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Title: The 12th Planet Book I of The Earth Chronicles. THE PRIME SOURCE for the biblical verses quoted in The Twelfth Planet is the Old Testament in its original Hebrew text. The rendering of Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Hittite texts has engaged a legion of scholars for. It took a war-a fierce and bloody war-to bring to light, just decades ago, one of the most enigmatic ancient sites in the Near East. If not the most enigmatic. homeranking.info? Picture. All of this Books FREE PDF. Sitchin Zecharia - The End of Days Armageddon and the Prophecies of the Return.
But, as they were unearthed legal documents in Mari and Nuzi, it was being left that a man clear yes that hermanastra could marry with one. Therefore, the sumerios, acadios and Babylonian kings opened to their inscriptions of car adoration describing how Enlil had called to them to the Royalty. Tan apreciadas eran las prendas de Senaar Sumer , que la gente estaba dispuesta a arriesgar su vida con tal de hacerse con ellas. It is had by demonstrated that the cultural, religious roots and historical of old the Persians they go back to the primitive empires of Babilonia and Asiria, whose height and fall are registered in the Old Testament. The full field equipment of instruments is maintained in its place with the aid of two series of strap that intercross the back and the chest of the goddess.
Apples, pears, olives, higos, almonds, pistachos, nuts; all had their origin in Near East, and thence they spread to Europe and to other parts of the world. Certainly, we cannot make another thing more than to remember than the Old Testament went ahead in several millenia to our scholars at the time of identifying this same zone like that in which the first orchard of the world settled down: It was in a earth watered by four great rivers, two of which they were the Tigris and the Euphrates.
As much the Bible as science agrees completely. Science says to us that the process was from the wild grass to wild cereals, soon to arrive until cultivated cereals and to follow with the shrubs and fruit trees. And thus it was: The Earth produced grass; cereals that by seeds produced seeds, according to its species; and trees that give fruit, that contains the seed in its interior, according to its species.
The Man, says the Bible to us, became shepherd shortly after becoming agriculturist. The students are completely in agreement with this Biblical sequence of the facts. The first animal in being domesticated was the dog, and not necessarily like better friend of the Man but also, probably, like food. One thinks that this could happen around the a. The first bony rest of dog have been in Iran, Iraq and Israel. The ewe was domesticated more or less by the same time; in the cave of Shanidar were rest of ewes of around a.
C, that demonstrated that great part of the young ewes of every year was sacrificed by their meat and its skins. The goats, that also give milk, did not take in following them; and the pigs, and the cattle with horns and without them was the following ones in being domesticated. This steep change in happening of the human subjects, happened around the a.
The name is only appropriate if the main raw material of the Man is considered, who continues being the stone. Their dwellings in the mountainous zones continued being of stone, their communities protected with walls of stone and his first agricultural tool - the sickle was done of stone.
One of such images, found in the north of Israel and dated in the ninth millenium a. Fig 3. Nevertheless, observing the things as a whole, more it would be adapted to denominate to this was more that a. In the lapse of not more than 3, years - one night, for the temporary lapses of that interminable beginning, the Man was made agriculturist, and he domesticated to the plants and the wild animals.
Later, it could not be otherwise, it came a new era.
The scholars call the Age of New Stone Neolithic , but the term is completely inadequate, because the main change that took place around the a. C was the one of the appearance of the ceramics. For reasons that still elude our scholars - but who they will be clarified as we expose our story on prehistoric events, the march of the Man towards the civilization was confined, during the first millenia from the a. C, to high territories of Near East. The discovery of the multiple uses that could be given the clay at the same time took place that the Man let his dwellings in mountains to settle in fangosos valleys.
On the seventh millenium a. C, the arc of civilization of Near East was flooded of cultures of the clay or the ceramics, that elaborated a great number of utensils, ornamentos and statuettes. Towards the 5, a. C, in Near East clay objects and ceramics of excellent quality and design were being made. But, once again, the progress slowed down and, towards the a. C, according to indicates the archaeological evidences, was a new regression. The ceramics became simpler, and the stone utensils - a relic of the Age of Stone returned to predominate.
The inhabited places reveal little rest. Some of the places that had been centers of the industry of the ceramics and the clay began to give in, and the manufacture of the clay disappeared.
A mysterious hand removed, once again, to the Man of its declivity, and it elevated it until a level of culture, knowledge and still greater civilization.
Later, the travellers who returned to Europe after passing by Egypt spoke of imposing buried pyramids and average city-temple in the sand, guarded by strange stone beasts called esfinges. One of its officials found near Rosetta a stone slab in which a. The deciphering of the writing and the language of old Egypt, along with the archaeological efforts that followed, kept awake to the western man who had existed a great civilization in that place long before the coming of the Greek civilization.
The Egyptian annotations spoke of real dynasties that began around the a. C, two millenia before the beginning of a Greek civilization that, reaching its maturity between centuries v and IV a. C, was plus an upstart of last hour that a engendradora of civilizations.
By logic that could seem this conclusion, the facts militated against. The Greek scholars spoke from visits to Egypt, but the old sources of knowledge of which they spoke found in some other place. Syria and Anatolia, and nonEgypt, was the main avenues through which it had arrived until Greek a still more old civilization. C , the students began to discover similarities between the Semitic civilizations more and more and Greek.
Professor Cyrus H. Gordon Forgotten Scripts; For Evidence the Minoan Language opened new horizons to the investigation when demonstrating that a primitive minoica writing, Linear call To, it seemed to belong to a Semitic language. The Greek alphabet, from which they derive the Latin alphabet and ours, even comes from Near East. Later, already in century V a. It is possible to be demonstrated easily that the Greek writing and the Latin, and, therefore, the foundations of the western culture, only come from Near East whereupon we compare the order, the names, the signs and, even, the numerical values of the very later the original alphabet of Near East with Greek and Latin.
Fig 4. The students knew, of course, of the contacts that had Greek with Near East in the first millenium a. C, contacts that culminated with the victory of Alexander Magno on the Persians in a. The Greek chronicles contained much information about those Persians and of their earth that more or less corresponded with those of the Iran of nowadays. Nevertheless, everything was not so simple. In spite of the supposed foreign origin of the invaders, the Old Testament deals with them like integral part the Biblical events.
Fig 5. It is had by demonstrated that the cultural, religious roots and historical of old the Persians they go back to the primitive empires of Babilonia and Asiria, whose height and fall are registered in the Old Testament. Since then, it was known this writing like cuneiform.
Intrigued by so dispersed discoveries, Paul Emile Botta put itself in way in to direct the first archaeological excavation, as he is understood in our days. He selected a place in the north of Mesopotamia, near the present Mosul, call now Jorsabad. Botta did not take in establishing that the cuneiform inscriptions named to that place like Dur Sharru Kin. This city, the capital of the king asirio, had as center a magnificent real palace whose walls were decorated with bas-relief; bas-relief that, if they had put one behind another one, would have extended throughout almost two kilometers.
Fig 6. The design of the city and the sculptures portrayed a form of life of great magnitudes. The palaces, the temples, the houses, the stables, the warehouses, the walls, the porches, the columns, the adornments, the statues, the art works, the towers, the inclines, the terraces, the gardens, everything, were finished.
Not to be less than the French, the English appeared in scene in the person of Sir Austin Henry Layard, who settled down his place of Tigris work down, to about sixteen kilometers of Jorsabad. The Biblical names and events began to recover life. Layard also unearthed it, and turned out to be Nimrud, the military center of Asiria.
It was there where Salmanasar II raised to a obelisco in memory of its expeditions and military conquests. The beginnings of their kingdom were Babel, Erek and Acad, earth cities all of them of Senaar. Between and , several equipment directed by W. Andrae excavated the zone and discovered the ruins of Assur, the religious center of the asirios, in addition to their older capital. More or less by the same time at which it was being excavated Assur, the equipment directed by R.
Koldewey was completing the excavation of Babylonia, Biblical Babel, a vast extension of palaces, hanging temples and gardens, with their inevitable zigurat. And it did not spend long time before some objects and inscriptions both kept awake the history of empires that had competed by the control of Mesopotamia: Babilonia and Asiria, one in the south and another one in the north.
To its ascents and falls, to its fights and their coexistence, both they conformed the highest of the civilization throughout about 1, years, arising two to the light around a.
C respectively. Although they were rival throughout all its history, would be difficult to emphasize significant differences between Asiria and Babilonia, as much in cultural questions as material. Even though Asiria called to its supreme God Assur, and Babylonia acclaimed to Marduk, the pantheons were, by the others, virtually equal.
Many museums in the world have between their more valuable pieces the ceremonial porches, the winged bulls, bas-relief, the quadrigae, tools, utensils, jewels, statues and other objects done of all the imaginable materials that have been extracted of knolls of Asiria and Babilonia.
But the true treasures of these kingdoms were their registries written: The common language that it formed the cultural bow, historical and religious between Asiria and Babilonia was acadio, the first well-known Semitic language; resemblance, although previous, to the Hebrew, the arameo, the Phoenician and the cananeo. But the asirios and the Babylonians never affirmed to have invented their language or writing; in fact, in many of his small boards there is a final note in which one says that that text is an original copy of the oldest one.
Then, who invented the cuneiform writing and developed that language, with its precise grammar and its rich vocabulary? And so that asirios as as much Babylonian called to their language acadio? In his inscriptions, it said that its empire extended, by the grace of his God Enlil from the Inferior Sea the Persian Gulf to the Superior Sea one thinks that one is the Mediterranean.
The students remained petrified. Perhaps had, because - asked themselves the students, a kingdom, the one of Kis, still more old that the one of Acad? And, once again, the Biblical versicles were significant. Kus generated to Nemrod, that it was first that became prepotent in the Earth… The beginnings of their kingdom were Babel, Erek and Acad. The students began then to literally accept the rest of the inscriptions: The archaeological discoveries not only vindicated Biblical chronicles, but that also seemed to assure that it must have had kingdoms, cities and civilizations in Mesopotamia even before the third millenium a.
The only question was the following one:. The key that would open the door for the understanding of the enigma would be still another language. The students realized immediately of which the names had a meaning, not only in Hebrew and the Old Testament, but in all the zone of Near East of the antiquity.
All the acadios, Babylonian and asirios names of people and places had a meaning. But, if the names had a meaning, which was the mysterious language in which they had sense? The investigators threw another look to the inscriptions here-day to him. Basically, the cuneiform writing acadia was syllabic: The only possible explanation for this phenomenon was that those signs were the surpluses of a system of previous writing that used ideogramas. Therefore, acadio must of be preceded by another language that used a method of writing similar to the one of the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
It did not take in becoming obvious that one more a older language, and not only a form of older writing, was implied in all that. The students were whereupon the acadios inscriptions and texts made ample use of lent words, words that had taken intact from another language in the same way that other modern languages have borrowed the English word stress.
And this became specially evident in those aspects in which it had involved some type of scientific or technical terminology, as well as in subjects related to the Gods and skies. A group of 23 small boards finished with the phrase: Another text took an enigmatic phrase of he himself Assurbanipal:.
The God of you write them has granted the gift to me to know its art.
I have been initiated in the secrets of the writing. But in January of , Jules Oppert suggested before the French Society of Numismatist and Archaeology who was to recognize the existence of a language and a town pre-acadio. Shin'ar, was the Biblical name of Shumer. At the moment at which the students accepted these conclusions, which was opened to passage to had to happen. Without these ancient dictionaries, still we would be far from being able to read sumerio. And, with its aid, a vast literary and cultural treasure was opened.
Fig 7. When deciphering themselves the language and the writing sumerias, and when occurring account of which the sumerios and their culture were the origin of the profits acadio-Babylonian-asirios, occurred a great impulse him to the archaeological investigations in the south of Mesopotamia.
All the evidences. The first significant excavation of a place sumerio began some French archaeologists in ; and the discoveries in this singular place were so enormous there that other archaeologists continued excavating until without being able to finish the work. This dynasty had had its beginnings around the a. C and had lasted almost years. During this time, 43 ensi's reigned uninterruptedly in Lagash. Their names, their genealogies and the duration of their reigns neatly were written down.
The inscriptions provided great amount of information. Fig 8. Ensi Eanatum call left an inscription in a clay brick that says clearly that these sumerios sovereigns only could assume the throne with the approval of the Gods. Also it wrote down the conquest of another city, revealing to us the existence of other cities been in Sumer at the beginning of the third millenium a. The successor of Eanatum, Entemena, wrote about the construction of a temple and of it to have adorned with gold and silver, of to have planted gardens and to have extended brick wells.
He boasted of to have constructed to a strength with watchtowers and facilities where to berth the ships. One of the sovereigns better known Lagash was Gudea. Was a great amount of statuettes of him, showing to him in all of them with a votiva position, praying to its Gods.
This position was not simulated: Gudea had been devoted to the adoration of Ningirsu, its main deity, and to the construction and the. Their many inscriptions reveal that, in the search of exquisite construction equipments, it brought gold of Africa and Anatolia, silver of Montes Taurus, cedars of the Lebanon, other little common wood of the Ararat, receives of the mountain range of the Zagros, diorite of Egypt, carnelian of Ethiopia, and other earth materials that the students have not been able to still identify.
God in the desert, it did it according to instructions very detailed that this one had given him. Ur-Nammu, sovereign of Ur, related a millenium before its God, when ordering that it constructed for him a temple to him and when giving him the pertinent instructions, had given a twig to him to measure and a roll of cord for the work. Fig 9. One of the statues of Gudea shows to him seated, with this small board on the knees; on the small board the divine drawing can be observed with clarity.
Fig Even being wise, Gudea was disturbed with those architectonic instructions, and asked for the advice of a goddess that could interpret the divine messages. It explained the meaning of the instructions, the measures of the plane, as well as the size and the form to him of the bricks that were to use.
Later, it recruited to , people for the work of construction. In , in his book Der Alte Orient, A. Billerbeck he was able to decipher at least one part of the divine architectonic instructions. The old drawing, in partially even deteriorated statue, comes accompanied in the superior part by groups of vertical lines whose number diminishes as it increases the space among them.
It would seem that the divine architects were able to give the complete instructions for the construction of a temple with seven elevations from a simple plane of plant accompanied by seven variable scales. One says that the war spurs the Man so that it advances so much in the scientist as in the material, but seems that in the old Sumer it was the construction of a temple which spurred to people and its sovereigns to reach a greater technological development, commercial, of transports, architectonic and organizational.
The capacity to carry out so important construction site in agreement with prepared architectonic plans, to organize and to feed an enormous mass of workers, to smooth the Earth and to elevate knolls to make bricks and to transport stones, to bring strange metals and other materials from so far, to fuse metals and to give to form to utensils and ornamentos, speaks to us of an important civilization, already in the heat of splendor in the third millenium a.
Even with the masters that implies the construction of until the oldest sumerios temples, these were not more than the end of iceberg of the possibilities and the wealth of the material profits of the first great civilization that is known the Man.
In addition to the invention and the development of the writing, without which a great civilization could not get to be, to the sumerios also the invention of the press is attributed to them. Also they invented to the precursor of our rotating ones: The seal also allowed one to certify the authenticity of documents; a new impression could always be made to compare it with the one of the document at issue. Certainly, it is not possible to reach certain degrees of civilization without a parallel advance of the mathematics.
In some aspects, this system is superior to our present one; in any case, he is unquestionablily superior to the later systems of the Greeks and the Romans.
To the sumerios it allowed to divide them in fractions and to multiply million, to calculate the roots or to elevate the numbers to several powers. Their parallel profits in astronomy, the establishment of the calendar and other feats mathematician-celestia them of similar caliber will much more receive a precise study in later chapters.
Los primeros objetos de metal moldeado se encontraron en las tierras altas de los Montes Zagros y del Taurus. No se puede fundir, refinar y alear sin un abundante suministro de combustibles para alimentar hornos y crisoles. Una tablilla encontrada en Ur, de cerca de 5.
Grace M. Tan apreciadas eran las prendas de Senaar Sumer , que la gente estaba dispuesta a arriesgar su vida con tal de hacerse con ellas. Estas prendas eran TUG. Nuestra palabra. Gansos y patos pudieron estar reservados para las mesas de los dioses.
En , el profesor Samuel N. Se estudiaban y se copiaban las obras literarias del pasado, y se creaban obras nuevas. Sin embargo, el Consejo de Ancianos estaba por las negociaciones.
Hacia el a.
Si estamos condenados a morir, gastemos; si hemos de vivir una vida larga, ahorremos. Aquel que posee mucha plata, puede ser feliz. Aquel que posee mucha cebada, puede ser feliz. En una ciudad donde no hay perros guardianes, el zorro es el supervisor.
Lo que consiguieron los profesores Richard L. Crocker, Anne D. Kilmer y Robert R. Brown fue leer e interpretar las notas musicales escritas en una tablilla cuneiforme de los alrededores del a. Los textos del segundo milenio a.
Que una esposa te sirva de apoyo; que un hijo sea tu suerte futura. De los En Shuruppak, se encontraron escuelas que databan del tercer milenio a. Umma produjo inscripciones que hablaban de antiguos imperios. En Kis, se desenterraron edificios monumentales y un zigurat de, al menos, el a.
En , H. C, a. C - Fig. Edades pasadas.
Por debajo de esto, se encontraba el suelo virgen. Habiendo comenzado a utilizar piedras como herramientas unos 2. C-, the primitive hunters and nomadic recolectores transformed into agriculturists and potters, in constructors of cities, engineers, mathematicians, astronomers, metallurgical, trading, musical, judges, doctors, writers, librarians or priests?
It would be possible still to be gone beyond to make a question still more basic, magnificently raised by professor Robert J. Braidwood Prehistoric Men: The sumerios, the people by who came to be this so sudden civilization, had a prepared answer. The Greeks offered an anthropomorphic image of their Gods, with a physical aspect similar to the one of the mortal men and women and with a human character.
They could be happy, irritated or jealous; they made the love, they discussed and they fought; and they procreated as you are human, having descendants through the sexual relation, among them or with humans. They were unattainable and, nevertheless, always they were mixing themselves in the human subjects. They could go of here for there to a speed of vertigo, appear and disappear; they little had arms common and of an immense one to be able.
Each one had a specific function and, like consequence, any human activity could suffer or benefit from the attitude of the God in charge of that activity in individual; therefore, the rituals of cult and the offerings to the Gods were destined to gain their favor.
Its main weapon and symbol were the ray. It was not neither the first God on the Earth, nor either first in having been in skies. Mixing theology with cosmology to create what the students call mythology, the Greeks thought that at first it was the Chaos; later, they appeared Gea the Earth and his consorte Uranus the skies.
Gea and Urano had twelve children. Titanes, six men and six females. Although their legendary feats took Earth place, occurred by the way that they had one contraparte astral.
Crono, the youngest from titanes men, emerged like main figure in Olympic mythology. It reached the supremacy between titanes through the usurpation, after castrating his father, Uranus. Fearing to the others titanes, Crono took prisoners and it exiled them. By all this, her mother cursed it and she condemned it to undergo he himself destiny that its father, and to being overthrown by one of its own children. Crono married with its sister Criminal, with whom it had three children and three daughters: Once again, the destiny had marked that the youngest son would be the one than he would demote his father, and the curse of Gea became in fact when Zeus overthrew to Crono, its father.
But it seems to be that the coup d'etat was not free of problems. During many years there were battles. It fights reached to great zones, as much of the Earth as of skies. After his victory, Zeus was recognized like supreme God. Nevertheless, he had to share the control with his brothers. The three brothers and their three sisters, all of them children of Crono and its sister Criminal, conformed the oldest part of the Olympic Circle, the group of the Twelve Great Gods. The other six were all descendants of Zeus, and the Greek stories to a great extent dealed with their genealogies and relations.
The deities of both sexes that they had by father to Zeus had by mother to different goddesses. Marrying at the outset with a called goddess Metis, Zeus had a daughter, the great Athenian goddess. It was the one in charge of the common sense and the maneuver, for that reason outside the Goddess of the Wisdom. But, in addition, to the being the only main deity that remained next to Zeus during its combat with Typhoon the rest of Gods had fled , Athenian also acquired martial qualities and she became Goddess of the War.
Zeus married later with other goddesses, but their children did not cualificaron themselves to enter the Olympic Circle. When Zeus put itself to give him returned to the serious subject to have an inheriting. The greater one was Hestia. Disappointed not to have a son man, Zeus became towards other goddesses in search of consolation and of love. With Harmony he had nine daughters. Apolo, like first-born of Zeus, was one of the greatest Gods of the Greek pantheon, feared so much for men as by Gods.
She was the interpreter of the will of his father Zeus before the mortals and, of there, the Maxima authority in the matter of religious law and of cult in the temple. Being the representative of the moral and the divine laws, it advocated the purification and the perfection, spiritual as as much physical.
The second son man of Zeus, born of the Mayan goddess, was Hermes, pattern of the shepherds, guardian of flocks and herds. Less important and powerful than its Apolo brother, Hermes was more near the human subjects; any stroke of good luck was attributed him. Like Giver of Good Things, he was the one that was in charge of the commerce, pattern of merchants and travellers.
Impelled by certain dynastic traditions, Zeus still needed to have a son of one of his sisters, reason why he paid attention to youngest, Hera. But the marriage, blessed with a son, You plow, and two daughters, was shaken vigorously constantly by the acts of infidelity of Zeus, as well as by the rumors of infidelity on the part of Hera, that threw some doubts about the true kinship of another son, Hefesto.
Plow was introduced immediately in the Olympic Circle of the twelve main Gods, and head of Zeus became the lieutenant, in a God of the War.
One imagined to him like the Spirit of the Slaughters, although he was far from being invincible; fighting of the side of the troyanos in the War of Troy, he underwent a wound that only Zeus could cure. Hefesto, on the other hand, had to make an effort in its way until the Olympic top. It was the God of the Creativity; to him to the fire of the forge and the art of the metallurgy were attributed to him. He was the divine creator, creator of objects, as much practitioners as magicians, for men and Gods.
The legend says that it was born lame, and that, by this, their mother, Hera, rejected it infuriated. Another more credible version says that the one went Zeus that exiled to Hefesto - by the doubts on its kinship, but that Hefesto used its magical creative powers to force Zeus to give a seat him between the Great Gods. The legend also says that, in certain occasion, Hefesto made a network invisible so that it fell on the bed of his wife in case that a loving intruder warmed up his sheets.
Perhaps it needed this protection, since her wife and consorte were Aphrodite, Goddess of the Love and the Beauty. It was of most natural than many stories of love were constructed around her; and, in many of these stories, the seductive era You plow, brother of Hefesto. One of the children of this illicit love was Eros, God of the Love. Aphrodite was including in the Olympic Circle of the Twelve, and the circumstances of their admission throw certain light on our subject.
Aphrodite was not sister of Zeus, nor either its daughter, and, without you embark was not possible to be ignored to him. Aphrodite had come from the Asian coasts of the Mediterranean that watch Greece according to the Greek poet Hesiod, arrived through Cyprus ; and vindicating a great antiquity its origin was attributed to him to the Uranus genitals.
In this way, and genealogically, a generation in front of Zeus went, being, to say it of some way, sister of its father, in addition to the personification of the castrated Ancestor of the Gods.
Therefore, Aphrodite had to be including between the Olympic Gods. But his total number, twelve, it seems to be that it was not possible to be exceeded. The solution was ingenious: Since to Hades power had occurred him on the Inferior World and it did not remain between the Great Gods of Monte Mount Olympus, a seat was created that, of a way admirably practitioner, allowed Aphrodite to seat in the exclusive Circle of the Twelve.
It also seems that number twelve was an exigency that worked of two ways: This is left patent in the circumstances that took to the admission of Dioniso in the Olympic Circle. This one was son of Zeus, born of the fertilization of its own daughter, him to me. With the purpose of hiding it of the wrath of Hera, Dioniso was sent to very distant earth arriving even at India , introducing the culture of the grapevine and the elaboration of the wine there where it went.
Meanwhile, in the Mount Olympus it was left a seat free. Hestia, the older sister of Zeus, weak and old, totally was excluded from the Circle of the Twelve. It was then when Dioniso returned to Greece and it was allowed him to occupy the seat. Once again, there were twelve Olympic ones. Although Greek mythology is not very clear as far as the origins of the humanity, the legend and the traditions proclaimed the divine ancestry of heroes and kings.
These demigods conformed the bow between the human destiny - the daily eagerness, the dependency of the elements, the plagues, the disease, the death and a golden past in which only the Gods vagaban by the Earth. And, although many of the Gods had been born in the Earth, the select Circle of the Twelve Olympic ones represented the celestial aspect of the Gods.
The Latin names of the Great Gods, dices when the Romans adopted the Greek pantheon, clarify their astral associations: Following the tradition Greek, the Romans saw Jupiter like a God of the thunderclap whose weapon was the ray; like the Greeks, the Romans associated it with the bull. At the present time, there is a generalized agreement in which the foundations of the Greek civilization were put in the island of Crete, where bloomed the minoica culture from around the a.
C to the a. Between the minoicos myths and legend, it emphasizes by his importance the myth of minotauro. The archaeological discoveries have confirmed the extensive minoico cult to the bull, and in some cylindrical seals a divine being imagines this one like a, accompanied by a cross that, for some, would be an not identified star or a planet. For that reason a Celestial Toro has conjectured itself that the bull to that they gave cult the minoicos was not a common creature terrestrial, but - the constellation of Taurus, in commemoration of some events happened when, during the equinox of spring, the Sun appeared by that constellation, around the a.
According to the Greek tradition, Zeus arrived at continental Greece via Crete, where he had arrived in his fled crossing the Mediterranean after the kidnapping from Europe, the beautiful daughter of the king of the Phoenician city of Shot. The certain thing is that, when the older minoica inscription was deciphered to the aim by Cyrus H. In fact, the Greeks never affirmed that their Olympic Gods arrived directly at Greece from skies.
Zeus arrived through the Mediterranean, via Crete. He said myself that Aphrodite had arrived by sea from Near East, via Cyprus. Doubt that does not fit the Greek religion and traditions they arrived at Greek mainland from Near East, via Smaller Asia and the islands of the Mediterranean. It is there where its pantheon inserts the roots; it is there where we must look for the origins of the Greek Gods, and its astral relation with number twelve.
Such Gods wrote, says them the Hindu tradition, in the era that preceded to the present. But, with the passage of time, a number every greater time of the , original verses, that was happening through oral transmission of generation in generation, went losing and confusing. When to the aim they could read and to analyze the Prohibitions, the strange similarity that were between the stories of the Vedaic Gods and those of old Greece were surprised when seeing. The Gods, counted the Prohibitions, were all members of great, but a not necessarily pacific one, family.
In the middle of stories of ascents to skies and reductions to the Earth, of air battles, portentosas arms, friendships and rivalries, marriages and acts of infidelity, it seemed to exist a basic preoccupation to keep a genealogical registry - who is the father of whom and who was the first-born of whom. The Earth Gods had their origin in skies; and the main deities, even in the Earth, continued representing the celestial bodies.
Of them, seven were the Great Ancestors. Along with his consorte and its ten children, the twelve the divine family composed Adityas, Gods that were assigned to a sign of the zodiac and to a celestial body each one. With time, the leadership of the pantheon of twelve happened to Varuna, the God of the Celestial Extensions. Varuna was omnipresent and omnisciente; one of the hymns that intoned him to him reads almost like a Biblical psalm:.
It is the one that makes shine to the sun in skies, and the winds that blow are their breath. It has hollowed the river basins of the rivers; these flow by their mandate.
He has made the depths of the seas. Its reign also arrived, more soon or later, to an aim. It was the new Gentleman of Cielos and God of Storms. One was Vivashvat, that was the ancestor of Manu, the first Man. The similarities between the pantheons Vedaic and Greek are obvious. The stories relative to the main deities, as well as the verses that smaller - children deal with multitude of other deities, spouses, daughters, lovers are, evidently, duplicated or original of Greek stories.
And, in both cases, the Circle of the Great Gods was always of twelve, does not concern the changes that took place in the divine succession. How could arise such similarity in two so distant zones, as much in the geographic thing as in the weather?
The experts think that, at some time during the second millenium a. C, a town that spoke an Indo-European language and that had to be trim in the north of Iran or the zone of the Caucasus, it embarked in great migrations. A group went towards the Southeast, to India. They brought with them the Prohibitions like oral stories, around the a.
Another big wave of this Indo-European migration was towards the west, towards Europe. Some gave the return to the Black Sea and entered Europe through Russian steppes. But the main line that followed east town for, along with its traditions and their religion, to arrive at Greece was shortest: Smaller Asia.
In fact, some of the oldest Greek cities are not indeed in continental Greece, but in the western end of Smaller Asia. But, who were these Indo-European that chose Anatolia like home? Little it has in the western knowledge that can throw light on this subject.
Once again, the only source available - in addition to trustworthy-it demonstrated to be the Old Testament. These brief references to the hititas reveal the high esteem in which they were had, among other towns of the zone, the military abilities of those. Could not leave to no sign a so important kingdom? And their efforts had compensates: The Biblical hititas had summoned up life.
After passing through porches and sanctuaries, old the devotee one entered an open gallery outdoors, an opening in the middle of a rock semicircle on which they were represented, in procession, all the Gods of the hititas. In the left end, that is to say, at the end of this amazing parade, there are twelve. In the group of twelve whom there is in half, some deities seem older, others take diverse arms and are two that are indicated by a divine symbol.
The third group of twelve the one of ahead clearly is constituted by more important the masculine and feminine deities. Their arms and emblems more are varied; four have the divine celestial symbol over them; two have wings. In this group also there are nondivine participants: Marching past from the right there were two groups of feminine deities; nevertheless, the statures too much are mutilated to be able to be safe of their original number.
Both processions, the one of the left and the one of the right, were in a central panel that it represented, with all clarity, to the Great Gods, because all these it was to them high, standing up upon mountains, of the animals, the birds or, even, on shoulders of their divine assistants.
Many efforts invested the experts for example, E. The smaller Gods were organized in groups of twelve, and the Great Gods on the Earth were associate with twelve celestial bodies. In him, one imagines altogether with all clarity the divine pair surrounded by other ten Gods, adding twelve. Certainly, there were other present Gods, not only on the Earth but between the hititas, acting like supreme sovereigns of the Earth, naming to the human kings and instructing them in questions military, international treaties and other subjects.
It was, therefore, which the experts call a God of Storms, related to winds, the thunderclap and the ray. Like the Greeks, the hititas also represented some type of cult the bull; and, like Jupiter later, Teshub were represented like God of the Thunderclap and the Ray, mounted on a bull.
The hititas texts, like the later Greek legend, relate the battle that it had to confront his deity head with a monster to consolidate his supremacy. Not being able to defeat to him in the battle, Teshub resorts to the other Gods in search of aid, but only one goddess comes lends attendance to him, and it undoes of Yanka emborrachando it in a celebration.
As we show more ahead, to these old traditions on the fight between a God of winds and a deity serpentine a deep meaning was attributed to them. Here, nevertheless, we only can stress that the battles between Gods by the divine crown were related in old texts like facts that, unquestionablily, had taken place.
That listens to the Gods that are in the Sky, and those that are on the dark Earth! That the powerful Gods of long ago listen. Before, in the old days, Alalu was king of the Sky; It, Alalu, were seated in the throne. The powerful Anu, first between the Gods, standing up before him, one inclined before his feet, and it put the glass in his hand.
During a total of nine periods, Alalu was king in the Sky. In the ninth period, Anu fought to him to Alalu. Alalu was defeated, fled before Anu. It descended to the dark Earth. Down, to the dark Earth it was; in the throne Anu seated. But that one was not the end. The text continues relating how Anu, as well, was overthrown by a called God Kumarbi brother of Anu, according to some interpretations.
Doubt that does not fit this epic, written thousand years before the Greek legend was created, was the precursor of the story of the Uranus dethronement at the hands of Crono, and of the dethronement of Crono at the hands of Zeus. The detail of the castration of Crono on the part of Zeus even is in the hitita text, because that is exactly what Kumarbi did to him to Anu:.
During a total of nine periods, Anu was king in the Sky; In the ninth period, Anu had to make battle with Kumarbi. Anu was able to loosen of Kumarbi and fled. Anu fled, rising towards the sky. Kumarbi left after him, and it took hold it by the feet; it threw downwards of him from skies.
According to this old story, the battle did not finish with a total victory. Although castrated, Anu grasped them to flee until its Celestial Dwelling, leaving to Kumarbi with the Earth control. One of these Gods was Teshub, the supreme God of the hititas.
Que derribe a todos los dioses del cielo. Incluso se da el caso de que la esposa de Teshub, Hebat, intenta suicidarse ante el fracaso de su marido en derrotar a su adversario. Pero estos registros no consiguen resolver el conflicto, y Enlil aconseja entonces otra batalla con el aspirante, si bien con la ayuda de algunas armas muy antiguas.
Dado que el acadio era el idioma internacional del mundo antiguo en el segundo milenio a. El sumerio, en palabras de O. Los hititas. No hay duda de que los hurritas eran de origen ario o indoeuropeo. Los hurritas dominaron cultural y religiosamente a los hititas. Ya no existen dudas: Ni siquiera su lengua era, realmente, indoeuropea. Las evidencias sugieren que los hurritas, que eran los vecinos septentrionales de Sumer y Acad en el segundo milenio a.
C, se mezclaron en realidad con los sumerios durante el milenio anterior. Es un hecho demostrado que los hurritas estaban presentes y activos en Sumer en el tercer milenio a. Durante el siglo XIII a.
El lugar, llamado en la actualidad Ras Shamra, en la costa siria, era la antigua ciudad de Ugarit. La lengua de las inscripciones de Ugarit, el cananeo, era lo que los expertos llaman el semita occidental, una rama del grupo de lenguas entre las que se incluyen el primitivo acadio y el actual hebreo. De hecho, cualquiera que conozca el hebreo puede leer las inscripciones cananeas con relativa facilidad. Ante los pies de El se inclina, cae, se postra, rindiendo homenaje. Yam da instrucciones a sus emisarios para que se muestren desafiantes y los dioses de la asamblea claudiquen.
En este combate, Baal resulta vencido; pero su hermana Anat se niega a aceptar la muerte de Baal como final. El, el bondadoso, el misericordioso, se alegra. Pone los pies en el escabel. La doncella Anat En este caso, se llamaba Ashera, en un evidente paralelismo con la griega Hera.
Los cielos fueron divididos en tres partes, con doce cuerpos celestiales en cada una de ellas. Sus contactos directos con la fuente sumeria fueron los amontas. C, y Hammurabi, que le dio grandeza a Babilonia en los alrededores del a. Una de las pinturas murales del gran palacio de Mari representa la investidura del rey Zimri-Lim a manos de la diosa Inanna a la que los amoritas llamaban Ishtar.
Hemos entrado en los templos de los griegos y los arios, de los hititas y los hurritas, de cananeos, egipcios y amoritas. If we named and we told these Gods in its original forms sumerias or later acadias, Babylonian or you would take root , the list ascends by the hundred. But, at the moment at which it is classified to them, it is clear that that was not a dough of divinities.
They were headed by a pantheon of Great Gods, governed by an Assembly of Deities, and were related among them. At the moment at which he is excluded nieces, nephews, grandsons and others, a group of deities emerges small and much more coherent where each one plays a role, with certain powers and responsibilities.
At no moment one says that these Gods never appeared on the Earth. Their centers of cult were, mostly, cities of provinces; they were not more than local deities. In the best one of the cases, they were in charge of some operations limited - like, for example, the goddess NIN. Of these deities any heroic story does not exist. They did not have impressive arms, and the other Gods did not shake before their orders. They remember to one that group to him of young Gods that marched past the last ones in the stony procession of the hitita city of Yazilikaya.
They were not simple local deities. They were national Gods - or, better still, international Gods. Some of them were present and active in the Earth, even before there were Men in her. In fact, it was considered that the existence of the Man had been the result of a deliberate creative company on the part of these Gods. They were powerful, able of feats that were beyond the capacities or of the understanding of the mortals.
And, nevertheless, these Gods not only had human aspect, but that, also, they ate and they drank like them, and they exhibited all type of human emotions, from the love and hatred to loyalty and the infidelity. Although the papers and the hierarchic position of some of the main Gods could change with the millenia, some of them never lost their encumbrada position and its national and international veneration. As we observe more close by this central group, we will see emerge a dynasty from Gods, a divine family, closely related among them and, nevertheless, bitterly divided.
Its kingdom was the immensity of skies, and its symbol was a star. From the first times until the cuneiform writing almost vanished - from the fourth millenium a. C to the time of Christ, this symbol preceded the names of the Gods, indicating that the name written in the text was not the one of a mortal, but the one of a deity of celestial origin.
The dwelling of Anu, and the seat of its Royalty, was in skies. There it was where the other Gods of the Sky and the Earth went when personal advice or favors needed, or where they met in assembly to settle disputes between they themselves or to make important decisions. Numerous texts describe the palace of Anu whose porches were guarded by a God of the Tree of the Truth and a God of the Tree of the Life , as well as their throne, the way in which the other Gods came near him and how they seated in his presence.
The sumerios texts also gathered cases in that to the mortals it was even allowed to raise them the dwelling of Anu, most of the times with the intention of escaping to mortality.
He was so perfect and so loyal to the God Ea, that had created to him, that Ea outside arranged everything to it so that taken until Anu. It is then when Ea described to Adapa which was due to hope. Adapa, you are going to go before Anu, the King; you will have to take the way towards the Sky. But when the possibility of becoming inmortal, Adapa refused to eat the Bread of the Life, thinking that was offered to him the infuriated Anu was offering him poisoned foods. Therefore, it was given back to him to the Earth like priest anointed, but still mortal.
The affirmation sumeria of which also the humans could ascend to the Divine Dwelling in skies finds its echo in the stories of the Old Testament on the ascent to skies of Enoc and of the prophet Elias. Although Anu lived in a Celestial Dwelling, the sumerios texts speak of occasions in which it lowered to the Earth - or in the days of some important crisis or with occasion of ceremonial visits in which it went accompanied by his wife ANTU , or at least, once to celebrate nuptialses of their Earth great-granddaughter IN.
At the present time, in the ruins of Uruk, there is an immense artificial knoll where the archaeologists have found signs of the construction and reconstruction of a great temple, the temple of Anu; here they have been discovered not less than eighteen different layers or steps, which speech of convincing reasons to maintain the temple in this sacred place.
To the temple of Anu E. But this simple name was applied to a structure that, at least in some of its levels, deserves well that we contemplate it. Due to the deterioration of the small board, we only can read the relative thing to second half of the ceremonies, when Anu and Antu already were seated in the patio of the temple.
There, the protocol gave the following instructions:. The people of the Country will ignite fires in her houses, and she will offer banquets to all the Gods… The guardians of the cities will ignite fires in the streets and the seats.
The game of both Great Gods also was planned, not only to the day but also to the minute. In the seventeenth day, forty minutes after leaving the sun, the door will be opened before the Gods Anu and Antu, arriving at its aim its stay, after spending the night. Although the end of this small board is broken, is another text that describes with all probability the game: Later, the Great Gods were taken to their departure point on bunks with form of thrones on shoulders of the civil employees of the temple.
A representation exists would take root of a procession of Gods that, although is quite later in the time, it can give a good idea us of the form in which Anu and Antu were taken during their procession in Uruk. They prayed by the blessing of the seven celestial Gods and invoked to the Gods that were in the Sky and the Gods that were in the Earth. In conclusion, they in this way gave the goodbye them to Anu and Antu:.
That they bless to you to newspaper,. Between thousands and the thousands of representations of the old Gods that have been discovered, no seems to represent Anu. And, nevertheless, it to the present time observes from each statue and each picture to us of each king who has had, from the antiquity.
Then Anu was not only the Great King, King of the Gods, but also that whose grace the others could be crowned like kings. The standards of Anu were the tiara the divine hairdo , the sceptre symbol of the power and the walking stick symbol of the guide that the shepherd provides.
At the present time, the walking stick of the shepherd can be found more into the hands of bishops than of kings, but the crown and the sceptre continue taking them all those kings who the Humanity has left in its thrones. The second deity in being able of the pantheon sumerio was EN. He was the older son of Anu, born in the Celestial Dwelling of his Father.
But, at some time from the oldest times, it descended to the Earth and one thus became the main God of Cielo and the Earth. When the Gods met in assembly in the Celestial Dwelling, Enlil presided over the meetings in company of its father.
When the Gods met in Earth assembly, they were in the cut of Enlil, in the divine enclosure of Nippur, the city dedicated to Enlil, in addition to being the site where was its main temple, the E. Not only the sumerios had to Enlil by supreme, but also the Gods of Sumer. Enlil, according to the beliefs sumerias, arrived at the Earth long before which the Earth was adapted and it was become civilized.
The rendering of Sumerian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Hittite texts has engaged a legion of scholars for more than a century. Decipherment of script and language was followed by transcribing, transliterating, and finally, translating. In many instances, it was possible to choose between differing translations or interpretations only by verifying the much earlier transcriptions and transliterations.
In other instances, a late insight by a contemporary scholar could throw new light on an early translation. The list of sources for Near Eastern texts, given at the end of this book, thus ranges from the oldest to the newest, and is followed by the scholarly publications in which valuable contributions to the understanding of the texts were found.
When the seed for this book was planted, nearly fifty years ago, I was totally unaware of the then raging Evolution versus Bible debates. But as a young schoolboy studying Genesis in its original Hebrew, I created a confrontation of my own. We were reading one day in Chapter VI that when God resolved to destroy Mankind by the Great Flood, "the sons of the deities", who married the daughters of men, were upon the Earth. The Hebrew original named them Nefilim; the teacher explained it meant "giants"; but I objected: I was reprimanded and told to accept the traditional interpretation.
In the ensuing years, as I have learned the languages and history and archaeology of the ancient Near East, the Nefilim became an obsession.
Archaeological finds and the deciphering of Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Hittite, Canaanite and other ancient texts and epic tales increasingly confirmed the accuracy of the biblical references to the kingdoms, cities, rulers, places, temples, trade routes, artifacts, tools and customs of antiquity.
Is it not now time, therefore, to accept the word of these same ancient records regarding the Nefilim as visitors to Earth from the heavens? The Old Testament repeatedly asserted: But the credibility of the Bible was shaken by the advent and general acceptance of Evolution.
If Man evolved, then surely he could not have been created all at once by a Deity who, premeditating, had suggested "Let us make Adam in our image and after our likeness". All the ancient peoples believed in gods who had descended to Earth from the heavens and who could at will soar heavenwards.