Dec 10, K. S. Manilal has spent over 35 years rendering Hortus Malabaricus to English. has presented to the scientific world, the English edition. Images from the Hortus Malabaricus volumes at Blatter Herbarium Library of St. . Indian for the newly chartered Dutch and English East India Companies. Language: English. Hortus Malabaricus English Edition (12 volumes) is the translation of the oldest comprehensive printed book on the natural plant Wealth of.
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Key words: Hortus Malabaricus, Medicinal plants, Biological Patent Laws, IPR. Following the Portuguese, the Dutch, French, Danes, Germans and English. In spite of the incomparable significance of the book, Hortus Malabaricus has not been translated into English (Manilal, ) and later to Malayalam (Manilal. Hortus Malabaricus (meaning "Garden of Malabar") is a comprehensive treatise that deals with The book has been translated into English and Malayalam by K. S. Manilal and . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Published six times a year, British Wildlife bridges the gap between popular writing and scientific literature through a combination of long-form articles, regular columns and reports, book reviews and letters. The Wanted Land focused on the cultural exchange that has occurred over the past years on the Malabar Coast between the Dutch and the local population. Studies all around the world have proved that this loss will have negative impacts on the livelihoods, production systems and health of local communities TEEB , Suneetha and Balakrishna The authenticity of the data is well established from the fact that the author has collected the information from a well known traditional healer of that time, Itty Achuden the key informant supported by three other Konkani priest-physicians, Ranga Bhat, Vinayaka Pandit and Appu Bhat, and is edited by experts like Arnold Seyen vol. His main journeys fell within the period
The scientific identification of Rheede's plants were made to a considerable extent from this fresh collections. However, it has been found that several plants described in Hortus Malabaricus have disappeared altogether from the entire Malabar region, some having become extinct.
To facilitate this, the Dutch botanists themselves attempted to bring out a Dutch translation of Bortus Malabaricus but only the first two volumes could be translated, which were together published in a single bound volume in The remaining 10 volumes have not been translated even into Dutch till now. Many attempts were also made to translate the book into English by eminent scientists but none could complete even the first volume. In John Hill published a "London Edition" of Volume 1 of Bortus Malabaricus, which has been mistakenly thought to be an English translation by those who have not seen the book.
Hill's "London Edition" is merely a reprint ofthe original Latin book published from London, in which the botanical names of the plants as known in those days and as interpreted by Hill, are also added. Even in this case, the other 11 volumes remained unattended until the present English Edition was published Thus, Bartus Malabaricus may be seen to contain information on diverse topics of national and international importance.
However, the greatest importance ofit today is with regard to the plant wealth ofMalabar and their medicinal uses. The traditional indigenous ethno-medical information contained in it was gathered from ancient palm leaf manuscripts belonging to hereditary physicians' families ofMalabar ofthe 17th century.
As none ofthose manuscripts existtodayand as. Bortus Malabaricus and World Botany About a century after its publication, Carl Linnaeus, father ofmodem Botany, accepted Bartus Malabaricus as an authoritative manual on the plants ofAsia and made extensive use of it when establishing his new binomial system of nomenclature of plants.
Since the dried specimens of plants sent to Europe by Rheede could not be located, Linnaeus, due to his pronounced faith in this book, used, instead, the descriptions and illustrations contained in it to erect types ofmany of species and genera ofAsian and other tropical plants.
In his Species Plantarum published in and Genera Plantarum , Linnaeus used about Indian plants for erecting new species and genera, most of which from Bartus Malabaricus. Bartus Malabaricus is, therefore, fundamental in the floristic and taxonomic investigations ofAsian and tropical plants.
Establishment ofthe correct identity and nomenclature of the plants described in this book is, hence, of paramount importance to plant taxonomists the world over. As this is a pre-Linnaean work, with no known type specimens, the exact scientific identity of most ofthe medicinal plants described in it, were not correctly known and has been a subject of debate.
Linnaeus and many others after him used the illustrations and descriptions in it as the types of many botanical taxa erected by them, in accordance to the system of binomial nomenclature of plants. However, a lot of confusion existed in this matter, as the descriptions in the book and illustrations though very beautiful are not ofmodern scientific nonns.
The techniques of botanical description were only beginning to develop in 17 th century.
Botany itself was not an independent branch of science then in Europe but was only a part of Medical education. Morphology of various parts of the flowers was not properly understood and their functions mostly unknown. Therefore, the tenns and expressions used by Rheede and his collaborators to write the Latin descriptions of the plants in general and the flowers in particular in Hortus Malabaricus, do not always carry the technical meanings attributed to those very same tenns and expressions by botanists today.
The 17th century dialectical Malayalam names of the taxa which alone are given in this pre-Linnaean book , which could have given clues in some cases, have not been able to be interpreted correctly by others, mostly scientists not familiar with the intricacies of the language, who were looking for solutions oftaxonomic and nomenclatural problems.
The entire text being in antiquated Latin, the valuable infonnation contained in it is not readily available to many modern investigators and users either.
Present relevance of the 17 1JJ century Botany book The present relevance of the book today for us, however, is mainly two-fold. It is estimated that in the next five years the cost ofallopathic medicines will be 10 times more than what it is today, compelling the common people to fall back to their ancient traditional medical systems. Hortus Malabaricus provides the most authentic document ofour ancient, indigenous knowledge ofmedicinal plants and their uses, by helping to distinguish proven, locally available medicinal plants, to help our native people, giving the much needed solace to them.
Indigenous medical knowledge for self reliance in health care For the drug to be really effective, indeed the correct medicinal plant should be selected.. Apart from recognizing the correct medicinal plants recommended in Hortus Malabaricus by the traditional physicians, to effectively treat the concerned illnesses, establishing the correct botanical identity ofthem acceptable under the rules ofthe International Code ofBotanical Nomenclature, is also absolutely essential for all matters concerning the Biological Patent Laws and Intellectual Property Rights.
Despite the unique importance ofthe book, the correct scientific taxonomic identity of many of the plants of Malabar, as well as the medicinal properties of them, their methods of use, etc. An English Edition, recently published , contains a true, word by word translation ofall the 12 volumes of Hortus Malabaricus from the original old Latin into English.
In addition to the English translation, the correct scientific botanical nomenclature and identity ofall plants, acceptable under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBN , are given, along with their important synonyms and basionyms with author citations.
The process ofidentification was based not only on the descriptions and illustrations given in the original book, but also studying fresh collections ofthe plants made personally by the present author during the past few decades, from the localities in Malabar from where Rheede originally collected them years ago. Correct interpretation ofthe old dialectical Malayalam plant names also proved to be ofconsiderable help to arrive at conclusions about their identity in several instances. Medicinal properties ofthe concerned plants, as originally certified by the ancient local traditional Malabar physicians, who supplied all such information contained in it are translated and interpreted in this English Edition.
Commentaries on the Malayalam nomenclature, that in many cases are found to allude to the medicinal uses ofthe concerned plants, are given.
This annotated translation of Hortus Malabaricus, published for the first time, years after the publication of the original book is, therefore, of current relevance. The case ofpatenting ofturmeric, a plant that has been in use as a medicine in India for centuries, is well known.
When a US patent was awarded in to the University ofMississippi for the use of turmeric powder in wound healing, the matter created an uproar in India. Local people were taken aback when it was reported in the news papers that the use ofturmeric powder in wound healing, a property well known in India for many centuries, is patented by a US organization as their own invention. Under people's pressure, Indian Government had to legally challenge this at the US courts.
The US Patent Rules do not recognize foreign "undocumented" knowledge as 'prior art', if it is not known in the United States. Therefore, the argument that the 'invention' was common knowledge in India would have no legal standing in the US. It was only when the Indian Government produced sufficiently old, published documents including an ancient Sanskrit text the patent was revoked due to 'lack of novelty'.
The world courts follow a similar pattern. After this case, many foreign companies have been successfully acquiring patents of several Indian medicines ofplant origin. Patenting ofmany ofthem could not be prevented due to lack of any sufficiently old printed documents or books, to convincingly prove this traditional indigenous knowledge as 'prior art'.
The language constraint for reinvestigating and wise use of the valuable document, Hortus Malaricus has been resolved now by its translation to English and Malayalam Manilal, and The multilingual volumes, with their introductions, forewords, dedications, references, and certificates given by Van Rheede to the native physicians, all of which contained extensive biocultural and historical information about India, is now open to all researchers and academicians. By translating and interpreting this valuable document in English and Malayalam, Professor Manilal has contributed significantly towards the safeguarding of our natural plant wealth and indigenous knowledge from being exploited by foreign commercial interests.
The translation of the volumes needed to be widely publicized to highlight the biocultural glory of India, especially Kerala and there is also a need for the future policy processes to ensure the wise use of our already documented and yet to be documented traditional knowledge to ensure sustainable implementation of the present day development activities. A remarkable attempt to popularize the book as well as to portrait the works of Professor Manilal was successfully attempted by Joseph Antony Manlilal for his encouragement to initiate this work.
He has also reviewed the manuscript and provided productive comments. Challenges for Endogenous Development and Biocultural Diversity.
In Haverkort, B.
Endogenous Development and Biocultural Diversity. Heniger J, Manilal, K. Botany and History of Hortus Malabaricus, pp A Contribution to the History of Colonial Botany. Joseph Antony, ISBN Taxon 28 4: Manilal K S, Hortus Malabaricus of Van Rheede and floristic and ethnobotanical studies in India.
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BSI Coimbatore, Tamil nadu. Malayalam literary Survey, 3 4: Manilal K S, a. Manilal K S, b. Malayalam plant names from Hortus Malabaricus in modern Botanical Nomenclature. In Manilal, K. Manilal K S, c. The epigraphy of the Malayalam certificates in Hortus Malabaricus. Botany and History of Hortus Malabaricus, p. Hortus Malabaricus and the ethnoiatrical knowledge of ancient Malabar.
Ancient Science of Life, 4: Hortus Malabaricus and Itty Achuden: Brothers, Calicut, Hortus Malabaricus and its legal importance.
Niyama Sameeksha, 7 University of Kerala, Trivandrum. Hortus Malabaricus, a book on the plants of Malabar, and its impact on the religions of Christianity and Hinduism in 17th century Kerala. Indian J. Hortus Malabaricus: An account of heritage plants of Malabar. Journal of Ethnobotany, Physician Kottayam, 39 7: A treasury of our medicinal plant wealth Part I and II. Yoga, 35 Hortus Malabaricus and the socio-cultural heritage of India. Medicinal plants described in Hortus Malabaricus, the first Indian regional flora published in and its relevance to the people of India today.
Mukerjee S eds. University of Kalyani, West Bengal. Manilal K S and M Remesh, A analysis of the data on the medicinal plants medicinal plants recorded in Hortus Malabaricus.
Carl Linnaeus and Hortus Malabaricus: A th Anniversary Tribute to Species Plantarum. Rheedea, An Introductory Report. Taxon Mohan Ram H Y, Manilal Current Science, 89 Medicinal pteridophytes in Rheeds Hortus Malabaricus. Indian Fern Journal, 20 Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledg , 2 3: Modern Asian Studies 30 1: JSTOR Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 4 3: Sita Reddy, Making Heritage Legible: Who Owns Traditional Medical Knowledge?
International Journal of Cultural Property, Biodiversity, Sustainability and Education: Global Environmental Research Sunil C N and M Sivadasan, Flora of Alappuzha District, Kerala, India.
Suresh C R, TEEB, The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Mainstreaming the Economics of Nature: Retrieved 29th August, Hortus Idicus Malabaricus and its importance for Botanical Nomenclature. WHO, Traditional medicine: Key facts. WHO Fact sheet — http: The Diversity of Life. Related Papers. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong.
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Description Hortus Malabaricus Volume 3. The third Volume of Hortus Malabaricus. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published or registered with the U.