limited conferencing required at the workspace. Same as 1 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual workstation. Same as 3 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual workstation. Data Entry.
Multiple Workstations Fig. Size of worksurface, length and depth of return, chair size, and circulation patterns all influence the gross square footage requirements.
Clustering of workstations will ultimately result in the use of less floor area, but at the expense of majorergonomic considerations.
Decisions relative to both acoustical privacy and personal space are often sacrificed in the name of economy. Multiple Workstations Multiple workstations can result in efficient utilization of space and sharing of expensive computer terminals and equipment. If use of computer terminals is intensive, individual CRTs should be provided.
Figures 5, 6, and 7 each show eight workstations, yet the setups range in area from to ft 2. Furniture size, function, and ergonomic considerations all affect setup.
Office Layout It is not unusual to have two or more persons share an enclosed office space. In planning this type of office space, both circulation and clearance become critically important. Door swings, the extension of file drawers, and points of entry must all be carefully considered. This page and the following pages include the necessary planning criteria required, as well as details of certain customized components. Desks are also available in generally accepted standard sizes.
It is these standard desks that are most used in the design of the private office. Figure 1 illustrates the range of desk dimensions, chair dimensions, and clearances involved.
Such a situation is illustrated in Fig. Such a desk is often selected if the executive in question plans to hold conferences within the office and prefers the psychology of having either visitors or employees gather around the worksurface in an egalitarian fashion. While a minimum desk size of 48 in, or A circular executive desk must be supported by supplementary credenza or file storage within easy reach of the executive chair.
Figure 3 illustrates a typical circular lounge grouping found within an executive office. Providing for the appropriate leg clearance of 12 to 18 in, or Buttock-knee length must also be considered. Typical Room Arrangements The private offices illustrated in Figs. Each office layout should be carefully reviewed with the client to ensure that all programmatic functions have been met. Offices of this size do not easily accommodate an independent conference function.
These architectural working drawings reflect the custom design of a storage wall for a partner in a law office. Careful analysis shows the incorporation of file, book, and coat storage within a floor-to-ceiling mahogany wood unit. Careful attention must be given to integration of electronic equipment, electrical wiring, and task lighting.
Other cost-saving devices illustrated here are the application of a wood panel to a standard metal file and the use of a fabricwrapped tack board. The incorporation of an undercabinet task light is almost always required. These drawings are particularly helpful when the office project for which these wall units are intended consists of many offices, and each office is to be customized within certain constraints. The sophistication and complexity of such details can significantly influence the budget for the space as well as the time of installation.
Figure 25 represents a "high-end" approach, while Fig. Anthropometrics New electronic technologies, together with the advent and proliferation of the microcomputer and the availability of inexpensive packaged software, have changed the complexion of the office workplace. The ergonomic considerations related to this new work environment have necessitated a reevaluation of the traditional interface between the seated office worker and his or her workplace.
It is essential that the design of this electronic workstation be responsive to human factors in order to avoid physical discomfort for the user. The location of the Keyboard, angle of the visual display terminal, adjustability of the chair, field of vision, provisions for back support, and height of the seat above the floor are a few of the considerations in the design process. This page and the following pages provide a variety of anthropometric and ergonomic planning data and details for use as reference in the design of the electronic workstation.
Figure 1 illustrates guidelines for use in establishing preliminary design assumptions for a workstation display console. Since the types of displays and the nature of the tasks associated with those displays can vary considerably, Fig.
The configuration shown, however, is fairly representational. Certain basic factors should be noted anthropometrically. The use of an adjustable chair will permit the eye height of the seated viewer to be raised or lowered to view the display, as may be required depending on body size.
An adjustment range between 15 and 18 in, or Adjustability, however, will be of little value if the vertical distance between the underside of the desk and the floor is insufficient to accommodate the knee height and thigh clearance when the seat is adjusted to the appropriate position. If such distance is not less than The location of the top of the display should align with the standard sight line for optimum viewing conditions.
Since the eye and the head can rotate within certain limitations and, in so doing, increase the area that can be scanned, displays can be located above the standard sight line when absolutely necessary. It should also be noted that the more perpendicular the normal sight line is to the display plane, the greater the viewing comfort. Stature is the vertical distance from the floor to the top of the head, measured while the subject stands erect, looking straight ahead.
Elbow height is the distance measured vertically from the floor to the depression formed at the elbow where the forearm meets the upper arm. Eye height is the vertical distance from the floor to the inner corner of the eye, measured with the subject looking straight ahead and standing erect. Sitting height erect is the vertical distance from the sitting surface to the top of the head with the subject sitting erect. Sitting height normal is the vertical distance from the sitting surface to the top of the head, measured with the subject sitting relaxed.
Eye height is the vertical distance from the inner corner of the eye to the sitting surface. Shoulder height is the distance taken vertically from the sitting surface to a point on the shoulder midway between the neck and acromion. Shoulder breadth is the maximum horizontal distance across the deltoid muscles. Elbow to elbow is the distance across the lateral surfaces of the elbows measured with elbows flexed and resting lightly against the body with the forearms extended horizontally.
Hp breadth is the breadth of the body as measured across the widest portion of the hips. Note that a hip breadth measurement can also be taken with the subject in a standing position, in which case the definition would be the maximum breadth of the lower torso.
Elbowrestheight istheheightfromthe top of the sitting surface to the bottom of the tip of the elbow. Thigh clearance is the distance taken vertically from a sitting surface to the top of the thigh at the point where the thigh and the abdomen intersect.
Knee height is the vertical distance from the floor to the midpoint of the kneecap. Popliteal height is the distance, taken vertically, from the floor to the underside of the portion of the thigh just behind the knee while the subject is seated with body erect.
The knees and ankles are usually perpendicular, with the bottom of the thigh and the back of the knees barely touching the sitting surface. Buttock-popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the rearmost surface of the buttock to the back of the lower leg.
Buttock-knee length is the horizontal distance from the rearmost surface of the buttocks to the front of the kneecaps. Buttock-toe length is the horizontal distance from the rearmost surface of the buttocks to the tip of the toe. Buttock-heel length is the horizontal distance from the base of the heel to a wall against which the subject sits erect with his leg maximally extended forward along the sitting surface. This is sometimes referred to as buttock-leg length.
Vertical reach is the height above the sitting surface of the tip of the middle finger when the arm, hand, and fingers are extended vertically. Vertical grip reach is usually measured from the floor to the top of a bar grasped in the right hand while the subject stands erect and the hand within which the bar is grasped is raised as high as it can be conveniently without experiencing discomfort or strain.
Side arm reach is the distance from the center line of the body to the outside surface of a bar grasped in the right hand while the subject stands erect and the arm is conveniently outstretched horizontally without experiencing discomfort or strain. Thumb tip reach is the distance from the wall to the tip of the thumb measured with the subject's shoulders against the wall, his arm extended forward, and his index finger touching the tip of his thumb.
Maximum body depth is the horizontal distance between the most anterior point on the body to the most posterior. Anterior points are usually located on the chest or abdomen while the posterior points are usually found in the buttock or shoulder region. Maximum body breadth is the maximum distance, including arms, across the body. C p F In cm Anthropometrics Both the work surface and the display monitors must be lowered and raised as a unit with This lets the user adjust the screen to avoid reflective glare, and it accommodates various working positions of different lines of sight.
Adjustment controls designed for hand operation must be located within the operator's extended reach envelope. This reduces the likelihood of reflective glare.
The digitizing surface must accommodate standard European and American D size drawings, m Screen depth of view must allow alphanumeric characters to be viewed at an angle between 20 and 28 arc minutes. Square footage Open Screened workstation standards for the automated task No requirement of equipment or task for Privacy required for reading, working, thinking, are also developed primarily according to task privacy, concentration calculating, meetings, confidential phone calls, profile , equipment, conferencing, and privacy elimination of visual and acoustical distractions requirements.
Data Retrieval. Shared Tasks. Reference materials used may be used frequently. Storage requirements vary according to task.
Word Processing. Li Tasks are complex enough to require concentration for analysis, or heavy equipment operations require acoustical screening. More than one task may be performed concurrently. Multiple reference sources may be used on a task. Typewriter and electronic equipment VDT, printer, and so on may be used to expedite processing and administrative tasks. With little, if any, margin for error when designing and detailing multiple workstations of this type, a full-size mockup is always required.
Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Consideration must be given to clearances and circulation around the larger conference table, as indicated in Figs. A minimum of 48 in, or This dimension under ordinary circumstance allows for a circulation zone beyond the sitting zone of 30 to 36 in, or The greater dimension is recommended to allow for the chair in a pulled-out position. The actual dimensions of the conference table are a function of the number of people to be seated.
The square table illustrated in Fig. The larger dimension is more appropriate to accommodate people of larger body size and to allow for a more generous work zone for each person.
This translates into 30 in, or The circular table shown in Fig. To accommodate both sitting zone and circulation zone, a space with a radius ranging from 72 to 81 in, or Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Round conference tables offer the advantages of intimacy, "equality," and compact, ness.
On the other hand, if status is an issue, or if one wall within the space is an audiovisual wall, this table shape can be less than satisfactory.
The same problems can arise with a square conference table. In both instances, however, the total seating around each table shape must be viewed in the context of chair size, chair spacing, and tasks to be performed at the table.
Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Rectangular and boat-shaped conference sables lend themselves toward formal set: Both table shapes are also more suitable in a room where an audiovisual wall is oiaced at one end of the space, or where speakers are making presentations.
The coat-shaped table also offers greater visibility cf others seated at the table, as well as ease: Seating 5'0 22'0 22 - 24 1 j'0" X 32'0 5 0 20'0 22 15'0"x 30'0" 4'0 13 '0" 12 14 12'0 " X 21 '0" 4'0 10'0 " 4'0 9'6" 10 - 12 8- 1 o 12'0 x 1 7' 0 12 1 o- x WW, 3 'o 6'6 10'0 " X 13 '6.
Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Fig. They are useful in client discussions and in making preliminary area allocations. Chair size and circulation areas behind the chairs will, of course, cause overall dimensions to vary.
The base treatments shown in Fig. Perhaps even more important to consider are the finished edges of glass and wood conference tables, representative details of which are shown in Figs. Other edge details could be made of marble, granite, or even leather Fingers, hands, and arms make intimate contact with these edge details, something that should be carefully considered.
They serve multiple functions, including storage, incorporation of electronic media equipment, display, and as a work surface. In addition, architectural woodwork is used to enclose existing convector covers and to frame window openings. It is important for the designer to consider providing ease of access to the heating and air-handling elements behind the woodwork, as well as allowing the appropriate flow of air.
Receptionist's WorkstatIon Proper design of the reception area is critical in communicating an organization's desired corporate image. Reception spaces are both the first and last areas with which the visitor interacts and, accordingly, have considerable visual impact in communicating that image. Not only must the reception space look attractive, but it must function properly as well. The two most important planning elements in this regard are the visitor's seating area and the receptionist's workstation or desk.
While most of the examples in this part are drawn from corporate interiors, the designer is urged to take into consideration the needs of special user groups who must interact with a receptionist. If small children are to communicate or see or be seen , how high is the privacy wall? If a wheelchair-bound user is to approach the reception desk, is there room for the footrests to be accommodated?
The designer must consider all user populations. This part deals primarily with basic planning data relative to the design of a receptionist's workstation and furniture arrangements of the seating areas. Also included are related details directly from the working drawings of design firms. Figure 1 shows a counter height receptionist's workstation.
While the relationship of worksurface to seat height is key, other anthropometric considerations are eye height and sitting height normal. The minimum height of the opening above the floor has been established at 78 in, or Sitting height and eye height are significant in providing unobstructed vision.
Seating Arrangements Fig.
Individual seats are preferred over sofas. Corner seating arrangements must always consider leg clearance. Circulation between low tables and the edges of chairs must be adequate to allow for the legs of persons seated in the chairs. Convenient locations for side tables, so that magazines, ashtrays, artwork, or portable lighting can be placed on them, are important. The reception desk illustrated here shows a typical L-shaped unit with in-high privacy panel.
Reception desks of this type can either be custom designed or purchased from a manufacturer. When designing custom reception desks, it is important tofu lly understand the tasks that the person working there will be asked to perform, in order to provide for adequate storage, work surfaces at the appropriate height, the incorpration of electronic equipment, and task lighting. In this example, a righthand typing return has been provided. Careful consideration should always be given to the height and placement of task lighting in order to ensure that the surface or task below is being lit properly.
Many designers do not give this adequate thought. Overall costs of custom-designed reception desks can be reduced by integrating standard metal file compoments into the architectural woodwork. With this type of configuration, however, the designer must he concerned with the orientation of the open side. As with all custom reception desks, the designer must anticipate the integration of wiring and electronic equipment within the architectural woodwork.
In addition to enhancing visual privacy, such a design can also provide added security and control by the addition of a door. Such a design might be particularly appropriate for a reception area where the designer might wish to control access by children. The designer is cautioned, however, to carefully analyze the minimum radius required for chair movement.
Custom built-in files and drawers, if also curved, can become costly and sometimes impractical. Examples of such details are shown here. A receptionist may be located on the opposite side of a glass partition as shown here. Such a solution is often suggested when the receptionist performs multiple tasks such as typing and answering phones.
A phone shelf, a wall shelf, a coat hanging area, and a work surface are often items that must be carefully designed and detailed. The illustrations and dimensional data contained in this part are based on the product lines available from particular manufacturers.
Although the data, to a great extent, are fairly standard throughout the industry, there will be some variations according to manufacturer Accordingly, although the informa- tion presented is adequate for preliminary planning purposes, the designer is cautioned to reconcile preliminary assumptions with the actual dimensional data of the manufacturer whose product is ultimately specified. Included in the data provided in this part are examples of filing cabinets, storage cabinets, conference tables, desks, and electronic media.
The designer, however, is cautioned not to make assumptions as to chair selection without a thorough understanding of the tasks the individual is to perform. Ergonomic considerations are to be carefully reviewed in order to select a chair with appropriate attributes, i. Overall chair size must be understood within the context of available clearances and workstation configuration.
Modular seating units can offer a custom built-in look, and can often incorporate table and storage components. Overall sizes will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer.
Figures 4 to 6 attempt to provide a representative sampling of such tables, along with dimensional information and seating capacities. The designer is cautioned to use such information as a preliminary planning tool only, and to carefully lay out conference rooms with actual furniture pieces that have been selected. Vertical file drawers are usually 12" high and accommodate front-to-back filing.
Standard cabinets are available in four heights: Table 1 lists these dimensional data. It should be noted that although adequate for preliminary planning purposes, the data are based on Steelcase cabinets. Guidelines for Customizing Vertical Files Depending on the manufacturer, vertical file cabinets can be customized. Usually two half-height file insert drawers may be substituted for a in-high drawer in any or all positions.
Table 2 indicates the dimensions and linear capacities of such insert drawers, while Fig. C See style no. Some cabinets are designed on a 3" module to accommodate 3"-, 6"-, 9"-, 12"-, and 15"-high drawers and shelves.
Ganging hardware is usually included with each file cabinet. Cabinets should be ganged with adjacent files or bolted to the floor. Counterbalance weights should be used for single-application files.
Table 4 shows the outside and inside dimensions of four lateral file cabinets, and their loaded floor weights based on 12"-high drawers filled to capacity. It should be noted that the dimensional data and load factors are based on Steelcase cabinets. Lateral file drawers can usually accommodate materials in a front-to-back F to B arrangement or in a side-to-side S to S arrangement.
In some instances a combination of the two is possible. The actual capacity in linear inches for each arrangement and for each particular drawer or shelf has been calculated and is shown in the "Linear capacity" column in Tables 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8.
It should be noted that the dimensional data in Table 5 are based on Steelcase drawers. Table 7 provides dimensional data and capacities for four typical cabinet types.
These cabinets are manufactured by Steelcase. The dimensions of cabinets of other manufacturers will differ somewhat. The data in Table 7, however, are adequate for preliminary planning purposes. Rails Mount in lateral file for drawer suspended filing, front-to-back or side-to-side. Storage cabinet Storage for general supplies. Available in 2, 3, or 4 adjustable shelves. Overflls cabinet Far use above lateral or vertical files. Sliding door, lock, and shelf-modifier options. Partition A double metal wall that mounts into a lateral file drawer to divide drawer.
Personal drawer For personal items. An adjustable divider is included. Pull-out keyboard shelf Attaches beneath worksurface for computer keyboard support and storage. Vertical file Letter- or legal-size filing cabinet with depth dimension greater than width dimension. For front-to-back filing only. Vertical file drawer 6" high and 12" high drawers for letter or legal-size filing cabinets.
Wardrobe Provides full-width coat rod for hanging clothes mounted beneath full-width shelf. Wire tape racks Racks can be freestanding or built-in to lateral files for storage of magnetic tapes and disk cartridges on edge. Dividers can be positioned to accommodate media of different thicknesses. Center hook filing hanging bar Accepts printouts and magnetic tape reels with center hooks.
Combination wardrobe and storage cabinet Units are divided - space for hanging clothes and two or three vertically adjustable shelves. Compressor A spring-loaded plate that supports file material.
Can be moved and locked in position. Used in vertical and lateral file drawers, pedestal file drawers and card trays. Divider Metal plate used to separate and support file material. For lateral file and pedestal file drawers, fixed and roll-out shelves. Double-door storage cabinet for miscellaneous storage below works uriace, Includes one adjustable shelf and two swingarm doors.
File drawer For letter- or legal-size documents 12" and 15" high. For front-toback or side-to-side or combination filing. File Insert drawers For use in vertical files instead of card trays. Hanging folder frame A metal rod mounted in lateral and vertical files for suspended file material. Can be mounted on partitions for front-to-back filing. Interior card trays Portable trays in various sizes for common card sizes: Compressor included.
Later file drawer 3" tray drawer, 6" card drawer, and 9", 12" and 15" high file drawers. Letter or legal-size filing. In plan tor a typical armless dining chair and a dining chair with arms.
It should be noted that the clearances Indicated relate to chairs with depth dimensions of 20" and" 22". Table space is 24" per person. With arm chairs at the ends. Seating for four 2 requires 31 ft. There space behind the chairs to edge past one side and one end. Round tables. A 48" long table seats 4 and requires Corner bench. Since these illustrations are intended only as guidelines Dining space with benches.. Since these data come from two sources.
A hutch or buffet is typically about 18" deep. A 48" long table seats 4 and of differing 2 requires 26 ft. A dining room for A 42" wide table Is common. To assure adequate space for convenient use of the dining area. Because of the room layout. Length for primary bedroom: Widths less than 9'0" will usually require Each bedroom shall have at least one A larger proportion of the bedroom floor extra area to accommodate comparable closet that meets or exceeds the following area is occupied by furniture than is the case furniture.
An interrelationship exists between dress. Figures 1 to 3 illustrate three configurations larger Moreover. For account during the design process. Each bedroom are all factors that should be taken into The ideal plan would provide a bedroom for requires at least one clothes closet. Clothes closets require a clear depth of two size for a larger bedroom or master bedroom activity space.
Children's bedrooms single beds 3'3" x 6'6" each. Each child needs a space that is his or her and the furniture clearances and room sizes the size and scale of furniture. One shelf and rod with at least 12 doors. At least one-half the closet floor shall be the bed and other furniture. Closets chairs 1'6" x 1'6" each. The location of activity It is essential to incorporate in the 4.
Ample storage is essential. For secondary bed- room size should be 10'0"x12"0" exclusive of The minimum room width shall be deter. These two factors compli. A master bedroom should accommodate level and not more than 12 inches above floor Privacy. Department of Housing and Urban Develop- ment recommends the arrangement Illustrated in this diagram.
The U. Net area: ST Women. Flooo R Finish t i2? Height Men. T 'i 'i Cabinet T? Shoe Racks. Metal 4a? H Approx 12 Garments on hangers H 16" desirable. See Details number ot garments without crushing. The bathroom should be convenient to the bedroom zone. B 28 min. Towel bar 5. F 30 E D 52 min. Soap dish at lavatory may be integral Or Obstruction!
Mirror and medicine cabinet or equiv- alent enclosed shelf space ssescssas Activity a Zone [ 6. Each complete bathroom should be pro- vided with the following: In all cases where shower head is installed.
D 18 E 36 min. Toilet paper holder at water closet Line ot Wall 3. Linen storage should be accessible from the bathroom. C 24 min. Grab-bar and soap dish at bathtub lu 0 2. E 18 Given the great variability in body sizes to be accommo- dated within a single family. J A iavatory height above the floor of 37 to 43 in. In order to establish the location of mirrors above the lavatory. Figure 2 explores. It should be noted. Two-lavatory bathroom.
Note 2 storage space under the lavatories and in a floor-to-ceiling unit. A wail-hung iavatory instead of a vanity 2 squeezes into 2'-6" width and Consider this idea for installing a half-bath In a closet or under a stairway. A corner shower. This bathroom is too smaii for a wheelchair. A 2-lavatory bathroom with adequate room at the toilet and each lavatory. This plan also includes a bidet. Storage is In ft available. Even with generous storage space it takes only 2 the same space as many non-compartmented bathrooms.
It is as large as two bathrooms but costs less because of fewer fixtures and less plumbing. Two doors to each compartment are undesirable. This 3-fixture bathroom has excellent storage but is 2 only Five fixtures. Limited storage space available. Storage is under the 30" vanity and on shelves over the toilet.
With fixtures in separate compartments. Large 3-fixture bathroom. Although not usually a space saver. Consider a pocket door Three people can use between the compartments. PlKll6ri- trf: Do not use oily putty or plumbing sealants with marble.
Requirements existing installation must be sound. Recommended uses for alteration of ceramic-tiled areas where modernization or achange of design is desired in residences.
But such a height does not necessarily accom- modate the body dimension of all users for all tasks. Such asystem could accommodate not only those of smaller and larger body size. B 40 Clearance between Appliances K Z The logical answer is the devel- opment of kitchen cabinet systems capable Fig. All must be responsive to human dimension and body size if the quality of interface between the user and the components of the interior space are to be adequate. Certain cooking activities.
Standard kitchen counter heights man- ufactured are all about 36 in. In estab- lishing clearances between counters. Refrigerator doors. Range Workzone G Q 35 max. The range workzone clearance. In this regard. Figure 2 indicates a minimum clearance between appliances of 48 or 1 21 9 cm.
D The i n. The standing figure shown in broken line. The anthropometric basis in. The resulting through traffic reduces the compactness and efficiency of the plan. It should be located at sink center.
It sometimes is closed off on one end. If dishwasher Is desired. If dishwasher is desired. The corridor or gallery kitchen is typically accessible from both ends. The broken U-shaped plan often results from the necessity of locating a door along one or two of the three walls of a typical U- shaped scheme. A triangle perimeter of 23'0" or less is usually indicative of a relatively efficient kitchen layout.
For combined work centers.. Work centers for the following equipment. Minimum clearance height between 3. Residential Spaces 4. At least 9 in from the at one side for serving and storage of utensils edge of the sink and range and 16 in at the Height of shelving and counter tops and staples. Refrigerator space with counter space pliances opposite each other. Wall cabinets Circulation space A minimum of 40 in should Height of counter tops should be 36 in.
Range space with base and wall cabinet adjacent corner cabinet. This same sink and wall cabinet 24 in. Sink and base cabinet with counter side of the refrigerator is recommended. Maximum height of wall shelving 74 in. Minimum clearance should elevation be not less than 3 in. Dimension B. Cabinet protection should be at least 14 in asbestos millboard covered with not less than gauge sheet metal 0. Dimension D: Dimension F. Dimension E: Clearance for D. Dimension C: Drawer and countertop space shall also be provided.
Opt for the 15 in. Plan for light above a rangetop and over the sink. Since the wall behind a sink dictate a distance of 30 in. With the increased use of such Your need for light is greatest over eiectricai appliances. General storage re- quires space for linens.
No room count is allowable for this type facility. A good light there a significant problem. A workable alternative is found in fixtures installed in an extended soffit.
But wall if A fan mounted in the wall is the a wider span you're taller. Kitchenette Item 0-bedroom living unit. Included in this category are self. A single fixture. Choose incandescent. The if space is minimal. Kitchen 1. Frameless base cabinets are also deep. Most are 1 Four-drawer base cabinets are available in available in widths ranging from 9" to 48?
Most are available in widths of 24? Tilt-Out Range Hoods: Most cabinets are available in widths ranging from 9" to Frameiess are 13Vfe" deep with doors. Frameless base available in a three-drawer style in widths cabinets are 24 3A" deep. Framed base cabinets are 24" ments. Except Oakcrest. No Center Medallion.. Often overlooked are clearances for verify local code requirements.
The designer should check seven heating elements as well as modular is the method of securing the dishwasher in requirements with the manufacturer. Refrigerators clearance must be verified with the manufac- but the designer is cautioned to carefully Refrigerator door swings and clearances are turer. In addition. Manufactur- of critical importance. Accessi to 'plumbing adjoining cabinetwork. Some washers are fairly well standardized in terms sides and top of the refrigerator and any of the larger ranges consist of modular of overall dimensions.
Dimensions shown are for planning purposes only. A Countertop or wall-mounted oven. Cabinets and Base Removed 3. Clear open space. Bottom-hinged door. Pull-out board preferred with side-opening door. In Fig. Since removable base cabinets and adjust- able height counters are not now products that are readily available for purchase. No other changes have been made to the kitchen. The fixed accessible features specified in ANSI 4. The adaptable features are removable base cabinets at knee spaces and counters that can be adjusted in height or fixed at a lower than standard height.
The adaptable features for kitchens spec- ified in the standards are shown in Figs. The wider work surface pro- vides space for pots. When not needed. The shelf is used as a transfer surface for dishes as they are placed into or taken out of the oven. When an oven with a side-opening door is used. The standards specify that when the wall oven is not self cleaning.
When an oven with a drop-front door is used Fig. See ANSI 4. Even if a self-cleaning oven is installed. When the knee space is under a cooktop. People who high and there is no knee space for maneu. Cooktops in lowered counter seg. When a cooktop is installed in a lowered expose a person in a wheelchair to the hazard ventional ranges because the surface is too counter.
The controls Cooktops with smooth surfaces are pre. An moving them. The Medical 5 height of the highest shelf above the floor should be limited to between 78 and 81 in. Subject of shelf face section The size of books. Limitations for shelving to serve children will differ and are indicated in Fig. Volumes per Linear Foot of Shelf Based on Subject by which to design residential library Standard stack section 3 ft wide x 7H ft high with 7 shelves shelving or to project the number of books that can be accommodated on a unit base Volumes per foot Volumes per single because of the many variables involved.
Economics 8 It is possible. Seven History 7 volumes per foot of shelving can be used Law 4 84 as a rule-of-thumb to project capacity.
The front of the shelf is supported by the vertical members and the back of the shelf is nailed to the plywood back. In this design Hugh Newell Jacobsen. This simple trim piece acts as framing for sides. These built-in bookshelves and bar unit were developed for a residence on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Sizes noted here are comfortable averages. But if interiors are planned to accommodate large units of equipment such as that required for table tennis.
Not all games occupy floor areas indicated as necessary for those diagramed on this page. Dimensions of game equipment and floor areas required for its use are both subject to variation. Size Where used 4 ft 8 in x 8 ft 6 in. Note how the recessed fluorescent tube fixtures indirectly light up all the glasses and the 2" open slot in the bottom shelf indirectly lights up the liquor bottles on the back bar shelf. Note also that the bar front is slightly padded with foam rubber and the entire bar top is finished with dark brown leatherette.
The entire front bar has recessed light fixtures in the ceiling above. The would complement each arrangement. Space needed by a sin. Type and size of equipment Auxiliary equipment area. Ironing Board Fig.
Moistureproof surfaces are needed for 31 x 26 in pretreating and sprinkling of clothes. The To control moisture in the room. Adequate storage for washing equip. Straight-line arrangement: Planning Suggestions 26 x 26 in.
Space around Ironing board. Additional coun- ment and supplies should be located near the Overall dimensions of areas will vary with ter space can be provided by the tops of the place of first use.
In locating the washing equipment con. A tall storage cabinet for laundry supplies 7. Drying areas should be accessible for use under all climatic conditions. Stacked arrangement: No dryer and washer. In sideration should be given to convenience of space required will depend on the type of this cabinet. A In. This will permit a second person to pass through when someone is doing the laundry.
Scale 1: If a washer and dryer are located opposite each other. If the space in front of the automatic washer and dryer Is a corridor. Clothes may be hung for air drying without interfering with other household activities. Other laundry related activities such as ironing. Noise from laundry appliances can be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Occupants may wish to use the bathroom when laundry is being washed or dried.
Disadvantages Providing this extra room increases the cost of the dwelling. Mechanical ventilation can be provided economically for both functions. The most frequently mentioned advantages and disadvantages of these various options are listed below.
The laundry area may be separate or combined with the bathroom. Temporary holding or storage of clothing to be washed or ironed is made easier. Disadvantages A bathroom will usually accommodate only washing and drying facilities. The bathroom sink may be used for hand washing. DRYER room.
Separate Laundry Advantages A separatespace can be used for other activitiessuch as sewing and hobbies. This facili- 3. Fioor and waii finishes in bathrooms are usually resistant to high humidities. The tops of the laundry. Direct access to the outside for clothes drying is likely to be easier than from laun- dries located in a basement or on a second storey Kitchen sinks are usually sizeable and can be used for laundering.
The space above the appliances may be used as a linen closet. An alcove adjacent to a corridor will accommodate only a minimum-sized laundry area. Additional plumbing costs are usually small. Noise generated by running appliances cannot easily be shut off from the rest of the dwelling.
Other laundry related activities. The appliances can be hidden from sight when they are not in use. Noise generated by running appliances can be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Disadvantages Noise generated by running appliances cannot be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Grease and cooking smells can be passed on to clean clothes. Disadvantages Danger of cross-contamination through the handling of dirty washing during food preparation. Disadvantages Laundry must be carried up and down although automatic dryers have eased stairs.
Convenience and time-and-step saving are easily achieved by placing the elements in their natural order of use: Width 16 18 5.
Viewing in mirror: Table obstructed on one side 28 32 3. Light should be adequate for the Length 42 60 activity. The amount and kind of storage required varies Width according to the quality and frequency of Table. Working surface 2. Use of Space Minimum Adequate ple purposes. An area especially planned for sewing. A minimum sewing area should include Height range 36 median the machine. Top to floor 70 72 Clearance in front of mirror ft Width 3 4 Length 10 Clearance while fitting self.
Most houses need storage space for Length 56 72 sewing materials and equipment. The location of the shelf just above the rod is Lengths essentially a function of rod height. The Reach clearance between the bottom of the shelf and the top of the rod should allow for easy Garment removal of the hanger. The two drawings of the plan view of the human figure illustrate clearances required for don- ning a coat or putting on a pair of stockings.
Special ance shown between the hanging garment for and the storage shelf or between opposite HL by garments couid be reduced about 60 per- cent The authors contend. The degree to which this dimension can be reduced is a question of the ievei of Also comfort the user is prepared to tolerate in exchange for the floor space saved. Wherever possible or prac- the closet shelf should be located within tical. The height shown for the high shelf has been established based on fifth percentile male and female data in order to place it within reach of individuals of smaller body size.
Any shelf located at a greater distance should be used primarily for storage that requires only Infrequent access. Figure 3 illustrates two various types of Comfortable walk-in storage facilities. For single-occupancy bedrooms: Deluxe cool white tubes match daylight for selecting clothes. A wider access space within the children's clothing. A fluorescent fixture over the door is recommended for lighting a closet. This requires less wall space than a full 24" by 60" front opening.
Three closet may be used as a dressing area. The rod. Men's garments in Women's garments in Heavy jackets and coats 3 Coats and jackets: Medium-weight jackets. This diagram shows dimensions for rods. Other garments: Dress coats. Research shows that each person needs at least 48 inches of rod space for hanging clothing.
CKWT Wall Dimension - Bottled detergents cleaner. Multiple-stacked Linen Shelf wrap-around storage storage shelving. Center pole Optional door racks gives extra support.
Storage baskets pjfttiritittttlj detergents and pack brushes. Wall Dimension - available space. Optional Optional full-height m baskets and door door storage rack. Top View storing household Make a clean sweep cleaning items just of cleaning with full- where you need them. Wide storage and sundry items. Single and hang with upper double hang with storage.
Extra low. Tailor-made for couples with a 2nd bedroom. Shoe rack storage area for keeps sneakers and dresses and coats. Double hanging with lower hang with shoe rack shelving height. Extra wide shelf Double hanging space for clothing. Plenty room. Full shelves with Plus lots of room for central storage unit her long dresses and allow easy storage coats — his shirts.
Shoe sports equipment. Doubles as baskets. The perfect for coats and other his and hers closet. Stores toys and balls. The perfect K.
Off-center and small cases. Storage baskets slide out and Sliding hold dish cloths. Two full- storage capacity for length shoe racks. Central shelving underwear. Front View Front View Single hang with Single hang with upper storage and upper storage and central shelving and full-width shoe basket unit. Single hang Walk-In. Ideal for master bedroom. Full-length clothes hanging space. Sliding and shorter gar- suits baskets for easy ments on the other. Expands easily to Four sliding baskets accommodate future provide multiple needs.
You get a wide range of typical layouts and residential spaces, offices, conference rooms, and reception areas, in addition to details of bars, restaurants, and public toilets. This exciting new edition includes new international examples and metrification — and provides you with full coverage of healthcare spaces, educational spaces; home offices; videoconferencing spaces; green design; project forms and schedules.
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