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Let's Study-The Figure! _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Let's Draw the Figure! _ _ _. _ _ They'll bring you The Romance Comics Trial - adelaide comics and books. Power Man, Iron Fist and White Tiger to up his game, allowing him to become ULTIMATE SPIDER-MAN! After turning down his dream spot with the Avengers. Amazing Spider-Man #1 – + Annuals () (Digital): The Amazing Spider-Man (abbreviated as ASM) is an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics, featuring the adventures of the fictional superhero Spider-Man. The Amazing Spider-Man Vol. 3 #1 –
Flash Thompson, a thickheaded bully. Specifically, this analysis will emphasize comments and posts from sci-fi o geek culture oriented websites Comicbookmovie. Towards a new system of racial stratification in the USA. Chicago, IL: Rethinking subculture: Love, in fact, represents the goal and utopia of this superhero film.
In a last ditch effort to save his company, Osborn uses himself as a guinea pig to test his weapons. Unfortunately, the test goes awry, giving him superpowers but also letting his aggressive instincts break free from the veneer of civilization.
In this dog-eat- dog world of economic competition and back stabbing, he vows revenge. As hypermale without concern for others, it is no accident that the Green Goblin is a rapacious capitalist whose main business is merchandizing deadly arms to the Pentagon.
Here, the film exposes a permanent cultural connotation to capitalism: Indeed, popular culture possesses a reservoir of anticapitalist mean- ings, which that are continually drawn upon to animate the mass narratives of our industrial culture. The narrative logic of their plots, backed up by dominant cultural codes and affective psy- chological fantasies, made a capitalist villain especially salient.
Preparing for battle, the Goblin dons a suit of armor. Jeffords 96 — In Spider-Man, Green Goblin is the character most male and most protected by a hard and shiny metallic exoskeleton. His facial mask has been hardened into a permanent threatening sneer, his muscles turned into machines, and his armature of meta-muscles forms a curving arc that ends with thrusting phallus—the sign of his aggressive masculinity cf.
Fiske — Instead, they become walking allegorical elements.
Symbols such as male hardness and lack of morality are rendered literal and concrete Clover Figure 1. When Osborn metamorphoses into Green Goblin, one of his first targets is a parade, a celebration by his company.
He inflicts pain upon normal people carousing and celebrating.
Dressed in exaggerated fash- ion, he rains down arbitrary death and destruction with a raucous laugh. In the first case, the bully inflicts pain for his amusement. In the second, the parent strikes out in anger over his losses. Similarly, Green Goblin as bad father, as hypermale, is all power and desire without law or compassion. In his extreme form, he inflicts pain and suffering just to see victims writhe.
The Green Goblin photo. All Rights Reserved.
Courtesy of Columbia Pictures. Kaplan MJ: What is a Girl Supposed to Do? Signified as normal, average, everywoman, she is pretty but not a beauty queen. She advertises her merit, that is, her cleavage, in an unselfconscious way cf. Butler; Kennedy — In sum, MJ is sexy but not in any explicit, conscious manner. She is a ripening, young virginal woman who is innocently and naturally attractive. As an un- pretentious, down-home girl, she lacks the sophistication to employ her sexuality to entrap men.
As girl next door, MJ projects a natural sexiness that is supposedly intrinsic to all women and attractive to all men. One after another, boys desire and fall for her, despite her doing little to invite their attentions.
Even Parker, who supposedly is first entranced by her an- gelic purity, desires her nonetheless. Democracy, at least the democratic consumer society of our era, rests ideologically upon a pleasure principle.
Such consumer societies celebrate their difference from all those tyrannical, puritanical, father-dominated societies. In free consumer societies, women and men are purportedly allowed to realize their own true pleasures and desires without coercive control. Supposedly, they are neither exploited nor repressed by the father.
Democracy is a society of free, albeit limited, pleasure, and the key paradigmatic instance of this pleasure is the celebration, commodifi- cation, and consumption of female sexuality see Birken; May. Against this democratic consumer society, supposedly stand out- moded tyrannical fathers.
In President George W. Behind the mask of law and religion and superego, they exact their own anger and revenge upon those who possess what they secretly desire see Luebbe — 22; Zizek — 06, Thus, it is no accident that the Goblin in one of his first acts of villainy attacks a carefree, celebratory parade that appears as pure enjoyment.
It is MJ, instead, who must transform her love to create the happy couple. In the course of the film, MJ moves from boyfriend to boyfriend until she realizes her true love in Peter Parker. Her affections shift from bad love object to bad love object to good.
In essence, she journeys from a submission to male power, to desire for male as male, to love for the unique individual male. Flash Thompson, a thickheaded bully. She, instead, hangs with the muscle-bound stud and is happy to jump into his new convertible. He is self-centered and abusive. He represents mere male power, unadorned with compassion or morality. However, he lacks the evil cleverness to be a true male villain. Phase Two: Spider-Man stands as white knight.
He is male power fortified by virtue. As rescuing hero, he is a protective fatherly figure. As mysterious stranger masked by his battle armor, he is an abstract generic man without individuality. His hidden identity permits romantic fantasies to flourish. Spider-Man res- cues MJ, taking her from the humdrum of everyday life and male de- gradation. He assures her that she is someone special to be loved.
Of course, it has been a staple of realist writing to criticize women and their mass-produced romantic fantasies. Kaplan portray romance stories as a dream world sure to mislead youth. They are dangerous fantasies that make the female susceptible to male predations. To repeat, superheroes, like the chivalrous white knight, often ap- pear armored.
Hard outer clothing protects the inner soft being from his own vulnerabilities, whether from outside attacks or from his own impulses and feelings. Such a distant, mysterious, powerful male, the fantasy goes, will eventually—under the soothing loving ministrations of the woman—melt, throw off his mask, and allow himself to express love once again. His mask equals the past pain from the women who have betrayed him.
After Spider-Man rescues MJ from a harassing gang of underclass ethnics, she concedes a kiss to her white knight. Amidst a downpour of rain, she provocatively approaches Spidey. As active sexual agent, MJ advances toward the masked man, who sits waiting, hanging upside down.
She slowly peels down his mask. The undressing reveals a thick neck pulsing with veins and red lips like an open sore, but the exposed body strangely lacks both eyes and nose. The female dream of rescue by a mysterious male hero coalesces with the male adolescent fantasy that mere masses of maturing muscles are sufficient to capture the admiring female gaze. As male rescuer, the masked Parker stands for fatherly male charismatic power. His powerful male body seems to exercise a magical entrancing attraction.
Apparently, Parker was not confused when he celebrated his new array of pectoral muscles and tight abdomen Figure 2. Romance narrates the adven- tures and misadventures of the hero as he gradually coming to realize the value of the heroine and his caring love for her by overcoming his own callousness, indifference, and suspicion, which as a male has been bred into him.
Image of Spiderman and Mary Jane kissing. In Spider-Man, unlike many a film that turns on the reform of the male under the influence of a woman, Parker does not need to become less male, more open a man, more female cf. He is already a feminized loving man.
Director Raimi cast his actor against superhero expectation and chose Tobey Maguire, who is soft spoken, provides a low-key understated persona, and offers a childlike vulnerability in his performance.
One might say that Parker matches the ideal traits prescribed for men by the genre of romance Radway ch. Parker already possesses a special caring, protectiveness, and observant intuitive understanding of the heroine. He only needs to communicate this love, his aunt tells him from her hospital bed. Once he lets out his emotions, MJ casts aside the mysterious masked Spider-Man for his alter ego, the long-time caring and compassionate Parker.
She rejects blunt masculine power for a soul- binding psychological model of love. Happiness supposedly consists in the intimate communion with and appreciation of the other as a unique valuable person. Picture of Peter Parker in cemetery. Thus the film closes in a curtain of tears the second best ending for a romance and the possibility of a sequel Figure 3. Meanwhile, Parker seems to be haunted by men who claim a great intimacy with him.
In all this, the film propagates a certain psychological vision of the hero in contrast to the fantastic persecutory foes he must confront. Consequently, the trope of the bad father functions as a particularly effective and accessible set type with the formulaic dramas of Hollywood.
Furthermore, it is the association of this imagery within the captains of industry, that is, capitalists, that helps account for the predominance of anticapitalist imagery within the very commercial industry of Hollywood. In conformity with the requirements of the romance genre, Parker is defined in contrast to this dark father as a virtuous hero yes, but one who is soft and caught up in the throes of love. Notes A tip of the hat in thanks to Terry Elkiss for his editing, scholary insights, and acerbic wit.
Certain male characters, says Gledhill, starkly dramatize the attraction and repulsion of mas- culinity for the female audience. In particular, they represent lessons in the nature and exercise of power—physical, material, or psychological, and often violent. Such business publications as the Wall Street Journal bemoan the anticapitalist, liberal bias of Hollywood, but here I point to the rich narrative sources for portraying business as bad.
In this scene, the film reproduces the male fantasy that practically defines pornography and infiltrates many such popular cultural forms as rock music. In this fantasy, the male body supposedly exercises its own subtle, irresistible, charismatic power over the female. The man hopes that his corpus will exercise the same fetishistic hold over the woman that the abstract female body exercises over him.
The fantasy assuages the insecurity of the male before the active willful female, and it also represent a type of anger and degradation of women; the woman should prostrate and prostitute herself to men and their bodies Weiniger Works Cited Andrae, Thomas. The History and Histo- ricity of Superman. U of California P, Bellour, Raymond. The Analysis of Film.
Indiana UP, Kaplan Birken, Lawrence. Consuming Desire: Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, A Concise History, vol. New York, Brooks, Peter. The Melodramatic Imagination. New York: Columbia UP, Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Routledge, Clover, Caroline. Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film. Princeton, NY: Princeton UP, Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction. U of Minnesota P, Feiffer, Jules.
The Great Comic Book Heroes. Seattle, WA: October , August 5, A 9 and up. Original Price. Joe Quesada. Cover Artists. Scott Campbell. Dan Buckley. No Place Like Home ". Mark Waid. Mario Alberti. Andres Mossa. Joe Caramagna.
Brian Michael Bendis. Morry Hollowell. Chris Eliopoulos. Tom Brennan Stephen Wacker. Previous Issue. Amazing Spider-Man A poster on i09, was straight forward i his o e t, Pete Pa ke is hite o the o i s. Pete Pa ke ust e hite o the o ies. Pe iod. This was perhaps the most common argument ade those opposed to Do ald Glo e s asti g as Spider-Man.
Another user posted, I'm sorry, but comics that have history and legacy about their characters should not be up for your social experimentation. Key to their argumentation was the way in which commenters attempt to pre-empt the accusation of racism by claiming that it is not about race and their assertion of color-blindness while making their argument.
These posters use canon as means of maintaining Pete Pa ke s hite ess. What is interesting about the appeal to canon is the claim that their position was not racial in inspiration.
A post on i09 argued, I do 't thi k it's e essa il a ist fo people to e app ehe si e a out the idea of a la k actor playing Spider-man. I think it's about wanting the representation of the character in the film to losel ese le the i age of the ha a te ou ha e i ou i d [si ]. It was additionally brought up by several commenters as to whether or not the re-casting would just stop with Peter Parker. On Comicbookmovie, o e poste oted: Black Peter Parker is an awful idea. Think about it: Another user suggested that I'd be interested to see Spiderman as black, but have Mary Jane staying white.
For instance, many acknowledge the re-imaginings of superhero origins — across a variety of media within comic books, film and television over the years. Correspondingly, commenters have also argued against race bending and racial re-casting in all cases. For instance, a poster on Comicbookmovie point out that: Changing the race of a character never works no matter which way it goes. I hate the white washing 6 This is an interesting comment that is not elaborated on by the poster and those responding.
However it raises interesting questions regarding the connection between race bending and gender. A user on i09 made a similar comment noting the importance of the source material, The closer things look to their source material, the more likely I am to enjoy it.
Don't shit all over my childhood by casting Will Smith as a role iconically played by a white guy. The reliance on canon, however, aggresively debated within geek culture by fans of comic books, Star Wars, Star Trek and other science fiction Hills, ; Proctor, This is especially the case in o i ooks, he e histo is o sta tl ei g e-written.
Continuity problems have long plagued comic ook u i e ses. In , DC Comics essentially re- booted many of their monthly superhero books following the universe collapsing events of the Flashpoint storyline to create the New Another strategy is the implementation of retroactive continuity changes retcon.
Rather than re-booting an entire series or creating a new universe, a retcon is an attempt to add new stories within the mainstream narrative to resolve contradictions within canon. This can have the effect of resolving long standing errors, but in turn create new contradictions and anger fans. An example of et o i g is Ma el Co i s story, Truth: Red, White and Black, that reveals the go e e t s use of Af i a A e i a soldie s as test su je ts to e-create the formula used to turn Steve Rogers into Captain America.
This six-part series was not only inspired by the very real Tuskegee E pe i e ts, ut as a o s ious atte pt to i g Ma el s fi tio al histo i li e ith eal histo. In other words, Truth, like other alterations to canon is an attempt to reconcile fiction to an extent with histo.
In other words, retconning and changes to canon are quite common. This was noted by commentators and posters who favorable toward a black Spider-Man. An i09 poster regarding history and lega a gued, But its ok for comics to play with their own history and legacy?
Isn't that what reboots and retcons are all about? For example, there are more radical attempts to make stories more realistic beyond inserting people of color into white mainstream history. The most notable re-imaging was the eatio of the Ulti ate Ma el i p i t i to update ha a te s a d sto ies created in the s — s. This involved re-situating Cold War era hero origins and backgrounds in a contemporary context. Importantly, these stories, including the replacement of Peter Parker with Miles Morales, are meant to be a sepa ate o ld Earth than that of the mainstream Earth continuity that most fans are fa ilia ith.
In other words, they are not erasing or changing the stories that most fans are familiar ith. While Ultimate Marvel has not been without controversy amongst fans, the greatest one was the re- casting of Spider-Man. Miles Morales made his first appearance in a issue of Ultimate Fallout Issue 4.
Not unlike the original Spider-Man, Morales is young and insecure after gaining his powers. Following, the very public death of Spider-Man, Miles meets Peter s friends and allies, and takes on the identity to honor the fallen hero.
Since the creation of Morales, he has been regarded very positively by readers of Ultimate Spider-Man. In a Comicbookmovie review of Do ald Glo e s stand-up comedy act in which he mentions the Spider-Man controversy , the debate over his potential casting was re-opened on the website.
He e, the poster appears to be fine with Miles Morales appearing in an Ultimate universe film, but not a mainstream film.
In fact, Ultimate Marvel was often cited by those for, or were indifferent to casting a Black Spider-Man. This indicates a spectrum of different positions regarding race bending and Spider-Man.
A common example of race bending brought up by commentators was how Marvel super-spy Nick Fury was changed from white to black in the Ultimate universe. In the s, the graying Caucasian hero was re-imagined to look like Samuel Jackson who would in turn play the character in later film adaptations.
Did it hu t the sto? He's a bad ass Nick Fury. But, I've never really cared about Nick Fury. Outside of the Marvel Ultimate continuity, famous examples include the s Batman television program in which Julie Newmar was replaced by Eartha Kitt in the role of Catwoman. Many of these other examples were brought up by commenters as well.
However, as the posters mentioned above noted, these characters might not be iconic or mainstream enough to created outrage. The question, therefore, is how far race bending deviates from both the societal acceptance of story and character. For instance, Harvey Dent has since been portrayed by white actors in films where his alter-ego Two-Face was a major antagonist for Batman. As such, we need to ask how much does race really affect canon?
It has been argued by many number fans on i Comic book historian Steve Kistler pointed out, "There is nothing in the comic or the origin of the character that has to do with what ethnicity [Peter Parker] is, the color of his ski , o his a kg ou d… o l that he's a kid f o Quee s" uoted i Ma shall. Mo eo e , i a MTV interview with Stan Lee on the potential casting of Glover, he states that it "shouldn't be a racial issue" Marshall, Nonetheless, the potential casting of a Black Spider-Man in a movie or in the comics became a concern.
Character - The dude is your prototypical emo white nerd, his hobbies are photography and science 7 Given the malleable history of comic book heroes, the fixation with canon does not seem to be sufficient in understanding the obsession with keeping Spider-Man white.
Continuity and canon are vital to fandom. However, according to Proctor it a also th eate the fa s o tologi al se u it.
This is h canon is selectively applied. When Spider-Man is marketed and re-interpreted for foreign markets there is no uproar. He has already been re-interpreted in other countries with support from Marvel. As one poste e a ked, An Indian Spider-Man: The idea isn't new!
So a reboot film can use what's already been established, without it being token. Win-wi , i opi io. The above suggests that much of the tension may not be as much about a black Spider-Man, but of a black Peter Parker.
Nonetheless, the fluidity of other fictional ha a te s a e o the la k the eof demonstrates the discursive and complex nature of race in popular culture. As Omi and Winant argue race and racism are not a given; rather such categories are socially created and frequently o tested. This can be seen in literature, film, television, video games and of course comic books.
Du Bois pointed out, the "problem of the twentieth-century is the problem of the color- line Du Bois, , p. This is a distinction is not only of historical significance, but one of continued economic, political and social consequence.
For instance, Asians and Latinos struggle with these t o e t e es alo g a spe t u ith a p efe ed pole also: Dalmage notes that racial borders continue to be patrolled in such a way that real and symbolic violence remain common place.
For example, the claim by Fox News and Glenn Beck that Marvel Comics is involved in a left-wing political conspiracy by creating a black Spider-Man is an example of violent rhetoric frequently appears when the color-line is challenged. While media pundits and fans debating comic books may appear to be a minor issue, similar claims of a left-wing conspiracy are made of affirmative action, diversity, and political correctness. In other words, the controversy is not just about canon, or perhaps even just about Peter Parker being white.
It is specifically about casting of an African- American in an iconic role. It is not a black Spider-Man that is most scary. Rather it is a black Peter Parker, which challenges the color-line far more. As such, the case of Spider-Man provides insight into the way racial borders are patrolled in popular culture just as they are in real life. Comic book scholar Peter Coogan argues that superheroes can be defined through their mission, powers, and identity.
In fact, anticolonial movements in popular fiction which are arguably heroic acts were often depicted not only as threats against Western security, but through white protagonists battling da k skinned savages Wright, , p. This motif is particularly common in later American western stories, as well as in Orientalist stories in the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
In such stories, we often see seemingly non-white protagonists and heroines dis o e that the ha e hite Eu opea lood i the sto s li a — a discovery that legitimizes them as heroes. When characters of color were not faceless villains, they were frequently relegated to being side- kicks such as Tonto for the Lone Ranger or Kato for the Green Hornet.
Like other heroes of color, black superheroes, they are marked by their la k ess oth isuall a d i a e. The a e t pi all u a he oes su h as Luke Cage o f o fi tio al African countries such as Black Panther see: Singer, , p.
While writers and their characters such as Isaiah Bradley and Luke Cage attempt to challenge such characterizations, there is no doubt that a racial hierarchy still constrains them Bould, ; Wanzo, I othe o ds, the e is the o tai e t of minority he oes hose he o status can challenge the racial status quo see: Kim, ; Madison, Given this background, it is not surprising that changes to other characters biography and race did not have the same level of controversy as Spider-Man a character that is more mainstream and popular.
In fact, it appears that race and specifically blackness plays a major role in challenging the legitimacy of a non-white Spider-Man. A popula a gu e t agai st Pete Pa ke s a e ei g ha ged is that being black would make him less of nerd. One commenter on the original i09 a ti le a gued that, As long as Glover plays it as a white guy i. I should k o , the do it [si ].
A othe poste e a ked, it's very simple, a black man would never put up with the BS that peter parker puts up with. Here, the belief that a la k tee age a t speak i full se te es, e e o, o ea e d 9 While non-white characters have historically been portrayed as villains, they are less frequently portrayed as super villains Cunningham, Co se ue tl , this plays a role in the construction and definition of heroism for heroes of color.
On io9, so eo e oted that: Pete Pa ke happe s to e hite. He's ot a white character. His hite ess does 't defi e ho he is. Another person on the same site put it more simply: U less spide s a e a ist he a still get it just the sa e.
Would that ha ge u h? More significantly, posters noted that for other characters it is not or at least less of a racial issue. There have been are a number of changes to backgrounds of characters — including their race. Furthermore, when the debate over why one case of race bending is racist and another is not, often arguments come back to the issue of canon. On Comicbookmovie, a o e te oted that, ha gi g something like Blade or Shaft, which being black is a fu da e tal pa t of thei ha a te , does othi g to Pete Pa ke.
On i09, a poster sarcastically noted, Arnold Schwarzenegger as Luke Cage. It doesn't work the other way, too? In addition, some posters noted the inconsistent outrage when non-white characters are re-cast as white. For instance, someone on i09, pointed out: Or a British Indian actor playing a I a i fo si ea s ith a indefinably Arab-ish so t of accent. Or Peter Sellers as Fu Manchu [sic]. If asti g white actors in the Last Airbender movie was racist, then why isn't it racist against white people to cast a black actor as Spiderman?
I espo se to this poste , so eo e replied, Ok just for clarification, the cast of The Last Airbender was race bended and that's racism because the character was originally Asian in the cartoon. Now I'm being told that by not being ok with a black spiderman, even though the original was white, is also being racist?
In the case of Spider-Man, the association of nerd identity and related skills to whiteness, is often directly contrasted against black identity Kendall, As Brown notes contemporary 10 This can perhaps be compared to controversies over the casting of a Black Santa Claus. Given the wa i hi h hite ess, la k ess a d as uli it a e o st u ted a d ep ese ted i ultu e a d society, black heroes are frequently characterized as one-dimensional fierce strong warriors favoring brawn over intellect.
As such, it is not surprising fans believe that making Peter Parker black would have consequences for his character and perhaps his romantic relationships. On i09 The only thing I'd worry about is MJ. Her personality just wouldn't fit in a black skin.
Political Correctness in Comic Books and Real Life As mentioned in preceding sections of this article, comic book publishers have increased diversity a d the e e e a fa s o the e sites I studied that suppo ted Glo e s ha e to auditio fo the role.
While discourses both for and against race bending reveal a great deal about fan affect and emotion, their positions parallel broader societal discourses concerning race.
For instance, on RottenTomatoes. This ultra PC, super-sensitve society we live in creates so much resentment amongst its citizens and stories like this whether you agree or don't a e the easo h [si ].
While explicitly political comments such as this were less prevalent, it was certainly a sentiment that lay beneath other criticisms. In other words, comic book fan culture is not very different from the broader American culture when it comes to race.
In both fiction and non-fiction, race certainly plays a role in whether or not people believe someone is qualified for a job or belongs in a position. Moss and Tilly argued that employers presume that young Black ales la k the soft skills eeded for the work place. Not only does this affect hiring, but it affects placement and promotions as well Maume, Given the criticisms from online commentators, it appears that while African-American heroes may be fast and strong, they do not have the additio al soft skills o ha a te isti s to e o e a i o i super hero.
Affirmative action and diversity initiatives have attempted to resolve many of these problems. This is pe haps h supe he o tea s te d to efle t so ial a d ultu e di e sit despite ai tai i g a glass eili g i hi h typically white men lead such as the X-Men, Avengers, Justice League. Therefore, the acceptance of some super heroes of color, yet the denial of re-casting top tier heroes as non-white parallels the way in hi h di e sit a p ote t, athe tha halle ge the racial status quo Collins, , p.
This olo less histo is a el uestio ed fo oth popular fiction and nonfiction. However, when it is questioned — that is when race is brought into the picture — the response not only downplays the importance of race, but accuses the accuser of being the real racist.
Examples of this can be seen in the Texas history textbook controversy. In , The Texas State Board of Education revised their curriculum with a focus on what they deemed to be the key figures and events in American history. The narrative presented garnered a great deal of controversy, because it largely excluded the achievements and struggles of non-white Americans. Such moves by politicians parallel the fan reaction or fear that their history and very being is being re-written or attacked Carroll, ; Perry, Both Earth and Ultimate Marvel are typically combined with the original stories in other media such as movies, television programs and video games.
Perhaps, there is fear that this change despite being outside of the mainstream continuity will become the new understanding of canon. The Edge of Time video game although the game describes it simply as not being worn by Peter Parker and does not mention Miles Morales by name. However, this concern and its corresponding fear that reveals the continued significance of the color-line in the so-called post-racial America.
While change is possible and real, it is also arguable that such changes are not as radical as conservative critics claim. As journalist Leonard Pitts 12 This can perhaps be compared to debates over the Confederate Flag, Southern culture, and the history of slavery see: In conclusion, what we see is that the color-line is defended in both fictional and virtual worlds.
In such cases, discussants claim that the are not racist, nor are their positions.
Yet, embedded in this color-blindness is a very explicit notion of who could or could not, and should or should not that in turn reproduces a racial hierarchy.
As such, an analysis of online comic fans positio s reveals not only their attitudes regarding race bending. Rather, it is a microcosm of broader societal attitudes regarding racial progress. Works Cited Alba, R. Remaking the American mainstream. Harvard University Press. Babb, V.