PDF | Thousands of Indonesian men now identify as both “gay” and “Muslim. [ Keywords: incommensurability, Indonesia, Islam, nation, homosexuality]. Keywords Asma Nadia, Novel Dakwah, Forum Lingkar Pena, Stuart Hall, Representasi Teori queer, kajian film, Indonesia. Full Text: PDF Homosexuality? edited by D. Altman and e. al. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the. Editorial Reviews. Review. “Against the killings of those years and the collective amnesia used Autobiography of My Hungers (Living Out: Gay and Lesbian Autobiog). Rigoberto Eka Kurniawan was born in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia in
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|ePub File Size:||21.37 MB|
|PDF File Size:||18.38 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Tags: bisexual, gay, indonesia, indonesian, lesbian, lgbt, transgender · 14 likes · Like mungkin karena saking langka nya buku LGBT Indonesia:p. reply | flag *. PUITIKA SASTRA WANITA DALAMNOVEL homeranking.info DOWNLOAD DISINI KOLEKSI NOVEL-NOVEL INDONESIA Lainnya akan segera Hadir. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | In this article I explore how Indonesians come to see themselves as lesbi or gay through fragmentary With regard to lesbi and gay Indonesians, my goal is to develop a theory waria. For instance, the tomboi protagonist in the novel.
She saw him and they sang together, embraced and finally got naked. Karena itu aku selalu kembali ke ruang di dalam diriku sendiri, di mana penari dan penabuh bermain sendiri-sendiri. A man has once suggested to the narrator that he should continue the book kitab as an incarnation of this character. Semua ini tentang dirimu. Moreover, woman embodies taksu:
Benshoff, Harry M, and Sean Griffin. Queer Cinema: America on Film: Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing. Blackwood, Evelyn. Tombois in West Sumatra: Constructing Masculinity and Erotic Desire. Cultural Anthropology 13 4: Boellstorff, Tom. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia. Princeton University Press. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Basic Books. Corber, Robert J, and Stephen Valocchi. Queer Studies: An Interdisciplinary Reader.
Driscoll, Sally O' Outlaw Reading: Beyond Queer Theory. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 22 1: Dynes, Wayne R. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality.
Garland Publishing. Evans, Caroline, and Lorraine Gamman. The Film Reader, edited by H. Benshoff and S. Fuss, Diana. Lesbian Theories, Gay Theories.
Garber, Linda. Identity Politics: Columbia University Press. Jalan Berliku Kaum Homo. Halperin, David. Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography. Oxford University Press. Jagose, Annemarie. Queer Theory. Melbourne University Press. Richardson, J. McLaughlin and M. Palgrave Mc Millan. Oetomo, Dede. Gender and Sexual Orientation in Indonesia.
In Fantasizing the Feminine in Indonesia, edited by L. Duke University Press. Masculinity in Indonesia: Genders, Sexualities, and Identities in a Changing Society. University of California Press. Probyn, Elspeth.
In New Keywords: Bennet, L. Grossberg and M. Q-Film Festival Website. Ayu Utami is a frequent answer to the question of who is the best novelist of the generation and of the period.
Novels were surveyed, read and chosen from writers who represent different areas and social groups from south Sumatra to Bali. Novels were chosen in line with the introduction, the approach set out in 3. The novels have broken through their locality and the authors have all received recognition within the national scene.
The main emerging trend following Ayu Utami is covered in a section focusing on its peak, Ayu herself, while another novel is added for perspective. These authors centre on Jakarta, but are local in the sense that they represent their cultural environment, the metropolis. The authors of other centres and regions also belong to the national scene. The Yogyakarta- Solo area is a culturally fertile region with universities, activism and active literary communities.
The works of three authors from this region are considered. The focus is laid on the substantial work of Eka Kurniawan while Anggie Widowati and Abidah El Khalieqy are added for perspective and comparisons. Regional One of the arguably richest novels of the period, discussed in The perspective is repeated by literature historians.
Of nine novels mentioned seven were Pramoedya works. The other two were Para Priyayi and Saman. The chronology begins conventionally with the formation of Balai Pustaka in Senior authors such as Remy Sylado b. Amanriza b. More on the search for anthologies and novels: Lists of new acquisitions, such as from the National Library of Australia, which is comprehensive, were helpful. Nukila Amal b. Her novel Cala Ibi is a linguistic achievement and maybe that is what it is: I confess to be unable to address it here.
I recognized several short stories in it from Kalam but failed to find a plot, which are two of the reasons it will not be discussed. I have not come across novels that have the Islamic struggle as main theme like the FLP short stories see 3.
Retno is about a female worker who has to struggle against her employer, husband and Javanese tradition. The woman struggles to find her place in the world and to save her marriage.
Themes developed in FLP short stories are of secondary importance in this novel. So, what do the novels communicate to us?
Do they soothe or make us anxious? Are they related? How and by what mechanisms? How does the development of styles correspond to trends and canons? Jamil and Oka Rusmini represent the peaks of their local literary communities.
They have since the late s been acknowledged locally, nationally and internationally. The two authors are interesting to compare because they have so much in common, such as region, the journalist profession and local cultural themes. Yet they are very different. Both represent a kind of monoglossia because of the consistency of themes and perspectives throughout their literature: Riau consciousness and female consciousness in Bali respectively.
Jamil has become a pivotal figure in both the local governmental art council and literary communities in Riau, traditionally considered the heartland of Malay and its literature. He represents well the paradox of centripetal and centrifugal forces in Malay writing. Riau is one of the provinces that have suffered worst from New Order exploitation. The antagonisms and conflicts with the centre have remained after the New Order fall. The main character and first person narrator finds himself in a dark cell, where he gains consciousness, loses it again, dreams and remembers.
He is in an unhealthy state of mind, deprived of sleep, hungry and beaten. The man overhears beatings and is beaten himself by armed men with masks. He is a journalist who writes about the strife of local communities. The reason behind the detention is set out in a dialogue between the journalist and his torturers.
You make it difficult for the country to breathe. What will the world say, when all the plantations have opened and they have problems with the population? The funding for the plantations comes from abroad! Saudara membuat negara sulit bernafas. Bagaimana kata dunia, kalau hampir semua kebun dibuka, memiliki masalah dengan masyarakat karena dana untuk pembuatan tersebut bersumber dari luar!
Instead their lives should be developed. So thinks his torturer. Novels after Utami , such as Rahayu and Amal tended neither to descend into the ongoing social political situation nor to be referential as is common in realist styles, but rather to be more textually experimental and imaginative. The journalistic style novel by Widowati a in His Riau accented short stories have been published since the s.
The anthology Hikayat batu-batu contains stories about the exploited Riau published from to Later the people will benefit from it. They can work there. Why not look for other forests […]. The narrator is accused of wanting to install in government people of his ideology: With that accusation they silence many inhabitants. Everything the people do that the government does not like will be branded as Communist.
The above quotations contain the main material and ideological tensions of the novel. In the first of several passages about Riau history a direct parallel is made between the exploitation by the cronies at the centre and that by the Dutch East Indies of the 19 century. Apparently such histories arise from the consciousness th while sleeping. The Dutch too came to aid and develop. Different from the present situation, the Dutch torturers referred to are harshly reprimanded for their inhumanity by the Resident.
The Sultan and his family escaped by boat at night towards Singapore. It is a lonely night without any light, as dark as in the cell of the dreaming journalist.
How come on a night like this, among the high waves, at a moment when we feel that we are not able to sail because of the absence of light, that the tips of the waves give us some rays of light? Just a little light. The few rays pull us through the waves and the night. It is as if the waves tonight want to say that not everything dangerous is a threat. At the height of darkness there will be light, there will be light.
Light, light, light… p. Then his hallucinatory mind leaves the cell and wanders off to a forest and into a beautiful garden, an ideal place pp. He finds trees whose leaves are shaped as beautiful Malay-Arabic letters, Jawi — the alphabet of the regional literary heritage.
But he soon finds himself in the cell again where he remembers his wife and love. Again the man overhears voices, a teacher and a student , voices of a cultural-ideological world: The other thinks newcomers have to accept local customs but is open to dialectics. The voices tell a horrific story about three tribes, one a newcomer, and their fratricide. They also talk about the journalist who writes to defend people. They believe he has died and speak of blood, injustices and resistance.
In Ch. The voice finally identifies itself as Wustan wal-Qubra, a lost history book known to the narrator that is still in the process of being written, and now also a character p. A man has once suggested to the narrator that he should continue the book kitab as an incarnation of this character.
Wustan wal-Qubra continues the Riau histories that are of one plot sealur with the sleeptalk stories, until the man asks the voice to stop. He cannot stand the erotic parts p. The journalist has to escape when the villagers think he has set them up for money as a group that threatens security GPK.
His bitter thoughts take him to God and back to the dark cell, where he again starts hallucinating about Jawi leaves p. He and the leaves talk and he eats them to ease his hunger. And the more he eats the hungrier he gets. The man is confused about all that has happened. Finally men with short hair, uniforms and masks awake him from his Jawi garden dreams and let him out, while another man is taken in. The officer explains how he has to be prepared to hit and even shoot people when facing protesters if he does not want to die a stupid death himself.
If I die, who is going to feed my children? The officer says that the journalist also has to think of his family if he loves them, in the context of the relation between the two men. Even when the human race has become extinct there will be stories, because humans are not the only source of stories, although the main one. The voice perhaps meant that it was just a fragment of a tale that had ended, as its duty as a tale. Later it will give birth to children, other stories, and then they together give birth to a story as another mother story.
And so it continues on […] p. This is how traditional Malay literature, the Hikayat Hang Tuah, is organised. That and the rather long Riau histories, In Malay culture, the Universe was viewed as a work of literature, and letters signified divine knowledge, in turn creating in the minds of humans see the opening of 6.
Another parallel: Jamil has noted down and organised voices telling tales set in a framework of commemoration with a backdrop of fratricide and military terror. Characterisation is hardly present. All real-time characters are faceless and nameless voices in the dark or military personnel in masks. The exact sociological coordinates of vice are made explicit: The accusations, the voices of the marginalised, are strong but remain within the nation.
This literary language — locally canonic and nationally acknowledged — is saturated with local intentions aspiring to autonomy, respect and human rights. It is located within the framework of the penetrated national monoglossia, which considered such literature incitement SARA. An intentional type of identity is voiced, formed in defence towards national policies, one that is local and which assembles the scattered pieces of a culture.
Oka Rusmini b. She is a nationally acknowledged Balinese Indonesian writer of poetry, short stories, novelettes, a short novel and one longer Oka is a journalist at the Bali Post and emerged as an author in the late s. Different from Jamil, Indonesia plays almost no role in her literature Rusmini , , , which is focused on the Balinese woman in the context of a changing Bali where Hindu traditions are still strong, especially in the Brahmin caste.
Woman, her body gender discourse , caste and problematic inter-caste love are the main motifs and themes in the thematically monologic literature with rich and credible descriptions of Balinese culture, strained with Balinese words and terms explained in endnotes. Rusmini brought female bodily discourse into writing before Ayu Utami, with a spirit of rebellion. They pervade all of her prose and poetry too.
Used as a pawn by a Balinese resistance figure, she asks herself what she has to do to gain control of her own body. The narrative shifts from third person to first person monoglossic poetic style: What use is it to open the window? Will life change if I swallow all of that air? Will people look at me with respect? Will life save a little piece, the size of a fingernail, just a tiny piece of my wishes that I can plant and keep for myself?
Hyang Widhi , am I too selfish as a woman, so greedy that you do not allow me to have dreams? Are you a man? Is that why you never understand the language of a woman like me and her wishes? Rusmini Search the Bali Post archive to access more recent short stories. The area and houses where the Brahmin high caste reside.
The passage is also italicized in the original text. The quotation voices an accusation of alienation in a cultural paradigm that does not allow a woman to find her true shape, namely womanhood. The novella is really a collection of tales about Balinese women, often referred to as cerita that the main character, Telaga, has heard. Rusmini jumps several years in time from one section or chapter to the next and back. The stories centre on her and the women of importance in her life: They struggle within the realms of tradition.
Apart from these women are told the lives of two women who have chosen to leave it. All have chosen different approaches in coping with social reality and advancing within it. In the opening pages, Telaga is a Sudra woman with a young daughter. Then p. Her mother was not a noble.
Ibu Telaga adalah perempuan sudra, perempuan kebanyakan yang disunting oleh laki-laki brahmana, laki- laki yang dalam darahnya mengalir nilai-nilai kebangsawanan, keagungan, kebesaran, sekaligus keangkuhan.
The exalted Brahmin is degraded with the word arrogance. Because they derive their superior status by blood, arrogance is also inherited. To Telaga he was an idiotic male who had to be called with the very exalted name, Aji, Father.
Very disgusting! So, as a child born of a Sudra woman Telaga had to add that title of respect to all the people in the griya […] p. Menjijikkan sekali! Telaga really hated the man. See In the Balinese culture such a man loses his formal rights as head of the family: Once she was raped, beaten, robbed and made blind p.
With the beautiful body of a dancer she seeks fame as a joged dancer and a Brahmin husband. Her best friend, Kenten loves her passionately. She tells her mother that she hates men because they do not respect women. Why live with a man if they cannot protect women? She believed that woman was a magnificent creature. Every morning the women are selling at the market. Their bodies, licked by the sun, become black, smelly and wrinkled.
While the men freely choose new women to dump their male waste in. Will God not allow room for a woman who loves another woman? If God is allowed to be angry, why is Kenten not? In this way the female body is accentuated.
Kenten begs for mercy when Sekar gets undressed in front of her. They embrace while Kenten desperately seeks control of herself. Kenten has lesbian feelings. She knew that between her thighs a river was slowly dripping and making her underwear wet. That river made her even more anxious. She could not resist. Sungai itu semakin menggelisahkan.
Kenten tidak tahan. Dia peluk tubuh Sekar erat-erat. The above quotations contain the main themes, discourses and motifs of Rusmini: Even God is drawn into dialogue, which is hot in a religious ideological environment. Sekar has to change her name to Jero Kenanga when she moves to the griya of her husband.
It indicates both her new and previous status — a step in the process of being reincarnated as a Brahmin. Jero Kenanga can no longer pray at her family temple. She can neither eat of the offered fruits nor eat together with her family p. Even her own mother has to treat her as a person of higher caste. While in the grand family of her husband, Sekar was still like a Sudra.
She had to speak soft and polite to the people in the griya. She was not allowed to share the glass with her own children and not allowed to give her leftovers to the griya people, including her own children. Dia harus berbahasa halus dengan orang-orang griya. Tidak boleh memberikan sisa makanannya pada orang-orang griya, termasuk anak yang dilahirkannya.
This type of language, with frequent descriptions of social life, is what makes this literature anthropological, a credible social critical document from the viewpoint of women. The griya is described as a heartless place. But the strict mother-in-law instructs Jero Kenanga not to show any emotions. Telaga is confused about being a Brahmin woman. The rules became increasingly pervasive. Luh Sekar was not allowed to touch the corpse of her own mother. She was not allowed to wash and pray for the stiff body.
Luh Sekar tidak boleh menyentuh mayat ibunya sendiri. Dia juga tidak boleh memandikan dan menyembah tubuh kaku itu. Telaga, as a Brahmin, is given the title Ida Dayu. Her status-obsessed mother insists that she has to learn the religious duties and marry a male equivalent, an Ida Bagus. His mother reacts with fury when the couple announce their intentions: A Sudra man was not allowed to take a Brahmin woman as wife.
It would cause misfortune if Wayan took Telaga as wife. The Sudra woman believed in the myth that Brahmin are Surya, the sun that lights up the darkness. If the sun is stolen, who knows what the consequences will be? Akan sial jadinya bila Wayan mengambil Telaga sebagai istri. Perempuan sudra itu percaya pada mitos bahwa perempuan brahmana adalah Surya, matahari yang menerangi gelap.
Kalau matahari itu dicuri, bisakah dibayangkan akibatnya? Such a marriage is in this view aib scandalous. The couple marries anyhow. Jero Kenanga is devastated and from then on regards her daughter as dead.
Wayan dies after a few years and the family blames his marriage with Telaga. But Telaga persists and stays in the house. Telaga decides to stay and play her role as Sudra and becomes accepted. Three other women have chosen unconventional approaches to life.
Most important for Telaga is Luh Kambren who became an admired professional dancer who decided to never marry and live for the arts. Like Telaga, she is believed to have taksu divine charisma and has had a marvellous experience in childhood. Moreover, woman embodies taksu: Without female bodies in life this earth would have no About marvellous, see These passages and the accusation from the short story above express that which Rusmini and some of the new female authors are searching for, namely a truly feminine expression.
Now people seek fame and money. Luh Kambren tells the tale about Luh Dampar pp. Luh Dampar was abused and finally hanged herself, while art connoisseurs still admire the paintings of her.
She uses her body for material gains to live like one. Her friend thinks that she has sacrificed a lot and feels that she lives an artificial life. To write about generations of women gives a historical perspective on how they negotiate their roles through the changing times.
Balinese adat is pervasive until the end. It wins but its shackles are unable to contain agency and mobility. All characters are stubborn and have to sacrifice and suffer for their choices, whatever they choose. To leave tradition invites loneliness Kendran and at worst death Dampar. The Brahmin, upholders of tradition, are not always noble in character and their environment, the griya, can be a cold place. The Brahmin are debased from superficial purity.
Nobles are not always noble. Tarian Bumi offers no solution; rather it aims at being as realistic as possible. The inside perspective on human history gives it a high socio-anthropological value. Male characters are characterised as weak and lazy in comparison with the women.
This is a literature of previously marginalised female voices, full of life and experience. These voices are heading towards new realities. Grievances are voiced both explicitly and implicitly. The female body has a strong presence in Tarian Bumi, which is why it can be defined as a feminine writing, one without feminist jargon. No longer are female voices only resigning pasrah to fate and male social norms, as in the realist literature of the previous decades.
Both are storytellers related to the tradition of tales within a mother-story, but Jamil intentionally tries to remain within that tradition, which has cultural roots in Riau. Both authors give voice to the marginalised, with one large difference: Jamil also alluded to the sacred in his Malay tradition of writing that saw the Compare with sections His novel is situated within the forces of reform — decentralisation — and the post Soeharto political climate where human rights and anti militarism was on the agenda.
This dedication to women, and the questioning of traditions and patriarchy, mirror developments on the national level and are part of the renegotiations on culture. The momentum was the fall of a militaristic, patriarchal, authoritarian and puritan system, which could no longer curb increasing pressures from both outside and inside.
Therefore, the greatest change was to some extent expected. Expression, especially female, which had more constraints, should open up and change, also according to the Bakhtinian dialectics. There is a link, not only with politics, but also with the other heteronomous forces, the economy and liberalism, which generate material changes that influence attitudes towards the world. Sastrawangi became a label after the successful debuts of a few good-looking women who soon opened up a new promising market for publishers to exploit.
They are located at the centre of the literary system in the publicity of the capital Jakarta, on the major publishing labels and often under the umbrellas of senior male authors who transfer authority to them. The authors are rather young, metropolitan, educated women representative of the liberal middle to upper middle class.
The other shared characteristic is the treatment of sex in a liberal way.
Several novels have a close relationship to science and many use notes to explain scientific and other terms. Narratives are fragmentary and set mostly in the metropolises that according to post-modern theory cause them. Other features are human and love relations and the relationship between Eastern and Western cultures, which the authors are literally moving within. Can these writers tell us anything about how life is lived in Indonesia? Do they clarify anything of sociological interest?
They are generally not great anthropological or sociological works in the sense of Para Priyayi and Tarian Bumi. But in their daily life approaches they tell us about values and perceptions that inform the subgroup of these writers whose literature The political and economical development in China has had similar consequences for the development of literary expression.
The novel Shanghai Baby by Wei Hui published in Indonesian for instance has little to do with the Chinese literary tradition but very much to do with the post-modern metropolitan life of a generation which grew up during an economic boom. In fact, such literature mirrors the open door policy dui wai kai fang of the Chinese government.
A rising social group is, as a rule, accompanied by a rising literature, connected with the fact that there is a market to cater for.
Consciously Muslim authors are often of the middle classes and also produce an expanding literature for the same reasons. The liberal authors have an ambiguous relationship to the more conservative part of society which, at its extreme, might prefer censorship.
Because values, attitudes and style are often counterpoised with the previous, their literature is part of a dialectic process. This clever, young, fresh and liberal literature written in a mostly realist mode appeals to a certain audience for whom the literature of previous generations means little. The gap with the literary tradition is about as wide as the generation gap.
Neither the authors nor their literature are rooted in tradition, perhaps apart from the links with earlier female writers or senior male mentors. In the words of author Nova Riyanti Yusuf: And of a fan: Ayu Utami has been acknowledged for literary achievements, in terms of language as well as technically and thematically.
She stands out with a more distinct ideology and heavier political themes, backed up by knowledge, research and symbolical mysterious passages.
Ideology and fiction mirror each other and ideology is non-fictive in the sense that it exists in physical beings in society. Allegedly, Saman was supposed to be a larger novel, but split into two parts, the other called Larung, which is why it can be considered an unfinished great novel and what partly explains its post- modern character. Is it a collection of short stories and essays, fragments of the novel Laila tak Mampir di New York the semi-official subtitle?
Both have several plots and themes. The sacred Development is scrutinized in Saman. The motifs of forced cultivation of oil palm and corporate terror mirrored real issues and court cases that dragged on into reformasi and the oil palm industry is still growing.
Sexuality is the most explored theme, part of the discourse on gender, while the direct political elements make up the main plot, which constitutes context, setting and ideological backdrop.
They are all in different ways and to varying extents involved in the contemporary struggle of activism, personally or through NGOs. These seeds of a healthy civil society have as aims human rights, democracy and social justice. Therefore discourses are one with the forces of change.
It must be a post New Order interpretation of life in Indonesia. This part is rather traditional social criticism and resembles the struggles of the nationalist Ayu Utami has stated in Pramoedya-like terms that to write is to think and to have an attitude, meaning that her books constitute the attitudes and ways of thinking she adheres to, including the decision not to get married Kompas Quoted by Lipscombe The plot summaries are complementary to the degree that statements are also based on them.
All and quotes in Saman was first published April The edition used is the first but the fifteenth reprint. The hero figure Wisanggeni later Saman , a young Catholic priest, is obstructed by the collusion of authorities and large corporations in his efforts to promote the welfare of the people he is engaged with. But in the view of the authorities it is Wis who is obstructing development. In official language he is described in terms of Communism, liberation theology and other standard Orwellian rhetoric.
When on the run, Wis reads about the accusations launched against him in the newspapers, which quote a representative of the state: There is an indication that the mastermind behind the action in question is a man of the church who is influenced by leftist ideas.
He was accused of having incited the villagers of Lubukrantau to obstruct development — the development of oil-palm plantations has to be prioritised because they constitute the main non-fossil fuel export commodity. He was also accused of spreading liberation theology and setting up the peasants against the companies in order to create instability. But the reader knows that what the authorities say is untrue. The founding patriarchal myths that have influenced our cultures stem from the scriptures of the Abrahamic religions and Hinduism, scriptures that legitimize male domination by virtue of holiness.
In the patriarchal, or primordial religious, view women are considered the weaker sex. Femininity is the important concept and theme in her writings and is important too in the novels of Utami, who See Anak Semua Bangsa Toer b. As in the novels of Jamil and Kurniawan b.
See 9. The above are cornerstones of feminist theory and ideology. Like most writers she wants to take the reader somewhere, meaning that there is a direction of influence, persuasion, in the communication. They were among the first to put such ideas into writing and suggest writing become a tool for emancipation. Important are the ideas that can belong to anyone. Cixous The feminine libidinal economy finds itself before an incomprehensible gender law and does not succumb to it.
It tastes and discovers pleasure and knowledge, thus bringing about culture.
Saman introduces us to four young, female, thirty year old friends. The girls are educated from upper middle or middle class and rather conservative Catholic backgrounds.
Mostly female problems with sexuality and double sexual standards are voiced through the behaviour and languages of the women. Cok, the most promiscuous, begins her diary: Already then th they had a problem with the male world, patriarchy.
In school they once tried to decide who was their main enemy, Shakuntala narrates Yasmin suggested the teacher, Laila men, Shakuntala thought parents while Cok could not find her enemy.
Then Yasmin became very angry. Yasmin defended men and parents by saying that their mothers only gave up their virginity after marriage. Therefore their fathers did not leave their mothers. Shakuntala restrained herself but finally came up with the perfect answer: Because he is a teacher, parent, and at the same time a man!
Patriarchal paternal authority is questioned and even God, the fifth pillar of Pancasila, has things to answer for. She introduces herself in Saman: My name is Shakuntala.
My father and elder sister call me whore because I have slept with several men and several women, although I did not charge anything. My sister and my father do not respect me and I do not respect them. Because to me life is dance and dance is foremost body. Like God blows breath first on the fortieth day after the cell has become a clod of egg and sperm in the womb, so is the soul indebted to the body.
Ayah dan kakak-perempuanku menyebutku sundal. Sebab aku telah tidur dengan beberapa lelaki dan beberapa perempuan. Meski tidak menarik bayaran. Kakak dan ayahku tidak menghormatiku. Aku tidak menghormati mereka. Sebab bagiku hidup adalah menari dan menari pertama-tama adalah tubuh.
Seperti Tuhan baru meniupkan nafas pada hari The title-giving characters Saman and Larung are more mysterious and friends of the same group. In this part the style is almost anthropological. It is different but related to the style encountered in Body comes before soul in the mind of Shakuntala, a metaphor for an earthly worldview, different from the abstract one taught by formal religion. Men build and procreate, women love and give birth.
Men tend to be rational and women emotional. That is why the father teaches his son very strictly in a military fashion to be brave, control his body and not cry.
At the age of eight he was taught to climb trees: Shakuntala suspects that he became homosexual. In Shakuntala the reverse behaviour is observed; no control: To me dance is becoming. Her life of dancing is also spiritual because she dances in the mind by herself.
The narrative shifts from I to the Dancer as symbolical for all dance and objectification Dance became interpreted to suit the needs of the audience. The dancer in ronggeng and gandrung does not celebrate her body, she satisfies the audience. That is why I always return to the room inside myself where dancers and drummers play for themselves. Seperti seorang istri yang tidak memiliki badannya. Karena itu aku selalu kembali ke ruang di dalam diriku sendiri, di mana penari dan penabuh bermain sendiri-sendiri.
Shakuntala hates her harsh father. As a child of nine she imagined she was a kind of angel peri who fell in love with a giant. Because of the romance her father tied her to the bed each night. He taught her about love: First, only men are allowed to approach women. Women who hunt men are surely whores. Second, women give their bodies to appropriate men who care for them with their belongings. That is what is called marriage. In the future when I was adult, I would regard marriage as hypocritical prostitution.
Hanya lelaki yang boleh menghampiri perempuan. Perempuan yang mengejar-ngejar lelaki pastilah sundal. Perempuan akan memberikan tubuhnya pada lelaki yang pantas, dan lelaki itu akan menghidupinya dengan hartanya.
Itu yang dinamakan perkawinan. Kelak, ketika dewasa, aku menganggapnya persundalan hipokrit. Her father exiled her to another town where she was also tied to the bed each night by someone who had been instructed to do so. She wanted to return but it was impossible. How far the abuse has gone is not clear, while it is clear that her rights have been violated. In Larung, rape is insinuated but it is not clear if rape has occurred or if Shakuntala considers the act of being tied to the bed each night as rape A daydreaming state of unreachable mind.
She ended up not going because she did not want her father to be any part of her. According to her, modern institutions curse people for life with names.
Her attitudes and identity have been formed in relation to her environment. Moreover, this type of girl refuses objectification and the body economy connected with it, as in ronggeng. She is the most accentuated person of the peer group and the most defined ideologue of the novel.
The activist hero Saman does not come close to her in ideological dimensions. Shakuntala believes she is two, at least. One is a man that loves her. She has forgotten when she first knew that she was a girl. I suspect that my father and mother told me continuously — you are a girl — since I was unable to speak.
And how could I protest if I was not able to speak? But the man inside me came one day. No one informed me and he did not introduce himself, but I knew that he was my male self.
He came when I was very young, when I was dancing as a windmill. Two, then three, then four, then many, with their own sexes, not man not woman […]. He was a man to whom I was not going to give my virginity, because he would always be with me.
Firstly, he is dead. Secondly, I am actually a man as well. Thirdly, God does not exist, Mother. Her mother smiled and said that he is not dead, God exists and you are a beautiful girl.
But Shakuntala knows that her mother was in a state of illusion, because she is also a man, although it does not make her happier The man inside her disappeared. The man inside her came back when she was adult. She met a pesinden singer and stayed with her to practise her voice.
The woman read aloud Serat Centhini and sang sad songs: The singer aroused the male energies in her. She saw him and they sang together, embraced and finally got naked. Hence she was in a sense healed by lesbianism. When observing her friends, Shakuntala reflects on their identities: I know there are other shapes in my friends that I cannot see, like my other self that they do not know.
But, if my friends turn around in full speed they will find other creatures in their bodies. And if they move not too fast, not that fast they will know that they are different inside themselves. Tapi, jika saja teman-temanku However, when as a teenager she danced as Arjuna she was praised by her girlfriends, because without realizing it they could not perceive any femininity femininiti in her A pesinden Jv.
Dan jika mereka berputar tidak terlalu cepat, tak secepat itu, mereka tetap akan tahu bahwa mereka berbeda di dalam dirinya sendiri- sendiri. The ideas are Cixousian; that humans are not fixed in gender, neither man nor woman, but multifaceted: In New York she influences her rather timid and more conservative friend Laila, in a persuasive non- authoritarian way.
Shakuntala wants to help her connect with her self. Laila is confused but the dialogue moves towards understanding. You used to be a tomboy. Your friends were mostly guys. Neither are they real men. I laughed. She imagines a love encounter with Sihar in New York in the opening of Saman, far away from Indonesia, parents, wife, moral judges, police and therefore sin dosa ; an important concept in the literary languages of the two main emerging trends. The girls are in New York to visit Shakuntala who is there on a scholarship to perform in a joint collaboration.
Cok says to Yasmin before going that the performance is the main reason for them to go there. The second is to commit adultery Sin has clouded the relation between Sihar and Laila because he is married, which makes it a case of adultery, although the sex remains at the level of imagination.
They have had a relationship since the oilrig accident three years earlier. They have met and kissed occasionally but it has been more than a year since their last meeting. Laila is still a virgin and imagines surrendering it to Sihar. In the late morning she is enjoying the park and looking forward to meeting Sihar.
Laila narrates in free, almost unmediated discourse. Her attitudes are thus transferred poetically more in the language of the author as monoglossia Bakhtin than of the character. Small birds search for the sun through the gaps among the leaves, letting the sunrays heat up the lust until it is cooked like rice.
Several of them, which are heard to be singing, are going to court and to mate this season, like that sweet couple with white chests. The male is shrouded in dark brown, the female in light. We do not know their names. We just know that they are happy. I am going to hug, kiss, stroll around and drink at the Russian Tea Room a few blocks to the Southwest. Never mind if it is a bit expensive. Because today is only once. People, especially tourists, are allowed to be like birds: And after there is nothing to cry about.
There is no sin. Laila feels as free as the birds in the spring. Mating is natural and there is no sin involved. Outside of Indonesia, free from social conventions, this feeling manifests itself. But Laila is caught up in illusion.
She is a tormented soul. Her love is unsure: Shakuntala is in many ways the opposite of Laila; independent with radical views, while Laila is bound to the perceptions of family. Laila frequently refers to parents and they are a source of guilt. She is the one in the group who suffers the most from relationships, platonic ones according to Shakuntala. The ideas of virginity and sexual purity before marriage have become problems for Laila, Shakuntala reveals: Why is Laila, my friend who cares well for her virginity, always crazy about guys who do not care about the idea of purity.
The Laila threatened by the hymen of the walls of a passage reminding of a spider web becoming a sign of ghosts in an empty house. Like reversed magnets she searches safety in the armpits of men who do not care and becomes excited by it.
But she will not confess. No, it is not like she does not confess. She is not aware that she has an unknown self. Shakuntala influences Laila with her attitudes in dialogues: Perhaps because I never had a trauma. Her vagina always closed itself every time a penis was at the threshold asking to enter.
She had a subconscious sexual trauma. She was at one extreme. I am at another. Because I am still a virgin. Shakuntala who is androgynous, does well as a male impersonator. She uses her abilities and sensibilities to seduce Laila. Shakuntala teaches Laila how to dance tango. The confused Laila cries on her shoulder. Sihar, Saman and Shakuntala flow together in Ayu Utami is conscious of and accustomed to the theories of the subconscious and psychoanalysis referred to in the diary-like writing, which is one main reason why the writing is transparent.
Characters reveal their deepest thoughts. They make love there in the park on the bench and wake up happy: She perceives the man in Shakuntala. Shakuntala embraces Laila. She notices that her suffering friend, the unknown Laila, wants to be touched.
Shakuntala fondles and kisses her. I know you have never experienced an orgasm. Also when you made out with him. Now I will not let you meet that man until you know what it is like, until you know your own body. After this you are allowed to go: The sexual attitudes are distinct and metaphorically described with a self-sustaining carnivore flower, denoting a predatorial sexual attitude, which contrasts with the norms Laila has, until then, succumbed to.
The above passages represent social change, or call it sexual revolution in literature. Lesbianism is a bigger taboo than female sexuality and is a frequent motif in recent female writing, such as Herlinatiens and Rusmini Shakuntala is bisexual and her friend Laila too, at least to some extent. It breaks the gender dualism. Like Shakuntala, who once was healed by a woman, Laila is in turn helped, although her relationship with men is never resolved.
Shakuntala is not a freak. She only wants to help her friend who suffers from the norms of exalted virginity. She told her the secret that she was a valuable vase of China that must not be damaged, because if it is people will throw it in the dustbin. Shakuntala would not be damaged as long as she kept her virginity. Later Shakuntala became disappointed when she found out that every girl has it. Shakuntala decided to give it to her beloved giant. In rebellion she broke it with a teaspoon and gave it to a dog as intermediary.
The exalted ideas of virginity are in this case transmitted in metaphors as in a fairy tale. In other words it is perceived as a myth fed by parents representing a common view, a myth radically broken with the teaspoon and given to the one Shakuntala loves.
Her escapades in senior high school caused her parents to exile her to Bali after they had found condoms in her bag. Yasmin Moningka is a lawyer from a wealthy family who works close to NGOs and rights-organisations. Cok writes of Yasmin in her diary from the groin Why do you think we plan to go to New York to see The original text has capital letters.
Laila has a crush on that man and you want to shag that ex- priest. Your mouth is so rough. Elu nggak suka, ya, cara gue mengawali diary ini? Emang kamu pikir apa yang bikin kita ke New York nengok si Shakuntala? Laila ngebet sama laki orang itu, dan kamu mau ngentot sama mantan pendeta itu. Kasarnya mulutmu! She is married to Lukas, her first lover.