PDF | On Feb 23, , Lina Mathew and others published “Child Marriage in India”. Reducing Child Marriage in India 4. Acknowledgements. The author would like to acknowledge and thank. UNICEF for funding this work, and Joachim Theis. The present study on child marriage in India, supported and inputted by Child Rights Focus, a knowledge initiative of ActionAid, is based on the analysis of the .
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Child Marriages in India. 6. Law and policy targeting Child Marriage in. India. 8 . homeranking.info; see also Word Vision UK. United Nations Children's Fund. 73 Lodi Estate. New Delhi. E-mail: [email protected] homeranking.info Website: homeranking.info Child Marriage in India. An analysis of. PDF | Marriage is one of the important social institutions and it is a means of establishing a family through which the society perpetuates. This social process is.
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Data from Practices proven effective against Census for the recent period i. Some of the important causative factors 3. For instance, the Andhra Pradesh Bihar occurrence of child marriages among the Maharashtra wealthiest households stands at over 30 per cent, both in rural and urban areas. It was conducted demographic information. Voices of inancial pressures that contribute to the increased women and girls must be included incidence of child marriage among vulnerable in planning the intersectional households.
India In its recent report, UNICEF reported that worldwide, has a high proportional share of child marriage more than million women alive today were globally Lee-Rife et al. Out of this, about Despite the fact that India is one of the million girls who entered into marital union were fastest growing economies in the world UNICEF, below age of 15 years while, about 15 million girls are , it ranks just above some of the poorest married every year before they reach 18 years of age.
Sri Lanka and Pakistan in terms of prevalence rate Also, there is a huge disparity across regions. In the of child marriage Figure 1. The position of India developing world, one in three girls is married by the is even more terrible in terms of absolute number age of 18 years, and one in nine is married by the age of child marriages.
With more than 10 million child of 15; some are married as young as eight or nine marriages as of , it ranks irst in the absolute years UNFPA, North Africa 18 per cent , and East Asia and the Paciic 16 per cent also have a high prevalence of India has endorsed and adopted various human child marriage Westoff, These and a decline in child marriage over the years in the international instruments have outlawed the Eliminating Child Marriage in India: The Government of India NGOs, International organizations and experts has also put in place several national legislations, took part in the Consultation.
Recommendations policies and programmes to prevent the practice from participants have contributed to drafting this of child marriages. The Eleventh Five Year Plan strategic document. A small working group has focused on legislative change and awareness collaborated with the Ministry of Women and Child about the issue of child marriage. Consequently, the Development to further strengthen the strategy.
The initial legislation, the Child Marriage Restraint Act key components of the National Strategy Document was repealed and replaced by the relatively on Prevention of Child Marriage include law more progressive Prohibition of Child Marriage enforcement, provision of quality education and Act Other legislations and policies that other opportunities, changing mindsets and social prohibit child marriage and put the focus on the norms, empowering adolescents, producing and health, education, protection and empowerment sharing knowledge and data, and monitoring and of children with a special focus on girls include evaluation.
Other efforts initiated at the national and Kishori Shakti Yojana KSY in selected districts level include the National Strategy on Prevention of in the initial phase of its coverage.
To draft the strategy document, status, and upgradation of home skills, life skills the Ministry of Women and Child Development and vocational skills.
Girls are provided information held a National Consultation on Child Marriage on on health and family welfare, hygiene and guidance May 25, Governments from twelve States, on existing public services. The scheme also aims Eliminating Child Marriage in India: A recent study has revealed some progress in the decline in child marriage rates in the country In this context, we have analysed the recent Census and in a majority of the states, corroborating the of India and the India Human Development information in Census Ediga, Since many of these studies are mainly and economic groups using the data from latest descriptive rather than analytical in nature, they census and other national-level surveys for the have failed to provide a detailed assessment of the period — Our analysis is, however, limited by child marriage scenario from a policy perspective the non-availability of data on the relevant aspects Lloyd and Mensch, ; UNICEF, a.
A critical taken up for analysis. The study also aims to discuss appraisal of the progress achieved, by measuring the causes and consequences of child marriage and the trends across the major geographical units seeks to suggest measures to counter the bane of and identifying the major socio-economic groups child marriage. Interviews in each household covered the topics of health, education, employment, economic status, marriage, fertility, gender relations and social capital.
Please see the Appendix A: Note on Data, for details of the variables used. Secondly, the prevalence of of child marriage is the proportion of marriage child marriages by state and socio-economic group before the age of 18 among women in the age is discussed and the regional patterns of child group of 20—24 years.
This deinition follows the marriage presented. Accordingly, an As pointed out earlier, India cuts a sorry igure estimate of the prevalence of child marriage can be when it comes to child marriage because it made as follows: The igures show that among those only when information on age at marriage and who were married and surviving as on 1 March current age is available in single years in the form of Micro data.
Therefore, alternatively, we have measured only the proportion of persons who were Nevertheless, this Number of child marriages In million works as a reliable measure of child marriage. We Estimated from Census of India data. Micro-data stands for the information of every single individual interviewed available in the form of statistical packages, which are used for more in-depth analyses.
Females form the major proportion of this Figure 2. Also, in the period areas. In the recent period —11 , the difference —11, 7. There is again a huge Currently, rural areas account for 83 per cent and male—female difference, with 6. This indicates that the married when they were below 18 years as against prevalence of child marriage is heavily skewed 0. Figure 2. The Males Females Total difference in the absolute number of male and Source: Percentage Contribution of Males and males and females, therefore an estimation of the Females in Child Marriages in India, by 1 March proportional share of child marriage by gender is and During important.
Among all married persons surviving as on 1 March , females However, the gender distribution in terms of persons who were married before reaching 18 years of age shows that only 17 per cent are males and The percentage share is further skewed towards females for the Male Female Male Female more recent period, —11, for which only 12 per cent share comes from the male population while Source: Estimated from Census data.
Despite the higher share of males in total During married population, their share in child marriage is four to ive times less as compared to females. This Among all married population Among those who married indicates a huge male—female difference in child by 1 March during marriage prevalence in India. It Figure 2. As in the previous Pradesh 9. These Figure 2. Other major states like Maharashtra 8.
These seven The percentage igure for child marriages by state states together account for 70 per cent of those for women in the age group 20—24 years who were who underwent marriage in India. Uttar 2.
The states of Bihar 17 per cent , Rajasthan 16 Pradesh Uttar Pradesh 7. However, Andhra Pradesh also has a higher than the national average 6. It is seen cent , Rajasthan 51 per cent , West Bengal 46 that in rural places of residence, 25 per cent of per cent , Jharkhand 43 per cent and Madhya women are married by age In urban places of residence, Andhra Pradesh 38 per cent and Karnataka 37 25 per cent women are married by age Overall, the results suggest that cent married by The results show just child marriage is highly prevalent in both the less 0.
A considerable proportion of child marriages cent of women are married. Among both Hindus and Muslims, 25 per 2. Among other castes, 25 per cent of Castes SCs in rural areas have the highest women are married by The same is observed 25, 50 and 75 per cent women are married.
Similarly, 75 per cent of women are once again show the highest percentage of child married by the age 20 years in the richest wealth marriage among SC women in rural areas 61 per quintile while it is 18 years for women in the poorest cent followed by OBC women in rural areas 59 wealth quintile.
The declining trend in child represented in Figure 2. The igure indicates a one-third decline in child marriage over the period of two decades 2. In the same period, Child Marriage the state-level assessment shows that states with 2.
Although, a majority of respectively, in India in the period — In the the states with a high prevalence of child marriage case of women in the age group 20—24 married have progressed in the period to , the by 15 years, Rajasthan and West Bengal are in the quantum of progress in states such as Bihar, higher than 5 per cent category. The state- across the states. It is seen that in the initial year wise distribution of the proportion of women —93 for Bihar, Rajasthan and Orissa; —99 married before 18 years indicates that states such for Jharkhand , the percentage of child marriages as Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, was While Uttar declined to 59 per cent, When have experienced a moderate rise in child marriage child marriage is deined as marriage by the exact during the recent period.
In the initial year of — age of 15 years, the results reveal that Rajasthan 93, the percentage of child marriage in Kerala and and West Bengal are above the national average Tamil Nadu was Pradesh, Bihar and Tripura are in the category of In the state of Kerala, during the year —06, the 3. However, other states are below prevalence of child marriage came down to The same trend was visible in Further, the pattern of child marriage measured as the state of Himachal Pradesh, in which during the marriage below 18 years in rural areas indicates year —06 the percentage of child marriage was that Rajasthan in the west, West Bengal in the While Assam and Delhi fall between In urban areas, all the District-level patterns present greater insights in states, except Rajasthan West Bengal and Tripura, terms of both deinitions.
For instance, in the case of fall under the category of 3. In terms of under the category of In both child marriage below 18 years, along with districts deinitions, all other states stand below the national in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, average. Overall, the rural areas show a greater Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Tripura, districts prevalence of child marriage according to both in Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra, deinitions as compared to urban areas.
Similar to Figure 2. Background of women By Age 75 per cent had married by age However, the number of Orissa, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and districts increases when child marriage is measured Manipur also join the group of districts with igures as marriage below 18 years. Along with districts above the national average.
It gives an idea about the average age national average.
A substantial increase in average age at marriage In the urban areas, in terms of child marriage by is critical for lifting a signiicant proportion of the exact age of 15 years, although no state shows young girls and boys out of child marriage.
As an above 5 per cent igure, districts in Rajasthan, we mentioned earlier, although males are also West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and Assam have subjected to child marriage, the prevalence of child an above 5 per cent share.
The number of districts marriage is quite low among males as compared to with a higher than national average increases with females. Therefore, this section mainly presents the Eliminating Child Marriage in India: See Appendix B: Mean Age igures are used only for comparative purpose. The of Marriage in India. The levels of mean age 60 at marriage for females by state indicate the six states with lowest mean age at marriage for 50 females.
These are Rajasthan These are also the six Per cent 30 major states that stand below the national average of mean age at marriage for females 21 years. The ive states with the highest mean age at marriage 20 for females are Nagaland Along with these ive states, Delhi Nevertheless, the rate of male—female difference in age at marriage. The progress has been slow, and in some places the difference in age at marriage for males and females problem of early age at marriage remains inflexible.
According to Census of data from censuses and other surveys, although , the male—female difference in mean age at the rate of progress is not impressive. In such communities, girls are the commodities to be traded in return Marriage for money or they are used to settle family debts The literature on child marriage in the global and Raza, In the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Indian contexts has demonstrated a range of factors Pradesh and Gujarat, a unique custom is followed associated with child marriage.
Thus, household economic status is et al. The empirical analysis on a survey of the literature as well as empirical also supports our argument. For instance, in Figure analyses. Some of the important causative factors 3. This impels society to consider girls as a liability to In general, parents with no or low levels of education be married off as early as possible. Girls from households marriage upon their young daughters. Parents are also bound and, thus, the cost of living. In usually limited authority to go against the traditions some communities of India, daughters are sold in and to uphold their own rational decisions Gangoli Eliminating Child Marriage in India: This further gives rise to a situation literacy, child marriage tends to decline Figure 3.
In the situation of bride shortage, poor child brides The Economist, The sex ratio parents often tend to marry off a young daughter imbalance in India is mainly due to female foeticide, for attractive offers or concessions from older which is still widely practised despite the ban on bridegrooms.
Figure 3. If a girl child between sex ratio and child marriage. Economic Factors and Child Marriage in India, —12 70 70 60 60 50 50 Child marriage in per centage Child marriage in percentage 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 20, 40, 60, 80, , , Population below poverty line in per centage NSDP Source: Estimated by the author based on the information from Source: Socio-economic Factors and Child Marriage Figure 3.
Sex Ratio of Population Age Group 15—35 in India, —12 Years and Child Marriage in India, —12 70 70 60 60 Child marriage in percentage Child marriage in percentage 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Female Literacy Rate Sex ratio female per 1, males Source: In most regions of and be made to feel outcast.
There is also a risk to family honour. A girl is married off as close belief that girls must be married off early and must to puberty as possible and often to an older man reproduce early as they have a shorter reproductive who it is believed will act as her guardian and span as compared to men Ackerson et al. Obedience is given in exchange The custom of dowry also complicates the situation.
Parents from poor households shame and disrespect. Further, an educated bride would The legal enforcement of the Prohibition of Child prefer an educated groom, but a groom with higher Marriage Act is quite weak in India. The education would demand an exorbitant dowry as monitoring mechanisms are deicient and there is compared to a less educated groom.
These kinds poor accountability of the implementing agencies. Despite national legislation against this practice, the country continues to experience a high 3. In the Indian context, where, in accordance safeguard the pre-marital virginity of young girls, is with customary or religious laws, child marriage is one of the main reasons behind child marriage in a widely accepted practice in many communities, most communities.
In many rural communities of child marriages are rarely reported as a crime and India, fearing a threat of physical or sexual violence this then makes it dificult to punish the culprits. Thus, the implementation of the laws against child child marriage in these communities is seen as a marriage are often themselves reluctant to report safety measure for a girl; otherwise if a girl were to the cases for legal action.
Oficials themselves 1. Gauna is a ceremony that is performed after marriage in which the bride leaves her paternal home to start living in her marital home with her husband, after which the marriage is consummated. Thus, child marriage go against the community sanction for child also contributes to the rise of maternal and child marriage. Another serious hindrance to legal action mortality rates. This proposition is also supported against child marriage is the non-availability of by our empirical assessment, which shows a birth certiicates.
Even when a case against child positive association between child marriage and marriage is registered, victims are unable to prove maternal and child mortality Figure 3.
Apart that their marriage is a form of child marriage.
Marriage Jensen and Thornton, ; Mensch et al. Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAW and in the Convention on the Child marriage is also associated with high fertility Rights of the Child CRC , the continued prevalence and poor maternal and child health outcomes, of child marriage in many parts of the country is a including high rates of unwanted pregnancy and violation of the human rights of children, especially pregnancy termination, early childbearing teenage that of girl children, which often takes the form of pregnancy and bigger family size Adhikari, ; physical and sexual slavery.
Child marriage is also Godha et al. It also increases a threat to social development and it hampers the the risks of depression, sexually transmitted prosperity and stability of any country where it is infections, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric istula, prevalent. It is harmful to the child as well as to and maternal mortality Fisher et al. Our families, communities, society and the nation as empirical assessment shows a strong positive a whole.
It is a grave public concern rather than a association between child marriages and fertility, private matter between families. Child marriage has meaning higher the child marriages greater the several micro- and macro-level repercussions, with fertility rate Figure 3.
Adolescents gain serious public health concern due to its potential 30 per cent of their adult weight and more than 20 implications on maternal and child health.
Studies per cent of their adult height between 10 and 19 suggest that a girl under 15 is ive times more years. In women, physiological conditions such as likely to die during childbirth than a grown woman pregnancy and lactation increase the likelihood of Bartlett et al.
Childbearing during adolescence 24 Eliminating Child Marriage in India: Denial of educational opportunities window of opportunity for catch-up growth in an is a major consequence of child marriage, which undernourished population Rah et al.
In addition, young girls have poor and inancial independence. In a study by the knowledge of nutrition due to lack of awareness International Centre for Research on Women and education, which makes them more vulnerable ICRW, , it is reported that in 18 out of 20 to undernutrition. Child marriage 3. According to the Figure 3. Association Between Child Marriage Figure 3. RGI Sexual violence is inherent within are out of school in South Asia.
About Sex, or any form of sexual behaviour, the last grade of primary education and about with a child under the minimum legal age with or 57 per cent of children have never attended school. In South Asia, marriage. Moreover, consensual sex with a minor India had the largest share 49 per cent of primary girl, as per the Criminal Law Amendment Act, and lower secondary school age children who constitutes statutory rape; but when it occurs within remained out of school in the year Despite the the context of child marriage, it remains unreported increase in overall literacy rate in the country, the as rape.
Sex within marriage is considered a dropout rate among adolescent girls remains high priori consensual and, thus, rape is considered as at Adolescent girls who have been impossible within marriage. Notwithstanding the victims of the malpractice of child marriage are Criminal Law Amendment Act, , marital rape less likely to complete their elementary education in India is not considered as a crime when the wife and transition to secondary education. IPV is a global public health problem that suicide.
Young brides face isolation, coninement increases the risk for a number of unfavourable and inadequate socialization. The consequences can be highly damaging, birth outcomes and death Erulkar, ; Heise et even fatal.
Child marriage involves the risk of al. In South Asia, leads to further marginalization, discrimination, women suffer high levels of lifetime IPV Nasrullah loss of dignity, denial of property rights and risk of et al.
Their abuse from others. In many instances, young brides plight remains unknown and hidden behind closed are abandoned by their in-laws and by their own doors. Women who are married at an illegal age families, and become destitute.
Child marriage has a complex relationship with human traficking. Traficking and child marriage In child marriage, a young bride becomes intersect when marriage is solemnized through subordinate to the men and senior women in the force, fraud, coercion, or abuse and as a means family, and the members in the marital home start to subject wives to conditions of slavery in form controlling her decisions and behaviour.
Violence of domestic or sexual servitude Aptel, In perpetrated by the husband towards a young child certain circumstances, girls are sold off for the bride may take a serious form because the child purpose of marriage, face abuse by their buyers has too little strength to negotiate the demands and further sold off or traficked.
Human traficking of married life. This may include acts of physical has forced countless child brides into prostitution 2. The goal of the initiative is to make signiicant and sustained reduction in the number of out-of-school children around the world. Young brides who face about protected sex, no awareness or freedom extreme violence in their marital home fall prey to to use or insist on protection, and practically no traficking when they attempt to run away from the access to information about HIV and STDs Bruce, perpetrators of violence at home OCHCR, However, Figure other STDs among young girls.
Evidence shows 3. They have little information 28 Eliminating Child Marriage in India: The indings Gujarat are socio-economically better-off states. Currently, about million show a slight increase in the percentage of child persons are married before reaching the legal age; marriage in the recent period, compared out of this, 85 million, or 83 per cent, are girls.
A to previous time point, The reasons for signiicant proportion 14 per cent of girls are the rising trend of child marriage for the period married by the age of 15 years. Out of 28 child —06 to need to be explored more through marriages happening in the world every minute, qualitative research. Research must provide a basis for Although, urban areas account for a signiicant effective advocacy, and stakeholders percentage of child marriage, a major proportion must collaborate in proactive around 75 per cent comes from rural areas among measures to end child marriage.
Data from Practices proven effective against Census for the recent period i. Findings by state and district show that despite moderate to Further, similar variations are observed across the good progress, a signiicant proportion of girls in districts. The age at marriage in districts is more particular have got married as children. Also, there than the national average In terms of are huge state-level variations in the occurrence prevalence of child marriages, in 90 districts more of child marriage: In two districts overall from India Bhilwara Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh together and Chittaurgarh and ive districts from rural India account for 70 per cent of child marriages in the Bhilwara, Chittaurgarh, Tonk, Lalitpur, and Ajmer , country.
If Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Gujarat are more than 50 per cent of all marriages are child added to this list, the ten states together account marriages. Except for Lalitpur, which is in Uttar for 82 per cent of child marriages in the country.
Pradesh, the other four districts are in Rajasthan. Therefore, law implementers are not much proportion of child marriage even in the higher bothered to curb this malpractice with stringent socio-economic groups. For example, in around law enforcement. It is connection with other related legislations such as dificult, then, to completely attribute child marriage the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, to only lower socio-economic status, Therefore, our and Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of correlation plots do not support a strong association Children Amendment Act, Although, this report has not implementation has remained ineffective in curbing accounted for cultural factors speciic to state, the root causes of child marriage and has failed to region and community in its statistical analyses, produce a substantial impact on its eradication.
However, before have a complementary role in governing the age proposing policy implications from the indings of and timing of marriage. However, one can infer from the pattern marriage. The enforcement child marriage do exist.
Even when a came into force GOI, Being a signatory to the gender-sensitive approach is followed during law UN Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC in formulation, its interpretation during enforcement and the Convention on the Elimination of All remains largely missing, causing legal dysfunction. Forms of Discrimination against Women CEDAW It is important to examine this contradiction in , India has expressed its commitment to as this has a huge impact on the lives of girl the rights of the child, and particularly the girl child, children.
One of the main reasons behind the poor through the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, Some of the measures include the provision the masses. These strategies have been incorporated will speciically address the problem of child and extended in subsequent policies.
There are also marriage as a primary objective rather than as a a number of non-governmental organizations— complementary or subsidiary goal. In order to revive the legal enforcement, direction of eradication of child marriage through the violation of child marriage laws by parents, various intervention programmes.
Also, 25, upon the age of majority, but only if the girl identifying priority states by region that is, is unmarried at that age. As all on the issue of banning child marriage. Child Table 4. Percentage of Girls Married Before 18 Years in However, India needs easy tracing of the problem and in effective to implement the existing policies with a concerted interventions to eliminate the problem; this effort to break the deep-rooted practice born out of does not mean avoiding focus on the other centuries-old custom and tradition.
In general, the coordinated efforts by multi-sectoral partners. Therefore, strategies trends across India. The same extent and intensity. It is evident from the indings suggestions were also reported in other studies that the incidence of child marriage is not uniform Srinivasan et al.
For instance, similar to the high focus states or the Empowered Action Group EAG states under The study has noted the reversing pattern of decline the National Rural Health Mission currently called in some states, which are traditionally known as National Health Mission for enhancing public better-off in terms of child marriages. However, the Table 4. An be explained through socio-economic factors alone. To successfully address the problem of child marriage calls for 4.
Child One of the best measures to prevent child marriages At present, there is a dearth of data on several within communities marked by gender inequalities important aspects of child marriage.
Existing is to empower the girl child. Her life is used in ways that can inform us more about the guided by the culture followed in her community prevalence of child marriage. But in-depth studies and society. Therefore, in order to empower girls, are also needed to examine the trends, extent, it is necessary to empower families, communities causes, consequences and effective response and society as a whole.
Child marriage reflects the strategies. For instance, there is a growing concern poor agency of women and children in the country. Education is a vital tool to achieve this agency, and it has an There is an absence of data on the social and important role in increasing human capability and psychosocial impact of early marriage on children, as choice. Ensuring the education of the girl child is well its wider political and economic consequences.
Adopted by the United Nations on 10 December , in Paris. Practices and gender equality. Research must inform policies that prove to be effective against child marriage and programmes and provide a basis for effective must be documented and disseminated among the advocacy, and stakeholders must collaborate public to help publicize ways to end child marriage.
The socio-economic development of a state is not police and legal machinery must be on the alert necessarily a check on the prevalence of child for cases of oppression, such as marital rape, marriage and it can be concluded that tradition and domestic violence, child slavery, child traficking, culture still play a dominant role in the operation of dowry, intimate partner violence, etc.
Any individual who authorizes or facilitates child marriage, whether However, although not all socio-economic factors parent, guardian, influential community leader or at the state level are strongly associated with child government oficial, must be held accountable marriage, factors like female literacy and poverty and punished.
Therefore, strengthening the existing multi-sectoral The intersectionality of gender, interventions aimed at the economic and social economic status, caste, region, empowerment of women and girls, improving religion, etc.
Voices of inancial pressures that contribute to the increased women and girls must be included incidence of child marriage among vulnerable in planning the intersectional households.
Awareness must be reduce the occurrence of child marriage. This should be done the current programmes to a greater extent and also through developing and widely disseminating take additional measures. This study advances the print, audiovisual, and other forms of awareness- following suggestions for action to eradicate child raising content. Customary and religious laws that and legal enforcement so as to underscore the violate the minimum age of marriage must be criminal nature of child marriage in accordance challenged through strong advocacy by religious Eliminating Child Marriage in India: It is necessary to Notices, pamphlets and posters at the school challenge traditional social norms to end child must display such information.
Special programmes to improve bring about greater awareness and build social reproductive health, family planning, maternal and pressure against child marriage. This calls for child healthcare, literacy and awareness must be capacity building of community, religious and planned to mitigate the negative effects of child cultural institutions to provide a platform for marriage on married children.
Public awareness open discussion and public denouncement of on consequences and legal implications of child the practice of child marriage. Increased media exposure driven violence that is child marriage. Families to masses would prove as powerful and cost- must be sensitized to change the expectations, effective to government for sensitizing the people attitudes and practices towards the girl child.
Gender rights awareness must be a necessary part of secondary school education. Under the emergency through state-level interventions, as well as the conditions, Government school teachers can be interventions of civil society. The intersectionality of gender, economic challenge and change the norms that perpetuate status, caste, region, religion, etc. Young girls and women must be for developing context-speciic approaches to enlightened about the importance of education counter the problem of child marriage.
Most as a way to secure economic independence. The censuses collected information on current age, The irst round of interviews was completed in age at marriage and current marital status by age —05; the data is publicly available through and sex of all members of households at state and the Interuniversity Consortium for Political and district levels, which has been used to calculate Social Research ICPSR.
The second round of the singulate mean age at marriage SMAM and IHDS re-interviewed most of these households the percentage of those married before speciied in — The IHDS was jointly organized ages: The survey and age of respondents.
Unit-level information design is robust and representative. NFHS the level of child marriage rates and their socio- is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted economic differentials.
The questions from the in a representative sample of households in 29 different census and survey rounds that we used to states of India. Three rounds of the survey have measure the incidence of child marriage and related been conducted so far since the irst survey in indicators are given in Table A. The fourth round Design and Quality of of the survey is under way. Census of India is a complete and marital status. The last round covered all and authentic enumeration of households and women in the age group 15—49 years and men individuals, including their socio-economic and in the age group 15—54 years.
It was conducted demographic information. Table A. A Brief by Girls Not Brides. Ackerson, L. Kawachi, E. Barbeau and S. Subramanian A Population-based Study of Women in India. Adhikari, R. Risks and Consequences. Bott, S. Jejeebhoy, I. Shah and C. Puri eds. World Health Organization. Ahmed, N. Problems and Challenges of Deserted Women in Bangladesh: An Observational Study.
Journal of International Social Issues, 3 1 , Alam, S. Cornell ed. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Aptel, C. Arokiasamy, P. Explaining the skewed child sex ratio in rural India: Revisting the landholding- patriarchy hypothesis. Economic and Political Weekly. Badgett, M. Folbre Gender Norms and Economic Outcomes. Bartlett, L. Where giving birth is a forecast of death: The Lancet, , Beyer, K. Wallis and L. Hamberger A Systematic Review.
Bhat, P. Halli Causes and Consequences of the Indian Marriage Squeeze. Birech, J. Child marriage: A cultural health phenomenon. International Journal of Humanities and Phenomenon. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3 17 , Boyle, M. Georgiades, J. Cullen and Y. Racine Bruce, J. New York: Population Council. Clark Census of India An analysis of Census Data. Chen, X. Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: International Journal of Epidemiology, 36 2 , Clark, S. Bruce and A.
Dude The Case against Child and Adolescent Marriage. Coker, A. Lawrence Why it Continues to Prevail. Desai, S. Andrist Vanneman Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Devries, K. Mark, L. Bacchus, J. Child, G. That law was questioned by Muslims, then superseded by personal law applicable only to Muslims in British India with Muslim Personal Law Shariat Application Act of ,  which implied no minimum limit and allowed parental or guardian consent in case of Muslim marriages.
Section 2 of the Act stated,. The law for non-Muslims was revised a several times after India gained its independence from the colonial rule, particularly in when the marriage age was raised by 3 years each for men and women. The definition of child marriage was last updated by India with its The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act of , which applies only a to Hindus , Christians , Jains , Buddhists and those who are non-Muslims of India, and b outside the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
For Muslims of India, child marriage definition and regulations based on Sharia and Nikah has been claimed as a personal law subject. In a New York Times report, sociologists stated that some communities trace its origin to the Muslim invasions. Per legends, invaders raped unmarried Hindu girls or carried them off as booty, prompting Hindu communities to marry off their daughters almost from birth to protect them. At the time of the Delhi Sultanate , political atmosphere was turbulent and ruled by Muslim Sultans in an absolute monarchy government.
During this period the Sultans produced practices such as child marriage and had lowered the status of women even further. The Greek historian Megasthenes though talks about early puberty of girls in South India. According to Edgar Thurston , in South India a candlelight ceremony was held for girls vilakiddu kaliyanam from seven to nine years, likely later, but always prior to the marriage. Allan Dahlaquist states this is evidently a puberty ceremony before marriage which may explain Megasthenes' comments.
Parents of a child entering into a child marriage are often poor and use the marriage as a way to make her future better, especially in areas with little economic opportunities.
Dowry is a practice in India where the bride's family transfers wealth to the groom; in many cases, it is a demand and condition of marriage from the groom's family. Dowry is found among all religious faiths in India, and the amount of dowry demanded and given by the bride's family has been correlated to the age of girl. Nagi,  in , suggested that the practice of dowry creates a fear and pressure to avoid late marriages, and encourages early marriage.
Poverty in India has been cited as a cause of early marriages. Child marriages of girls is a way out of desperate economic conditions, and way to reduce the expenses of a poor family. In some parts of India, the existence of personal laws for Muslims are a cause of child marriages. For example, in Kerala , girls of age were married in in the district of Malappuram.
Efforts to stop this practice with law enforcement have been protested and challenged in courts by Indian Union Muslim League and other Islamic organizations, with the petition that setting a minimum age for marriage of Muslim girls challenges their religious rights.
Child marriage rate estimates vary significantly between sources, with some based on small local survey samples. The table below provides some of child marriage estimates for India along with the nature of data collection. The small sample surveys have different methods of estimating overall child marriages in India, some using multi-year basis data. For example, NFHS-3 data for mentioned in above table, used a survey of women aged 20—24, where they were asked if they were married before they were The survey found that many more were married before they turned 18, than age women who were interviewed.
In s, the minimum legal age of marriage, in India, for women was The states with highest observed marriage rates for under girls in , according to a Registrar General of India report, were Jharkhand According to nationwide census of India, the average age of marriage for women in India is The Child Marriage Restraint Act , also called the Sarda Act,  was a law to restrict the practice of child marriage.
It was enacted on 1 April , extended across the whole nation, with the exceptions of some princely states like Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir , and applied to every Indian citizen. Its goal was to eliminate the dangers placed on young girls who could not handle the stress of married life and avoid early deaths.
This Act defined a male child as 21 years originally 18 or younger, a female child as 18 years originally 14 or younger, and a minor as a child of either sex 18 years or younger originally The punishment for a male between 18 and 21 years marrying a child became imprisonment of up to 15 days, a fine of 1, rupees , or both. The punishment for a male above 21 years of age became imprisonment of up to three months and a possible fine. The punishment for anyone who performed or directed a child marriage ceremony became imprisonment of up to three months and a possible fine, unless he could prove the marriage he performed was not a child marriage.
The punishment for a parent or guardian of a child taking place in the marriage became imprisonment of up to three months or a possible fine. Boys and girls forced into child marriages as minors have the option of voiding their marriage up to two years after reaching adulthood, and in certain circumstances, marriages of minors can be null and void before they reach adulthood. All valuables, money, and gifts must be returned if the marriage is nullified, and the girl must be provided with a place of residency until she marries or becomes an adult.
Children born from child marriages are considered legitimate, and the courts are expected to give parental custody with the children's best interests in mind. Any male over 18 years of age who enters into a marriage with a minor or anyone who directs or conducts a child marriage ceremony can be punished with up to two years of imprisonment or a fine. Muslim organizations of India have long argued   that Indian laws, passed by its parliament, such as the child marriage law do not apply to Muslims, because marriage is a personal law subject.
The Delhi Court, for example, ruled that Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, overrides all personal laws and governs each and every citizen of India  The ruling stated that an under-age marriage, where either the man or woman is over 16 years old, would not be a void marriage but voidable one, which would become valid if no steps are taken by such court as has option[s] to order otherwise.
In case either of the parties is less than 18 years old, the marriage is void, given the age of consent is 18 in India, sex with minors under the age of 18 is a statutory crime under Section of Indian Penal Code. Various other High courts in India - including the Gujarat High Court ,  the Karnataka High Court  and the Madras High Court  - have ruled that the act prevails over any personal law including Muslim personal law.
Marital rape per se is not a crime in India; but the position with regard to children is confusing. While the exception under the criminal law section , Indian Penal Code, applicable to adults puts an exception and allows marital rape of a girl child between the age of 15—18 years by her husband; another new and progressive legislation Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, disallows any such sexual relationships and puts such crimes with marriages as an aggravated offense.
Article 16, Marriage and Family Life, states that all women, as well as men, have the right to choose their spouse, to have the same responsibilities, and to decide on how many children and the spacing between them.
This convention states that child marriage should not have a legal effect, all action must be taken to enforce a minimum age, and that all marriages must be put into an official registry.
Girls who marry earlier in life are less likely to be informed about reproductive issues ,  and because of this, pregnancy-related deaths are known to be the leading cause of mortality among married girls between 15 and 19 years of age.